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й÷չĵԵս

붫Ǿһ廯

Ӻ

[Ҫ] йڶǾ÷չ뾭һ廯ǰδеĻй÷չĵԵսԽйھ÷չǵ÷չԶӰ졣ӹʽǶǾ÷չĵԵսĿγɡйȦǾ÷չĵԵսĿγɡƺȦ󾭼ȦͨϺΪĵй޵ȶĻ룬γһ·½·е̫ƽ󾭼ôһôĽʹй޴ľDZܣҲֻйľùģDZڵľܹƽһǸĹͬҵɡӹڽǶй÷չĵԵսھתߡԵ뽥ϵʵ󿪷й÷չԵսԵͻƣʹϵĵԵչֹ̬ڳ޵й÷չԵսԵͻ˳ϵպʽشͶĻȦ

[ؼ] йãԵսԣǾãһ廯

[߼] Ӻ⣬ʿ19689³йѧԺо

ʱࣺ100732

绰13601188964

[email protected]

ǵĴҶѾʼгúĽʹսǰǹձ龭ϴһЩصĹγͻʼͣȶչĹձʹ̬˴˽ӽǻϰսʱʶ̬ض͹ҼIJͻԻЭ̳Ϊ˵ҪֶΣǵĹҲ֮󻺺͡Ӧ˵һʵ˽Ϊֵκͽ⣬λҲﵽսʱڣձγ൱̶ȵĬǵİȫ״ҲΪĽ ΪĿǣгڶǵķչΪѸ٣̺йۡй̨¼¡Сֳ̩֮ǡɱӡȡСǾ1998صĽΣĴһϵηĿ飬ΪȫΪԾչΪѸٵʱ徭ϵڳڸĸ↑ҵйΪƶǺƽ뷢չҪйгøĸʵʹ֮ΪǵĽڹȫֱͶʣFDIࡢ÷չٶĹң⼫ؼǿ˶ǵڵľϵǿʼ㽳һŷޡĵϵԤй춫dzΪȫ򾭼÷չ档ǣѾ뵽һµʷʱڣһʱڸõҪҵľ÷չսԽµĻս

йķչսԽԶʱгϵǰδеӰйIJ̶Ҳ˶Ǿһ廯ijɰܡҪκ;졣

һ Ʋ첻ԶǾһ廯ɸս

ѧɵĴﲼ޴ָɫɫʱ롮гá֮ӹɵηֵ塣[1]Ϊȫ򡰶йȻŲͬȫҪҵƣλгϵ֮ϵǡйɫ塱ʵΪһαйɫǷйг붫ʱгϵںϲӰأ

ӹοӹɵǣйг֮ȷʵһϵеIJӦԡǣעǣйӿ˿˷ЩӦԡ谭÷չصIJйг÷չӦɡᡢĻεһϵ谭أ⽫ʹйɫλ¶˵гϵںϡȶȶ෽濼ǣйûѡȫƶθĸɸµȴģƶȽķȡ㷺ᶯԱIJԣʵϣԵƶȸĸڸ㷺չˣĿǰûΪйڵθĸҵͻᶯҡй붫Ǿõһ廯̡йɫȻƽйгý뷢չǿ

ϵ濴½̨ľó׹ϵѾﵽʷΪܵʱڣӦ˵ָܵľó׹ϵķչ̬ƣûܵιϵвȷԵӰ졣෴ó¹ȫ˵ĸƽͳһʷĻͳκͷ֮ǿʵιϵԣκԸ⿴սıҲձءһйԭ£̨սʾ֣Եƶϣ̨赲ƽͳһĴƣ޷ҶǺƽչĴ֡

ӹʷ濴йƼûжԶ⾭óϵƻ෴ǣȫҪʱ徭ùҶڻչŬƽйľóǵҲŻʵ̬ȲʧʱؿչйľóͽڶǹϵӰ˫߹ϵó׹ϵȻռλĻύҲ̤չ˫߹ϵеìͻȻȻڣǻǴDZڵ״̬ϵķչ˵˫ܹͬ졢Σйͨʺƽһϵ⽻йһҪӵйͬİȫͱ˴˰ݵĬ

