ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ڼŮŵĽ·

ؼ:

ɵԱ Ů ƶȽ ʶ

ժҪ:

Ҫ˼ŮȨ߶ԸŮĿΪաŮ̺ҵĺǷǡ߽ѧͲӽǣʵйʮŮ״̬ȻйŮǴѹ¶ǴнšԶڷеĵλͬ˵йͳ壬ԸĻʹŮ֮γ໥ľ档Իǿйеƶȿհ˵йִ˼ά谭

йŮ˶ȨƶȽṹﲻֵԼΪ٣Ϊ˵ƶݣƶȱijԱ𡣱ԷɵԱ˵Աִת򣬽ƶȵıŮ԰Ȩµ

ƶȽѰŮԽŵĵ·ɣΪƶȱҪܵƶ֮ؾԡŮΰʤΤ°˵

ڶƶȽϵʧʶһЩ˼µķϵijԡŮȨʶ߳һ󲽡

һ й˼ŮȨŮԽ·Ŀ

һ ˹ġͥ˽ƺ͹ҵԴ

˹԰ͺշҺĦѧ۵ΪΪ̬ĸϵᡣ[1]ΪĸȨijضʱڱȨ߸ˣӶˡŮʷϵʧܡ[2]߸ڹߵķչµķֹ˽Ƶij֡ԭʼʳļѷ˶ǡѱȺķֳǰδеĸԴȫµϵֻԿܺԭʼչˣͿԴķֳڴǰDZģΪһݳ޵顣ôIJƸ˭У˹ΪǹȨߣΪڴ֮ǰȺ˽һͷչˡ˹ʥDzӡԡŲƸӣһɷڼͥбӸȨƵĵλһ棬ֲǿ˵ĵλΪŮı䴫ͳļ̳ƶȵͼΪĸϵ£ֻŮԳԱŮڣԳԱIJƲڱڡ£һֱﲻɱIJˣֱϵκһαﶼҪĺƽףֻҪһ򵥵ľ˵ӽԺԳԱŮӦڱڣŮԵŮӦ뿪壬תǸ׵ھˡʷDzıΪʷIJɸԭԣ˵硡˹ʶġͥ˽ƺ͹ҵԴõһ۵ķ翴ƲʷǰһпһΪȷĸϵ͸ϵķֱڣӶ۳һ֮ݻ

ھȨת䣬ʹԱ˱ŮԸΪǿʻɷΪвߣıԹͥ͸ɷһκζصķȨ֧λƿµ˽ŮūĵλԵūʹǼͥвĽ׼[3]Ľ׼ͬһһƻз޼ĶԿķչͬʱģĽ׼ѹͬԶŮԵūͬʱġ

˽˸Ůļͥūƣ˹˹˽򡣸Ů˽ļͶΪʹüֵǡֵڱʱ컯˵УʹüֵΪԣڸŮλþƽȵIJϣͶΪһҵ˽빫ҰΨˣظԵļͶͬҵһгϽףŮͶܻ塣˶˹ʵȡ˽򣬡ȡΪᾭõλĸͥǿ˹ΪĸŮź˽Ʒϳ֮ĽϵˣתΪУͥҲľõλˡ˽˵ļͥñΪĹҵӵչܼΪڵ飻ͬȵĹעһжͯǻĻǷǻġ[4]ֻͨ˽˵ıΪģŮܴӼͥнų

˼ŮȨߵУ

˼ŮȨ߼߼ϵеÿһڶ⵽С

1˽ƺŮԹϵСڲȽߵijֲȻԱֹijּ˽ƵIJͬģ˽ƵIJҲȻ¶ŮԵūۡ͹ߵijֻΪʵıԸṩijʿԡû߶Եļ֣ͨԹߵʹ÷ҵĴԣӶ˰ԼΪΪȥʵҵֻһͭͬʱͨΪ[5]ķʽһԶԶҪͨԶͨ컯Ҫͨij֡Ϊķʽ綨ҡȥijʽڵңҼҪбԸҪԼ ʷУִڡע⵽߰컯ΪIJƲһҪʵͻʶһƶȵļҪԡֻڲƲΪͶģΪеĸʱܹԽӵִڡ[6]

ͷߺΪӦȡһָΨʶĽǶȶӹϵĽǶȣŮΪ͹۴ڡȻΪ۵ĸı䲻Ľ۲Ӱ졣[7]

