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ոʽһ--ŵ


ҪӦ˻ţһԸظƺеˡȻѧȴȷʵһʽֵսᡣһոʾһ
--ŵˣո׵1

ʮͽܳѧңѧŵˣRobert Nozickھθļಫ200212363ꡣӢ£ң׷׷£λʮͶԷʱ壨laissez-faire capitalism绤ѧ2

ŵһ߱飬Ϊ֪Ӱ󣬼ѧʷģ1974ĵһ顶аAnarchy, State and Utopia¼Ϊ3ŵֻһٸԤġĹңminimal stateһֵ׷֯Ĺң书ܼȨֻڷֹԡթԼȷԼִС֮⣬Ӧǵѡɼ˽вȨӦƽȻֵκεIJƸٷ䡣

֮ŵϣΪɷεгʱ彨ȹ̵ĵ»ʱֵӵΪЧʣΪںȨȡᣬΪܱÿ˵ĻȨܿõ"а"ŵ˱Ϊ壨libertarianismҪ4˹ŵĻѧ϶壨liberalismЧ壨utilitarianism˼ս5ʵμڲϣΪ80Ronald ReaganжˣMargaret Thatcherı壨ɣṩḻԴӢѶTelegraphƣ"Ժŵ˵˹ϡԼѷصĹҸŵ˽κ˸ľ񣬲ʲ"6

ܹע൱̶ҲΪ桢ӰΪԶ޶˹John RawlsġۡA Theory of Justice˼7ŵ˼޶˹ͬڹѧϵν̣˴˵ȴԯޡۡԭǡǡҪΪĸƶṩ֤ݸĽɫԴٷ䣬һΪƽȵᡣ޶˹ŵ˾ʵѧԼȫͬѧ񣬴ٽ˹ȥ30ѧķչ౻ձΪǶʮҪӢѧ8ҽ򵥽ŵ˵ѧƽϣҶλѧжһЩ˽⡣

ŵ˳19381116գǶ˹̫ŦԼ³BrooklynӪС⡣ŵڵصĹѧУͶױǴѧѧʱڣ˼ʮġ嵳֯ڸױǴѧҵѧ˵ķֻ--һ1968ѧ˶ʱΪ֯9˹ٶоԺʱܵҮˣFriedrich A. von HayekMilton FriedmanӰ죬ŵ˵˼뷢180ת䣬֧תΪȫӵʱ塣1975һηУȷѽ֧ʱ֤"֣̽Ե˵һʱ䣬룺'ãЩ֤ǶԵģʱõƶȣֻл˲Ż롣'Ȼȥijһ׶Σҵ˼ڱȫһ"10

ŵ˵ѧǰͼġ͹ʮʱⱾڲ³Ĵй䣬õ˵ע⡣Ȼֻһ֣Ҳ󶮣"ȴ֪ʮ"11Ͷѧ˼ԴΪ־ҵģȴǸױǴѧѧĦɳSidney MorgenbesserԵһйضʮ˼Ŀϣŵκ뷨ĦɳɡŵսϣŪĦɳĿΡϷƣ"Ħɳ"major in Morgenbesser121959ҵŵѸת˹ٴѧоʦĿѧѧҺգCarl Hempel1963ԡѡĹ淶ۡThe Normative Theory of Individual ChoiceΪȡѧʿƪУҪ̽ѡĹ淶ԼеһЩ13ԣŵ˽ܵȫͳķѧѵĵǿѧѧйؿѧͣexplanation⡣ҵѧӢţѧһ꣬Ⱥ˹١˷մѧν̣1969صʮ֮䣬ѧϵְλ14޶˹Ĺ£ǸThomas Nagel֯һС͵ѧѧᣬÿ¶ڽѧۣϯֿ߰ϣRonald DworkinֶMichael WalzerѷJudith Thomsonȵѧ15ŵͬ٭֮䣬Ǵݿķ˹ʱѳΪܶʽڵϾ飬Ϊڱ˿ܲ͸֤мҵ©ƶؽԷĹ۵⵽ֱΪֲֹηȨ׷ԭԣԴֿԼ̬ȣŵһоѧص㡣

1971ǵѧʷҪһꡣ޶˹˽20ġۡʽ棬ɴ˼ŵдͷǰֻһʱ䡣ŵ˺䣬һ⡣ݼʷѧодһй־顣֮ǰѶۡij壬Ҳ޶˹йۣԼĹһЩ룬ѧҪѧȤڡ˭֪й־˼ȴ޽չ޶˹޶飬ȴϴ̼ı䷽չ޶˹мԼȨۡ1974Ѹѧۣ༯޶˹۵ıȽ֮ϡ˵ۡõѧһƳ磬ΪԹҼ⣬˺ܶ˱еĵֱɫ⣬ôijɹȴΪԡδս󣬸ŷʢУΪͨ۽˰ʩй㷺IJƸٷ䣬Իʱƶ⡣ŵȴϬ֤ܵķԼİоӣָκγŵ"ҹ"night watchmanɫĹңDzġԻϣ̼˺ܶ˵ĵѧPeter Singerָijǵѧһ£ΪӦŵ֮ǰκѧҶ"ṫҪƸٷ"ΪһȻ16dzƽ֮ۡ˻ȫŵ˶Թҵ⣬꡶ȴò˼ҵʼһĵ»ڡԣ70ѧ磬޶˹ŵ˷ֱṩֵӵ汾һһҡ淶ѧ͵ij֮Ӣѧ