ھáᡢĻε棬йɫ塱ĶڡİҲǿ޴ָʱλ·гõijͻʣʵˣߵĹҲ͸⣬[2]ûΪйƻԶǵòӰ죻йɫ붫ʱ֮ʵϵǺгģйڹڹ涼˳Ӧ˾÷չĻҪ

֮ܶǸƵIJڶǾһ廯ɸսľսԵЭһǾһ廯ɹĹؼҪôйľ÷չսԽ𵽾Եáйгϵ붫ҵʱ徭ϵЧںǾ߱һľûġĹؼйȡּڶǾһ廯ľ÷չսԡУй÷չĵԵսԵҪDZֵ̽⡣

й÷չĹʵԵսĿ

йг÷չĵԵսҪӹں͹жһҪжйгչĵԵսҪҪжⲿʻ֮ĵԵսԹϵӹڵԵùϵҪʵijͻƣӶȷгйȫĴչսһгϵӹʵԵùϵҲҪʵijͻƣʹйΪʱгϵģƶǾϵ뵽һոµĵԵø֮ȥ춨ʱ徭ϵתĴչơ ǷΪǺͶǡй÷չĵԵսϱ棺1ϲй붫˵ľóعĹʺƽũ˺ӡĿ裬ߺ·İȫ2ڱйĻȦΪǵIJҵĺͽͶʵģʹйóΪǾϵĴ½ڡ

һǾ÷չĵԵսĿγɡйȦ

ͶǶԣҪϰ뵺Ⱥ󲿷֣ԷΪ󲿷֣һ̵ϰ뵺ǡӡǺȹɵ˹ġȺ¼ǵشз֮еĻ˵ɱǴ˵̹ңǵشԵ½˿ڽΪ70Сʷϣйӡ붫ϵֳܵ߶ϰ뵺ӡȶȺΪֳءսձһľӰȺǿսձڶǵľӰսǿձ뽫й̫ƽֲΪձΪͷľá󡱡ս󣬰йõǿйڶǸľӰǿ2002꣬йձΪһࡢչ졢ĹңйԶǹҵͶҲʼѸӣ磬ڼǰйͳΪͶʹͬʱйǿ˶ԽϺͷɱͶʣֵעǣڶǵֱͶ˽ҵʵֵġֱ£й붫˾ͽóЭ顣ңйչͬϰ뵺顢Ρ̩ԽϺͼկȣ͹ͬعӴһ£йعӳΪйͬйظͬݹϰ뵺·ˮ·ͨˮԴȣ⽫ظľõòƽһµľõԵֵγɡ ̩ϲһ뵺뵺ı̩뵺϶ǣ뵺ӡ󣬶̫ƽںһʹ޽һᴩ˺ӳΪܣ˺ӵѡַڿũũ˺ӵ޽ɽƶȾҵľ÷չʹϰ뵺ľøܵͬʱҲƽйӡȵܱ߾ôڱľӰͬٽعҵľ÷ٺȶ֮ũ˺ӵ޽Ľǵľø֡ ܵⱵĿֲϮɱӡᡢǵȹľ״˵ǣ׺ϿľսԵλ׺Ͽ̩֮ڿ䡰ũ˺ӡǵľðȫǵľðȫũ˺عӿγµĴ½ͨԭӡ̫ƽ֮ĺ·ʵϿԸΪعйڵ½·һ棬ϰ뵺йϡϵľÿٷչĶó׵ǿһ棬ʵϴһ滻̫ƽĺ·½·̨庣ϿľսԵλ½DZڵ̨Σھó׵Ӱͻͣ¶ŶϵӰҲ½̬ƵĿռӴȫõ ǵĵԵսԲǽϰ뵺Ⱥֶ֮γɷ̵˹ֵ󾭼ϵҪͨ׳һ½·뺣·ôӶγһĻйľȦ