2 Թ˽򻮷֡ȡŮȨۺͼ徭۵˵˽ûķӡȼ̴̫󲿷ʷʱڣ˵׷רϰϵ̫뾭ζŸŮ빤óĹͥ[8]ң˹ʹǰҲ֤˼ʹŮڹңǿнǰΪԽĵλȻѹȡΣŮ빫򲢲һͬƵļ򵥹̡ڽ빫֮ǰѾ˽˻ˣŮĹҲѡԡٶŮĹȤֻ˽γɵģǶڲڹģǰгĹ۵㣬йʹĹ˽˵ķǹԱĹתƵ˽˵һ[9] ȻһĪ۱ڵ©˹ʵᳫԭŮԷ컯ļͶгн컯ʱļֵ׼ȥŮͶŮԻõĽֵкԵIJ֡ͬ?˹˵ΪװϵūǶԳˮرߵūĽš

˼ŮȨ߶ĽһµŮоӽǣǶŮһסͬʱҲΪ˼˹ڸŮλķҪDZΨۡκһжԷƵĻÿ˽һʷ˶֪ûиŮĽؾͲΰĽŮԵľȷλͬ󲿷ŮȨʶ ˼˸ŮΪȫı־һijԡʹһҪԵĸ߶ȣȴȥľݡ[10]˼ҪݲڸŮ⣬ԹעĶǼͥڽ׼еãԼȲעԣҲעʶⲢ˼IJ֮һԭͽڲͬŲͬصı޽ӵŮͷϣӽ첻㡣

ڶ ·֤

ڸŮǷŵķ룬߽עйʮŮ״ʱϵķӣѡȡѧͲǶ۲졣

һ Ůӽеţ졶

ҪȦŻüֵŮ˵Ҳ֮͹ޡ[11]

Ҽֵ壬ŮԺȥעֵ֮ҵĺйŲӿʣԴȲĺԸ·Ϊһ˵ļֵ[12]Ůڷ׳۵ļ顣󲻵ʤԼľôԵͱ仯ŮⳡлĶһıԵͱΪ⡣[13]ʶ̬ҪݵͿıʽѧ20ĸѧ30ѧ40Ӱѧ

ΪŹ̵ĸŮԴеõʲô?һС˽һ󲿷˵Ⱥ巢йﵽԸǸʷķڵҸ˹»Ѫȱ,ɥʵܸ֡µĽſǻԻ͵ģȴܵġŮ޷ȶͻȻԱȻ㼯е֡ڸ£ɨһȺ˺޽Ƶķй;ĿͬʵġŮԴ־˵ͬпIJǶĽţǻԵĴˣԾ󲿷ŮԶԣݻҰеܷй,ȨʾĿŮ˵תƵһȺ塣

νŮŵͬŵ˵ΪŶԷչйҸŮԣΨһĵ·ΨͨŮȨƶ»ʵڽźԻʽϵϿɡζŮԺ͸űݵġŮԽŵķʽƶϵĸĸʶϵܲԱķʽһƬнһŮᡣˣһԸΪ˶ͬԸȡĽŷʽ[14]ֻӰᡣġչ˴ͳѧ֮ʵԵκηľ߼

2Ȩϵ֣

ͽ쿴ʷϣĽɫйŮź̶ܴԵģƹԲõĿģΪֶʹãڼзĹԾȷ߼ͼȶʵֽţں̶ܴϼһʵԵIJԣΪӦʱظĻ˵˼ģԸŮľ˼ҪdzϵĿǵĻëΪ˼ʵ׷ľʵʲϵĿԣ

ҲDZ˶ʿ⣺Ľ׶ʤŮϵģ1922Ƚ½ݵص1949л񹲺͹θ׳ĸ֤ʲô˵˽⣬иŮ⡣[15]ëѵؿƶũҪIJأšˣΰѸŮӸũ͵з䵽ƶũĿͷϣҪ񡣡лά͹ġйɵߵľ廯[16]ȻܿӸܻݵũͷͬܳõӵš[17]˰Ѽͥ￴ӵйũIJΪ˼άֺũˣ޸˻תơŮš͡ŮƽȡĿںҲˣȡǡӤͥ͡ԡŮֻΪһֱ۸ܺԱҪ֡ΪһֲɻȱԴߵĿͨϷֶνе䡣Ůʱõ߶ʩԽıΪһ֣Ů˶͡ҪʱֵŮȨߡԭڡ"ŮԽ"Ȼš׼صIJ֣ܱ塢׼ȫǡˣŮԽǶԱ⣬ǿ"""׼"ϣᱩ¶ҡ׼ڲĸȨƣѡ߸/׼󣬴ӶҡĺϷԡ[18]