ŵй֤м衣֤Ϊһĸ壬ӵһЩȨӵȨright of self-ownershipԼ˸ȨЩȨһŵƵĵµ"߼Լ"side constraintֹκֵַ֮һ˵ȨȨԹŵ۵Ļ17ӵңȴʾԶȨӵбκ˵ȻԴءΪԴޣÿռиʡŵһйռеĹԭthe principle of justice in acquisitionŵΪֻҪһʽĸprovisoҲռʱû˵øռбǹġһȨӵбڱ˵ĶأйתõĹԭthe principle of justice in transfer⡣𰸺ܼ򵥣ռǹģô˫ͬ£ƷκתͬϺ"һ״̬ԹIJκζǹġ"18ŵָظӦԭûʸسκƷΥԭʱҪһԲռлתõԭa principle of rectification of injusticeԲȡŵƣԭѾ˷е⡣

ζôأĵһȺУ˭Ӧõõô⡣ŵΪֻҪܹ֤ÿ˵IJƲУproperty holdingsռкתõĹԭôǹġijЩģʽpatternʷԵĹԭƽԭҪԭ͸˰һ˵IJƲǿתƸˣDZַȨͬǿ͹һ˽вȨӦõԱϣΪȨɷֵһܼ֡򵥣һȨȫӵԼȻ֧IJƲǣIJƸУΥԭôֵIJƸȣҲ޿ɵġˣ޶˹"ԭ"Difference PrincipleDzģΪҪֻڶƵΪ£õIJƽȲűͬǿЩᾺռƵˣ˰Щʧܵһ19ŵΪ޵ڿǷʱDzֻһ뿼ʩһӦеȨԭ򱳺ݣԤǵ츳ܲһӦãĹͬƲȴǡǡΥӵеԭŵ˳Ϊ"ӦȨ"entitlement theoryһӦõģͬʱϸ˱˿ȡĽޡԣΨһְ𣬱DZǵɼ˽вƲȨг˳κβƸٷ䶼Dzġ

ijɹŵλżѧԺѧͻȻΪѧ͹ڵĽ㡣1975ͼ齱ʱѧThe Times Literary SupplementΪսӰһٱ֮һΪӢѧڵѧı׼̲֮һѱʮһ20ŵƺ·ߡһѧԺƺԼۣӦ˵ԼĵӣԳһѧɡԽʵΣĴѧ˵Ϊ˶ľ䡣˵ϣŵѡ˵·ͬɽۻһƪҲûлӦҲѡԶʵΣΪɵ۶֡ѧԺһöըȻˣεñмȴתȫµѧ

޶˹Ķա޶˹ǿǣԹŽѧܶ෽һȴֻѧ԰ؿֳר־һ£ŬһѧϵͳΪִԪѰһԭһһΰĵܼңԣȡ˵ÿƪ¡ÿ۵㶼˼ϸǰӦиɻ˽20ʱ׼ۡ22дĵڶ顶塷Political LiberalismԵһϽع21

ŵΪδӴ뿪ѧأͣҪԭ򡣵һһַԵ̬ȶԴ˵ѱ⡣Ϊһܵ˵Ĺ뺴ԼԭеѿԼĴҪǣϲ̽µѧ⣬д"ҼаĶӡԼӵôĻع顭֮"22ǷĽͣŵѧ̬ȣѧȴǼΪټġƺĺģ̽һ⣬㼱תһصĽѧҲ¶šڹΪ˽ֵһ£ʮĽѧУ˽еһ⣬ûظ̹ͬһγ̡70ӡѧ˲йصĿΣҲϵĽںΡ˴Ȥ˵Ҫ֪һдôȥĿγĿ¼ĿΣйضģͼԴ̽ʷ⡣ƻ괺쿪һ˼Ү˹Fyodor Dostoyevskyѧ˼ĿΣϧ첻Ը

ŵ˵ĵڶ飬1981ġѧ͡Philosophical Explanationһʮִͷ飬߰ٶҳΪζѧ֪ʶۼֵ󲿷֣һϵпʽ⣬οܣ֪ʶ־οܣ͹۵ĵοܵȵȡѧ۵м֪ʶĻĿע⡣ֵǣⱾУѧķʽһת䡣ٽϸ֤ķѧΪΪִһЩԭϵͳĽ·һҡҡ׹ĸֻҪײȣתһ"͵¡ģʽ"Parthenon Model˼壬"ȣǽԷѧȻһձԭĴݶ֮£ͳһ"23ĺôǣʹijֱƻȻһԽͼΪѧԪ壨philosophical pluralismһѧгԿ϶ֲݵĹ۵㣬ͬʱֿɸijЩͬı׼ŵƺΪںܶѧϣֻһֽͣ۲һų⣬ܸжӲͬǶȶ̽Ѱ24