Ǿ÷չĵԵսĿγɡƺȦ

ͶǶԣйĵԵսԵĺڽ軷ȦȫձͺIJҵԴͽͶʣ׳󻪱úͶãʵйõĴչʹһ̬ҹչγȫйijгϵȫ潨һ÷չĵԵսԼȫҹڽУиΪص㡣ʺͶ˹Զ⣬ǵպľ÷չˮƽ;ùģԶ϶ǵ״ΪšԶԣйڶǵľ÷չˮƽ;ùģǴѷɫձͺˣľ÷չսڷйڶǵľñȽƣպʽ뼼豸ȵ򱱽йʹйĻȦΪйͶõģγպͬĻƺȦʹ֮Ϊ̫ƽΪľõ

2080ں90ǰѸҵΪҵѰҹгй˰ѹƵǿγ˸ˮƽ˰͵ˮƽʵʹ˰֮ľ޴һ֡ĵͽڳɱĺСȺйɽաӱͶʡӵȫأйʵʵˮƽ˰طֲ˺ҵձҵIJձĸ߼˲ţ׳ĵͨѶҵӲƷǿͬ˵ӹҵҲйΪȹкóϵʼͶйĵӺҵйΪĺͶʵأҲǺó׶ܵкóϵڻľϵӦ˵ϺձΪͶ뵽йĻȦĽ衣ִڱ賧ͼﵽ50Ŀ꣬˵ڲǿйȦΪĶǾôľȨ

ǣľʵȷһӸãⷽ滹Ҫձľ߶

ձ˳ڵľõԣѰҹʳ·ǿԻҵͶʡڲ̶߱ģľøĸձѼɫˮƽѾͣͶʶԾЩγձʽ豸ġ򡱡ͬʱ˵ĹҵӲƷһϵձó򶼹˶ձһ̶ȵļҾձó׻飭ľҲشʷ׶ΣöձúСձõĹʻݡó׹ϵܣΪڹйó׹ϵıձҵйڻ豸γйǿ൱̶γ˶յij˵ձҵһ̶ƣǼʮվùϵʷټġйӹɱ͡гٶȸߣЩǴʹġ򡱡ĿǰձһЩҪҪֵĿͼʹйعջƳٽձҵơձй̨֮ΪֵܳIJҵĻԽձҵȴڴϿйгΪձĿǰġš

ձijɻһԭǾǻͬѹֵһԳɹйĹгͺܿܳΪձƷأйΪձ߳ӵġǣҶڵĴֵʹй÷Ѹȫ򷢴гϵͬʱҲйڲ÷չˮƽIJ죬йú֮ܿͺӰ콫൱ءһ棬ҶڴֵҲйĹˮƽйӶ߼̹뼼ԱijɱȫԴܻܿѸٵйĶУͻ߼͸߼˲ŵĸҵľûңйľõӦľۺͳƼԲⶨģһйӦֵѹ»ȡ˾ûйȫ򾭼ʩƵĸӰˣձͬйعѹֵսͼֻҪй治ʧʱزȡЧʩյձҵʽ𡢼豸Աͻӿ뻷Ȧ

ǻƺȦĽͬǵĻйȦͨϺΪĵй޵ȶĻ룬γһ·½·˫е̫ƽ󾭼ôһôĽʹй޴ľDZܣֻйľùģDZڵľܹƽһǸĹͬҵɣɾͶǾϵչIJת̬ơ

й÷չڵԵսԵͻ

ϲϻȦľԴձ뺫IJҵԴͽͶʣ׳󻪱ڵгãй÷չԵսԵ֮أй÷չսԵشͻơһսԽΪγйһ廯ͶǾһ廯»ΪʵֶǾһ廯ȡøԵĽչ

һ й÷չĵԵսʵתߡԵ뽥

йijڱչʹóЧþ⾭Դ͸Ҫ1979йԽսĴ죬־йİȫսյĺ׵תΪǰѵ½ȫսԵĵΪйľÿҵṩ֧֡ڡ麣ͷijȿˡĿ̡ͨʵй÷չĵԵսԿʼëʱ߽תΪȣСǣЩʱĻ֮أΪ÷չսתƵͻƵ㡣