Ů֮ϵһڵ¢ϵĴǰ£ԺŮԶͬҰ˭ֻǵΪѡ[19]ԿԵ棬ŮҲԽıԶ˵ġŮĽѴӸϱԻᄈУõԵĽ͡ҲͬйûнŮָ屾ڹĴͳһᄈ⣬Ա⡣

ڶ ӴͳйŮ·

һ ڷɵλеȽ

˴ȲйȨƽȵԭ򣬵ⲢѰŮƽȡںУŮΪԵIJƲһλʼ̶ΪҪʽԼ漰һϵйض𣬷ƲռʵЧȵ͵IJƲ[20]ϣǿŮջ뿪õĻףӸŮڽʥĹ⻷ºŮԵﵽǷ켫ĵز

ϣϣԣΪ֪ʶŮԱΪǷȱΪϣӣûйȨұΪϣ估Ƿ飬ΪgyneΪӵߡ[21]

ڵϲϣһ滷ũҵ壬ȨͰȫȤʼݹϵϷչȨΪȨ˺ȨˡŮǴڼҳȨȨ֧µȨˣʹȨҲ˵ļ໤֮.ŮΪõδˣӰԲƲļ̳Ȩͨ໤ƶȡǰ˹˵໤ƶǸݼ໤˱潨ģŮ˵ļٶ̳ˣܰǵļ̳ȨϮƲתˣҲͨѺծϮƲ[22]

йͳ йƶϵ֮ϵͬȻǽڽ̻ԣڸȻ䱣˲ֶĸʹȨ͸˵ĹǰǿȻĺгͳһΪסνһԹ֮ڼ֡е֮¡ӣ򸾣ֵܣ׳ϵʵԼ׳Ϊĵ˼ϵͳŻ[23]ַΧ֮£Ů֮価֣֮ʵΪһĹϵĻҪྴΪͣκһʢ˥ºȻķչDzġ[24]йڸ壬ҲʺڲĸйĸŮŲǴнţǴнš

йִеӰ죺ԻǿĹڷΪ

й̷Դ˲ȡDZȽģɵ̬ȣûȷɷųڻǿķ֮⣬ɽûжԴ˼Է񶨡ƶϵĺӦǣ۵һµѣ£ƷΪ˫ͬӣǷ˫еȨҲ˫񡱣ɷӽΪʹԼȨΪӣӦɷҪΪ[25]ȨϵͳһԣԴйѧҵĴԷȨζڸе֧ѡĿԣڼԼ¸˵IJѡ񡣷ѧDz߼ϵĻҡǿΪһʵDZϵģܾΪһַʵйķѧΪڻ˵Ǽͥڣǿ;ijֺϷԡ

εԭйִָ̣1949֮󣩵ķdz̬ͳִڰ˴ӼͥнųֱͬϵӶչԼȨйж˸봫ͳͥϵѸͨλµлṹݺְĸڱ򵹺صرָˡйաⲿ缫ȸǰ£йʧȥѧĻ,һԼصƶΪһʱڣ1979йʼִԺ󣬷ɾͿʼһϲεľءʢ˽Ȩķﱻûи˸йϵдеķԷڲ߱ͳҲӦ仰Ϊձϵϰףǿֵ֧ɺ󣬷ӦҲDz䲻ȡ

ŮƽȡΪܷһԭһʼȻĴڡȻƽȵĻֵɵġӰѻΪݵԼḶ́һУŮԲſʼӵ˺ƽȵλйǰѻΪһ֣Ǹһ֣ҪеΣΪǸ˵顣ĴڣͥСԪȶġԣܱڼͥڣ֮ԭֹ뷨ɵĵΧ ԭ1979֮ǰйлṹϵҪ,й,һָھijķɹ涨ԭ.Ȩƽԭͷ취,֮һ϶,ǿ..һֶصķĻä.[26]