֡Ե롱ĵԵսȡ൱̶ȵijɹΪй÷չԵսԵٵṩκ;֧֡

2080齭ޣǣͬľ÷չҪʽΪ壬ҵ̬Ҫӹóףȫϼӹó׵ļеأȫ2/3ϼӹóʵ֡Ǿ÷չֱߴﵽ5000ˡǵ÷չǹݾݸڼһߣУ۵ĹϵֱӾǵδõķչ̬ơֽ׶ҪΪ֮ľó׹ϵʵ24Сʱͨغһƶڵظܵľóϵ⽫ƽڵصʽĻͨȨع6֮侭Ҳȫع顣Ŀǰӵдң۱Ҷҳһıֵձܵӭ۱ҵδάҵĽܶȶĹϵԴ𲽵סԪϵƶȡͬʱֵùעǣڽȨʵ൱̶ϽΪƶȹƽ·ڹݷ棬ͷخѾݵij˿Ҳﵽ1000ˣǵǰϵ˿ijСڡݽΪδǵĴ֧㣬ɻϵΪҪľ÷չᡣ

1992꣬СƽѲ2080齭Ϊĵľ÷չս֧ŵ㱱ƣſֶϺйƻøĸгÿŵص㼯еϺ

2090ij޵ľ÷չҪ̨ʽΪУȻһʽнϴͶ룬ǣ̨ʽʵϲϺεľÿ裬ڳޣƳǣ̨ͬҲѾͻ30ˡ޵ľ÷չʹ1˿ֱ档൱ij̶ȡ̨ʵıϵ½2080齭޵ĸĸ↑ҵ֮ʣ̨ոս˿ŵ뱨ĸʱڣ½ͶʵҪȵ90̨ȫ֮չ̨Ϻͱϳͷ;ʵϴھ¶ź͹ҵ󣬸̨ʲ֡ʵ̨֤ʸڱϡȻǵIJҵ̬ҪǸΪḻҪǼڵӹҵһô״չҲΪγɵϵݵϺһ߼һҪͶʺͲҵʵ2000ʵͳϺ

й÷չĵԵսض߱뵽йõĸغǰءһսԱͬȡ˷dzijɹһߵľˮƽõߣйľ÷չõ齭ͳ֧š

󿪷й÷չԵսԵͻ

2090ڣۺͰȨ̻عйϺй÷չԵĵĵλҲй÷չĵԵսӦƽĽ򾩵ʵйȫ濪ţþľԴǣһʱˡսԹ롣ȻһսԹƳʵʱ÷չĸǡһúļʱꡱǣһսԹûֳ÷չԵսԵļ̳ԣ20ġȡϡĵԵչսƺϺֹǰ޼աˣĿǰΪֹҲû֤ݱսԵѾľҪߵԿսƽ߱սԸǴھ֮ηؿǣ˵齭޽޽ηչľ÷չԵսԵıԱضˡ

ʵϣûл㹻ľе1998Զͨ£ΪԵIJѰһ·ʵҲ˵ˣ󿪷һµIJͶսԷĵǾ÷չĵԵսԵЧй÷չĵԵսԵļʱˡ

й÷չĵԵսҪµͻ

ؽӶϷ䵽СûзȶĻй÷չĵԵսԾǼġʻ̨ʽƶ2˿ڵĻľ÷չDzܵ,ûձͺʽĴӿ,ûдҵ,ʵֻȦĵԵսͻ,йľ÷չʵڸռƽ,ҲγһȫΧijгϵ

ڻΪΩһľ÷չ㣬Ȼϰ߳ľƵľΪɹۣҪĻDZľ÷չһԴڵأ뾭Դļɢأľ̬ȨԡʽȨ˱ľãӵȫĻг200ұķز۸Ҳȫߵģѷ۸Ҳȫ֮λԵѳΪһϵеķչȫͶΪľ÷չУʵѾȲѴõС