Ȩϵṹƶȱ

йŮʶϵﲻֵԼΪ٣Ϊ˵ƶݣƶȱеijԱ[27]

һ Ա

ȼ跨ԱģȻҪһ׼ԷǴӰķḻгʵʹڷãǹ֮ҲǹáŮԷ۸ԸоڰȫΪҪ۲ȫĹƣΪձĺԭ鷳Եķɹ۾Ƿʵ֤ķɹۣŮԵķɹ۾Ȼķɹۡ[28]ĶԪ۵ǰ£˹ɸˡɸ硰ɡƽ򡪡塢߼ߡԭ򡪡һΪ򡱡жϣдͳйķɵӦŮģŮԷѧעغƽгռȨļֵ۵㡣ôȥйִеԱأйDZȫ򻯵г˳УԪͬʱҲʼͬһĹʽ˼޷ͳһֻܶΪԹơȻһΪΪҪ׼򣬱㿪ʼǵֳİȨʡȡº壬ȡܣֳʡ[29] Ȩ趨ģʽΪɵ֮ϵȨľΪɵĴɱ԰ѡUniverse͡General[30]֮

ɵŮΪŮ޷֯вͨƹ֮Ĺ߻ҪöҪôͬԵķʽﵽĿģ׵԰ȨŮеİȥʱŷѱ趨ˣ[31]κηǹ߼ֱֻܱá[32]Դǿӱ߿ͷоٵǰԷ񶨣Ϊԭڲ˹ ߸˹ۡӰµĶԪ˼ά.˼άʽΪ ڻ߱ضһЩõʷ޹صģʽܡȷ,֪ʶ,,ʵ,кʱ,տЩģʽܡ[33]ֱ۵αԣǿΪŮȨӦֶԪ˼άŮȨᷨKatharine T.Barlett˵ŮȨڼʹŮԻӦαǩ ŮȨһ綨Ա΢ʱԼǿͬλ˶øΪȺ塣ʵŮȨʱھͱ󲿷ŮȨѧʶˣĻŮȨ壬Ů壬ŮȨѧ߽ĸŮȨ˼ŮȨ壬ԺִѧеļŮ壬̬ŮȨ嶼ͼӽǣͬŮԷչʷӱ˵νŮ˵ġʵΪһֹŮ˵ʵDzԻ˹ĺ߸˹ġģΣһŮԵʵ಻DZ۵ģ淶뵥ġŮԵԴԵ淶ΣԴָϵļѣԴؾΧ㯡[34]зʡĺ岻ƻԽ⹹ڽعϧǿµΪֹΪκθڵضʷʱڣĽͲܳԽڵʱڡйŮԵȨDZԸǰ£[35]󲿷ŮԼ˭ĻⶼûʶĻϣŮȨһֿںʽɺʾԾ״ᳫһаʽռ룬ǵµϣѧʵ

Ľ ƶȸĸ·ʧ

ŮȨᳫԽƶȸĸ·ŸŮȷʵȡһЩЧ19ڡھ͡ٷͨޣûȥ׷ݵʱɳ̨ıɪ?ũ֮ĽܳŮԡƾĸ޴ǵӵϰΪĶԣµĵ¡[36]ʷijֲΪijתҪǿƶȶΪƶԭŮΪԺʤdz͡

һ Ů˶ΰʤΤ°

ʱûĸ˾о߷Ժ1973 Τ¡о˾õĹڵķ߿ԼΪ˿ճ־õķѧڵ ɵ?ֽ[37]

1973ġRoe v. Wade߷Ժܷ֮һ¿˹Ϊ̥Ƿ߷ԺBlackman˴ݷΥܡܵݵۻʼУ̥ĸ׵һ󣬳Ϊĸ׵̥ӦΪ̵ļıɱ߷ԺΪʼлʼ̥죬һѧ޷֤ҽѧ۲Ӧ뷨ٲöϷΧͷ˵δ˴δϵˡBlackmanټȲΪѹԵ[38]ȥ˵ȫⲻܷľͬʱҲΪŮӵоԵ˽ȨŮΪ˽ܹԼ̥𽥱̥ͻͬⲻǡд֮˽⣬Ҳֻǻֳֻйص˽£漰ĸ׵ĽDZĽȡ[39]ȨݵǷӦӦ򷢻õǰ£һΪƽоͷ½֮ǰһ׶Σ̥ʵʩһҪиҽҽжϣڽĽ׶ΣΪĸ׽Ȩ棬ɹƶ̥淶Ҫĸ׵Ľأڡɴк߸£׶ΣбDZڵȨ棬ݿԹֹ̥Ǹʵҽжϣ̥Ϊĸ׵Ľ롱, City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive HealthһУ߷ԺƷ˰ҪڴµĸŮӦҽԺκεж̥Ĺ涨Ӷһȷ˼ʹ㹻Ƹ˵˽ռ䣬ֹӦ㹻ģӦмC&E̥֤԰ȫ¸ŮӶ⾫ϵĸ[40]

Щѧ߽˰ΪŮ˶̱ʽijɹ䷶쾰ΪŮȨ˶ͬɵϵDZ÷άŮȨϣҪ־߷Ժ1973ڶ̥о[41]ݹΤ°ǰ󣬸Ů˶ЩãǾԵġ̥糱䣬ûܵŮ˶1854꿪ʼ̥ڶոݱΪûбùͬҲŶ̥ǷõԭҪڸֲͨġ̥ۡ[42]ͳ18ͺ19ϰҶӢֱֳۣʹֱ20ͣûм쳤Ըйض̥ϡеĹ涨۸Ů̥޷˵Ÿı䴫ͳһôᵽԭڶ̥ʦȶ̥ߣûӦҽʸΪ˶̥ߣ;֮ڱѵĽɶúϵ[43]

̥ڶʮҶԺʼضԴDzȫǻBlackmanоٵЩûʵԭ򣺡ʵж̥﷨Ϊ˱Ů棬ֹиʹԼΣյľءʹЩɳҲ԰ȶ̥߶ԣһЩŮԵȻ̥ǺϷģŮԸﻹҪڰȶ̥أոдΤ°֮ǰǶ̥ҵ߸ŮΣգǷɣδЧ̥ɾҩܸŮΣա

ڵʱԺĹѾܣҲ㹻ıʩͶֶ̥Ů壬ôʲôҡʵ״̬˺˾Ͷ̥ʦ֮ԼԭŮԼȻȨȡˣͣǿ־ֻΪԼӮôѵѡƱ̥ʦҵʱDzִзɣҲӢۺΪʱᡣ70ԡȨ족ѡͳΤ°֮ҽŵ󣺸ոճҽѧΪ̥ʦҽѧĺͷרҵĴҵ˫ַҽչ˺λиŮȨʮĩһΪǡΪֹΪɹĹ߸ĸ˶˵еݽж̥Դ̥ٴӭϴڿζýij֡ǻӭκζ̥ij֣̥ѨӪҵҺͳĹͷ桱ǵٷȥʣǵͼչʾţΪķ̥ijܸý޴̥Ϸˣһˣ˭ȥԸȥͥӲأ

BlackmanٵĻ⣺̥Ƿ۾Ϊ˭ĸֽ˵޽ƵĶ̥ӰǶֵıԼʹıԿ־壬ЩάһеӦеĻֵ[44]ȻǶԿеǿDzε̬ȣΪĻϿɣκһĻֵɻԵĴɱ븺ռȻڼֵ׷͹ߣһзչڷչĻԵΪֹˣںıڱȻԵıڹϵı󣬱߸ϸڣڷżȻԣ˽ⷨܡ硰ֱԵĿ־塱ıǷľԿȨתƵŮʹʽδĿ־ձ齵ٵȺͷϣ

ŮȨеġʶ

ڶƶȸĸʧܵʶŮ忪ʼѰµͻơŮȨʶΪƳ硣

ԺŮ֮ĹϵǷֵ֧ѹȹϵ206070ļŮȨǰŮȨ巨ѧĸ𡣡ŮȨɷѧĽṹ֮ѰչִѧĻ.[45] ɪ?ũļŮȨע⵽Ů֮ƶ⡣ȻҲķ֣ʹüŮȨڷѸת򣬴ӿ͹תۣƶȸתʶ ŮȨ[46]ֱ֮Ϊ˼ŮȨ塱Ҫ˼ŮȨߵкͶ˼ļ̳СŮȨΪ׼ַڸʵIJƽȣΨ͹ۻоȡʶڹתΪʵһеĺϷá[47]Խ׼ھϵĽţܾѱڻĹܹͬʱ ŮȨ߲˵ڷ⽨Ȩʱƶ¸Ůͬ²㣬˵ĹͬǣȻʵı仯ײվǵز㡣[48] Ůܵǡͬһе۶޹أͬһ˼Ҳ޹أͬһп˵Ҳ޹"Ůܵġѹȡᡶ˽ڡиСƶȱıʹüŮȨתᳫʶconsciousness raisingĽ·ǡΪһʶͷķӾʾŮ岢еعռͳελʶʶʶͬʱҲһֱʩ[49]Ȼ˼ᵽĽ׼ʶҵķĽ׼ʶָ׼ԱǴӶ׼ǴԼĽ׼۲磬еս׼˼ǰٵʶж[50]