֮³ͬڳǺֶһһ½ijСطͷز̶ýؼߵһмɣ³ɹ󣬱Եйش˴ĵؼۣɱͬصĽܹϵزDZ÷չٵҪԴҲʹIJҪԴߵĵؼʵҲΪŴʽĽṩЧĵؿģʽڡϺݵȳжǷdzһµģֻڱͷݻΪһʰľ档ʵϣҪعҵ磬ҵڰУҲûʲôĵӹҵйشĵӹҵͽڷҵûΪе֧ԲҵزҵĿ˴ʽ뾩ʵϣкͲҵû뱱ķزҵʽȷľΪľ©ɵؾȫصͶʡƺҪʲôȫҰľ÷չĵԵսԣȻܹɹʽ

ûΪܱͬ߳γԵĻҲû㹻ʹţľ÷չܱߵĴչʵϣܱͬ߳еľùϵǷdz˾ɥġͬһظҲǴڵģҷdz˳Ծ磬ڲ޽˴ĺֻۣ20๫۵ܴػʵҲΪȫļװͷǣڽԼijڣ˿ҵ񲻱͵״ɽ޽˾ƸۣͶʽһֱﱱĸٹ··ԽһdzġҲЧԼصijн裬ȫdzֳһ̯״ţdzнܱ֮߳ĺӦϵʵϣDZǶЩؼĵԶܱ߳Уִijи޶ȵ˸һ棬Ҳ˱Ļ

ҪйϵDZ򣬵ǣĿǰ֮˿ûγӻķչ̬ƣҲ˿Ѱջ֮Ľܹϵ·һľȫյĹʡڱûγ֧Żľᣬڻм价ڳ˶ѣ뵺ɶ뵺˺ѵƬûܻΪǵعࡣȦǴСաĴʽ𡢼ҵһӵ2˿ڡõĹҵѵصĴͶҵ˵̶֯ʼպܸߣͨͻʩҲȫŵġЩǴպҵӶΪǻ̫ƽҵĵƽйͶȻΪۺպʽ𣬲ƵҵʵһԵսͻƣȻǵγɸΧľԴЧãʧͲֻйձ뺫 ˵ȥʮǡʧȥʮꡱôڻֵõʲôأΪԭһй÷չսԵıƣڻȦʧȥĿ»ֹʮ꣡й¶ǵľһ廯ʧشֲġ

й÷չĵԵսԵıҪƵν֮ľϵ֮أĥʡùƵȨܣȷͬгƵĿϵ͸ǶԴ뵽طЧܺƵսⷽ棬ջ۵˫ȡһijɹ飬ǣھͻԣȻDzֵġ˵Ƶй÷չĵԵսгֵ

ͨϵķѾ˶Ǿ÷չսԵԵΪָҪԣպҵҵڵǰûй÷չĵԵսԵĿٱƣͲպ÷չԵսԵĿơҪôĵԵ÷չսԴһֻķ״̬ôǵľ÷չпʧȥһʮꡣǰ¼ұǿ˶ã֮ߵ뿪ͬҪսԸ߶ȡⲻʹǿй÷չԵսԵµĶϣһսԵĵܹ㹻ӣͬƽǾõһ廯̣ʹ֮ΪһֲתĴչ̬ơ ոڣ2003-09-10

޻ڣ2003-12-10

α༭̷Ӣ

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[1]μ޴1518͵õʱBraudel, Capitalism and Material Life14001800,trans. by Miriam Kochan (New York1973)һ뱾顤֪֮꣩732ҳ

޴ʹõǡʱ塱һʣʱһڶֲͬĺ壬һáġ塱ġȴ޷ѻĴʻ㡣ǰŴѧʦѣMaurice DobbйʱףΪɣһȻɱΪھõḶ́עʱ徫עϵת䣨˼ѧɣⷽԲμѵʱ巢չоDobb, Studies in the Development of CapitalismNew York,196348ҳ

[2] ͬһ735ҳ