ŮȨ巨ѧΪִѧһ֧ͬԵλƶȸĸν֡ݴѧݶɭָĸͥƶȣȴʹͥĺгƻ÷ʽķʽͥìܣȴʹԵȼӴ󡣡ȻͼƿһĿתгʱͼֲ֣ͨȻǡ棬ҵԱĻģʽûб䣬һС˵ijɹ֤ƶȵĺԡѽŵڽԭΪdilemma of differenceӡǶĮȻ֮ڹע¶õ෴ĽֻᱻǿDZ[51]߷ԺͼԡȨۡԲĬϣ⵽ŮȨߵǿҷԡڶƶȲ޷һµƶȻǰ£ʶǹģ־ijռ塣

йʶĵԴͳСǿ顱ִ

ǿԲñֶŮԷϵǿٰĺ壬ͬһںмᵽʵǺȷġ

1911굽1949йɰǿ롰绯ķ,ٻӢձȹǿΪ ¼ס ֺ١ķ.ԱַĻ򣬻ɷȨ档J˵ ŮֻǿķǷ塱.Ůʵʵڵıﻯˡɰǵ͸ܴϳ룬ֻ¿ɹ֧塣ŮԽΪһַţԭʼͱԴIJ;ȶ̶ȡŮȨڶǿ麬ĸУûнҰԶŮʩʹһǶȣҪ̽γΪͳιߡ?ΪͳȨάϵһԹڶԸȨͬһͨǿӵġ[52]ɯס˹[53]Ĺ۵ϵʶкܴǿҪһǿԣԿǿűִΪԲһֽΪʹõĹߣ෴һṹǴֻΪһԤȴڵԣһ塣ǿűĴڲǻǿϵƣƸȨ֮űУһͬǿ顣[54]ͳĶǿΪԺɶɵԭǿΪŮﲻܱʵڣŮֻܰĿ۽ڷУǿǿĶ壬ضǿijͷò縣дҪȡܻǿԴʩ߷ԡǿΪŮ̶֮ʵιЧԸŮַ޶ŮΡҪΪһԣ̽ԴѯǿΪδڣ߽ǿԴڵġׯϵĻűͬʱ̽ڲͬ龳ǿ龳µʹãıŮԵòԴʵԣ״Եƣ[55]ıǿĽű˵ȨĻʹÿһԳΪεǿ鷸ҲȰ˵ŮԳΪߣӦݱĶŮ֮ԱΪûԵģΪ仯޳ͬģϣʶ฾ŮΪǿܺߵȷҪij̶ֳȵԼԱⷨΣ ŮԵìŮŰҪ㡣[56]ټ׶ĵб19%ŮʵΪǰûоֻܾǺ߾ܾڷܹͥ͹۾ͱò̫ ʶƶ˶εѡ񣬵һµӽ¸Ů巨ѧʻййŮ׾ٵĻŮҪͨϰĶܻõѡȨͶҵȨȣʶԵΪҪ[57]

ĿǰΪŮн⹹ȴ޽֤ŮҪﵽĿꡣȻΪŮ⣬ҪؿѧҰĿռ䣬ܸҪʱϵֽ׶εŮ岻̫ͻƺִĻ˼άʽһֶŮԵĶⷽʽԺʷ˭һ˼»أ˭ֻΰ˼뵽Ůоһ첢ңԶ

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[1][1] ѧһֱֿ÷Ϊ̬ǸϵᡣѧΪĸϵᣬУҲֻͨĸ˹ϵɵIJ衣

[2] ȫԸϣ?˹ͥ˽ƺ͹ҵԴ 1972

[3] ͬĹ۵㣺ŮʵϺΪһ׼Դǵĵλȡǵɷ

[4] Լɪ?ŵ򣺡ŮȨ֪ʶӴͳ 2003 105-106ҳ

[5] .ؽΪĴڷΪ:1.ڵĴ,һֲʴ;2.ΪĴ,ʶĴڡʶ˴ϵ˼ֿʶǷձģͬ˹ѧΪһµԡΪûеģӦʲôıʣ෴Ψһڵ˵Ĵȱȷ˵Ĵ˵ıʡԣǰ£ûʲôΪͳһģʽϿÿɵģҪǵѡϡҪΪǵѡΪѡһϵġҡؿΪ;ܻǡɥʧҡɱĻɱصǸʽģDzȥĿԾʹɡ3.ΪĴڣشӡڡ͡ͻĽǶȶ˵Ĺϵ˷8ߵصġ˱ǵƵںһָ˳ͻÿΪߣfor itselfֱͨӻӵķʽ˱Ϊ󣬴Ӷı»ԼĴڡڶԡáΪĴڡԵ׼áڵĴڡŮԵʷָŮҪáΪķʽ֡򵥶ȫĴ,ƭʽġ񡱵ֻͨȨƶȰΪķʽԽŮң߸Ĵ𰸲Ϲ۵μ˹????ͯŮ˼ۡʦѧ 2002

[6] ????ߣڶԣȫ뱾 й鼮 93ҳ

[7] Simone de Beauvoir, Force of Circumstance (1965), P.192 תࣺŮĸŮȨ۾ѡ 1997 15ҳ

[8] ÷?E˹?˹ʷеԱ𡷶 2003

[9] ά?ģɡ֮ǰĸŮйظŮλԱ˾ࣺԱΡѧ2001

[10] Ҷ?жŮĸ ࣺͬע612ҳ

[11] ̣ط<>Ůҡ СࣺԱй 199471 ҳ

[12] ĹСũʶʹǵԿ˷ԼµλȡµҶͷµ塣

[13] ں̶ܴϱΪһƷƷ漰Ժ벻ΪҪƪдһЩũŮԵճΪìΪġжǡеϧֱŮѧ۲ָ챾ǰŮѪܵʵ˺ѸῴνŮԶԣֻǡĿĵıΣνijΡ

[14] һԸʲʮڿΪ˶ʼĸŮ˶ΪִԺ͸Եı׼DZԤıýԷ峣̵ߡȻҲųʱϣŮԽš

[15] ͨ1930~1950йĻ͸ŮŷеIJ塷 ࣺĻѧϴѧ 2004 54ҳ

[16] ʱƶũûţ ԵǸũ͵ȻĸŮûضġȻֽܿ顱 ӢڻɵĽ𡷣Ŵѧұࡶϻ㼯 1981

[17] ڵʱŮԿ֯ϸ顣鷽ˣƶͳĺҲżʡ

[18] Ժع÷֪ʶӡŮ ӶӰʵе http://www.culstudies.com/rendanews/displaynews.asp?id=1987

[19] ǺؿŮԽ˹ϣŮũȷԼ쵼ȨڸЬͬʱŮţָ֧ŮҪ˵սʿż飩ҹŮּԴﵽͬͥȨĿġ [20] ԽȡöԷĸͬ⣨ҪʽͬŮʵϾסһʱ䣬ȻЧռʵЧзҪŮĸ֧һĽʱȢŮ˿践֮ŮҪ˫() J뷨 1993 99ҳ

[21] ̸Ļ뷨Ϻ 1998 123ҳ

[22] ͬע5105ҳ

[23] ٸҡеķĻ˼ ԣ뷨ͳ ɳ 1999

[24] йΪһĵصļ巨档ѳɿġйļ巨桷ҷķ⽨Եάһͥĵѵ롣еļ岻ijԱ檣Ϊּһ֮˽˷Ǯ,ǰС֮ӡС֮ټϽޣֹɵijޡ񡶿ȸϷɡԵҪܵijͷˣ˵⽨ҳȫǶŮԵѹȾԵòʡ [25] Jࣺѧйѧ 1999 537ҳ

[26] JǿйԸȨϵķѧJࣺͬע24543ҳ

[27] ˼ΪʱʽһƶȾԱ𲢲֡

[28] Բ˹:ѧ⡷ йѧ 1994

[29] ijʱġΡУĹ۵㣬Ϊǿ˵ĶԣΪĵΪ׼ÿΣߡ

[30] universe߼ѧУӦڹ۵ȵȡڷϣӦڼ壬Ѱ£Ѱ󡮸General߼ѧУӦڹڷϣӦڱ壬ʯͷӡ֣꣺ɵԱ𣨸ۣ. http://law-thinker.com/detail.asp?id=1557

[31] ͵ԣŮԱʹԵԼŮԴûʷʻѧȱϯԵֻܼŮԵıֻѡԵȥ¼ΪŮڡŮΪʷıӰڳȱϯߡ˻ȨӶĬ

[32] ǿΪŮ廰ģʽìܼԭĽͬġΪìڻ߳ΪŮǿˣԵӢķʽﵽֵϵĺԣŮԵȨȡԵĹȨӶٶ롰ȨģʽΪ߸޷ʵ֡

[33] ??J?˹̹Խ͹塷תǿͱǡŮȨ巨ӽǼ֡

[34] ˹顪һŮ˵http://www.culstudies.com/rendanews/displaynews.asp?id=1988

[35] йŮdzŮԼԱѹȵʶҪԵĺ޹ã̩ɵúĿǡִҵ֮˿һһ˰һ Jйļͥ븾ŮйŮ߳ͥΪ˸Ŀģû⵽κηԡ

[36] Larissa MacFarquharЦ:ò˹ɡhttp://law-thinker.com/detail.asp?id=1403

[37] ɵ?ֽ𣺡ɵķܷĵ½ Ϻ 2001 59ҳת?ոŮԷɵķоǰ̥ʵ ƽ ʦѧ 2003

[38] ڡԺ䰸ѡ󷨹ٵǻۡ˱ Ⱥ ɳ 2003 2ҳһУͬĺ屻ΪݵĹȨݿ԰һЩȨ涨ΪҪȨԹơ

[39] ͬע373ҳ

[40] ϰԴڡܷľ߷Ժ200꾭ѡѧѧԺ˾оı й2003

[41] 쾰ࣺɴͳսзо˶й 1996133ҳ

[42] ̥Ϊ̥֮ǰһʱ䣨һΪк£ŮIJȶڿܻɻеֻּڸŮȷʵе̥֮󣬲ܶ϶ĴڡڸŮûио̥ǰöֻ̥ΪŮҽ˵İΪIJʿѡҽֶΡ [43] ոͨ¼һλ̥ʦʵʷͬע36

[44] ͬע73ҳ

[45] ŴӥִѧΪ̽δһ

[46]ΪŮȨ˼Ů塢ŮԣŮʵۡĵϸھ򣬸ݽ겵侲ӽǣŮеĵѧоķУʵڲν

[47] һ۵벨߶˼˹йظŮλо֮ͬ

[48] μAn Agenda for Theorysupra note at 625, ת쾰ࣺͬע40

[49] An Agenda for Theory Signs 543 (1982) תͬע40

[50] μԼ?ȣ᣺ά˼ijЩҪᡢۡ2ŦԼ1963ڶ307-330ҳתͬע4

[51] Martha Minow, Making All the Difference: Inclusion ,Exclusion, and American Law, Cornell University Press,1990,P.20,48 תͬע4

[52]Կ?أԵΡѧ׳ 1999

дΡһΪάһƶIJԣôǿԵάֵġ

[53] μġս壬ս֣ǿһۺΡ

[54] ɯΪȨƲǽΪһֱȻڣ̨ϵŮءɸıĵŵǿŮ֢Ҫԭ෴Ȩͨǿѹ΢սһԡ

[55] һ飺ʵǿ鷸ΪѡijһĿʱ822%˻شΪԵõʵ˵ɹǿ顣ֵ͵˼άڷͥвټźͷٵڶŮԵԡ

[56] ˹Խѧۡתͬע

[57]ҲDZߵֱ֮һʿġǵѡһеõ֤й󣬴ûΪŮԶеԱ෴ӵŮӵȨ˵󷢳ˡֲҪŮȨ˶ٶûСĸ̾һżȻ¼ıӸµ̬һͬѧ¸ҵĵץ֣ڹƨȴҿйŮŮܶܵõijɹɥʧϵĶԺͷԵѣʶѾڻңйŮҪҪ⡣

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