ŵ˵ĵ顶ʡThe Examined Life1989档ŵ˶淴ʡһ顣ԼŬ̽ôǹмֵĶİĸŮ֮ԣа񼰶սʱ̫˴ɱȵȡŵԳϿǶ˵̵ķʽ𲽴߽ķʡ

رֵǣŵڡʡ״γϡ֤صIJ㣬ټΪӦóȡŲ˰ΪۻŲɵIJƽDzƽ25ͬʱҲΪδֿܳйĻŽҪ26ŵֱⷬıףһܳʱҲҪʰ27

дһѧʾһضĹ۵㣬һڿز뷨ԺԴͣرʶҪӱһԵĹȥintellectual pastѡڶ̸УϣҼάǸ˵""--ȻԼܳҲԸûŹ

ŵ˵һ顶ԵʡThe Nature of Rationality1993棬Ҫ̽ѡʡŵ˻ϳһȻۺԾۣdecision theoryѧѧѧȸѧ֪ʶֶصΪ᳤ڽĽⱾõѧձĿ϶ӡ

1994ŵ˱ϳθҽֻаŵ˶ʼձֹĬ̬ȣһ߽ƣһ߼ѧûκεͶߡ˵28

ʮѽʷϴ󲿷ֵ˳ˡУûκǿҿȥıҵûĻȥϪصһԺǣֻΪһֻԺֻһģҵӺͺӣ֣ƽһ飺˼ѧд

1997ŵ˳ˡո׵󡷣Socratic Puzzlesһǰ¼ļ˼ƪѧС˵ͬ괺ǰӢţ򷢱˽John Locke Lecturesŵ˸ĵ޶˹ֿϡѷʷףT. M. ScanlonǸλѧңͬ߷ԺҪԺܷԾĻȨҽЭ֢˰Ϸ29ڳ鼰ȫעУ֧᷶Michael Sandelµ"λ֮"ܹ±˴˵ѧ磬ֱӲ빫ۣ˾ʷʷǰġ޶˹ŵλһһҵ뢣ܹĵԭϴɹʶͬԣһʱ̸ϸǵ֤ǼǶļֵϵڸpersonal autonomy֮ϡԵĽƣ"ÿ˶Ȩ'Щغϼ˵ѡ'ȨʹijЩһ˵ʽʱ֧Ȩ"30

1998꣬ŵ˱ѧίΪ"ѧ"University ProfessorǹʱȫУֻ17١200110£ŵ˳һ顶㳣͹ĻṹInvariances: The Structure of Objective World31һҰ֮ŵͼ辶ѧ鲻ȴ޶۵һЩ⣬Լһ׽͡ЩôͿ͹ԵĹϵΣλӦսʶconsciousnessĹôŵ۵ȸ֪ʶͼ۵ĽǶȣͿѧĿ͹ԡֻнһѧϵ¹۵㡣ŵΪ۵Ĺ۵淶Դͻʹǻĺ˳СµĸЭcoordination֮ԾձԣΪ͸ЭӶͬĿձڵġµľݣҪӺụĻἰˣŵ˻һձԵѧԭ"ûڻ㷺ԸΪǿԵģֻдǿԵģmandatory"32ŵ˼̶ָԭֵһصthe ethics of respectҪر˵ԣֹıɱūˣøԤһ˵ѡȡŵǿͶȡĺԭ򡣶ܹʵģǡĹ33ֻгЧЭ˴˻ĺ27ŵһ󲿷֣ľҪΪһı绤

Ҷŵ˵ѧƽһЩܡ߻ʣǵ׸ܽŵ˵һĵ£ΪҪѧҡȤǣŵ˱ȴʮֿijƺ35ʵϣǼһ֪ʶۡζѧԵʡѧѧȷ涼нŵһ͵ѧոסĿУֻոײųƵǶһ޶ѧңthe philosopherںڵ顶ʡո׵йλϣ¾ŵոףҪֽѧȫڽĶ˵36

ոչ˸ḻһ棺ֲи̽˸̵ǵģȻķַЩոϡǿո׻̽˵֮̽Уַʽģܼעո˽̵ǣһӼҮաѧУֻոʵѧ

ŵ˶Դ۷رƴΪһ"ֵķ"method of embodiment37Ҿãŵһѧ־Ӱ졣֪ʶ׷󼰶ѧϣ淴ʡֹ̹ȻԼ˵ģѧӦڵ˼֤ӦΪһ壬Ϊһʽŵ˳˵ѧ˼һ̽explorationһ֤̽⳨ֿԼðյȤƪ˵һŵ˵һոʽ̽һ

עͣ
12228353637 Robert Nozick, Socratic Puzzles (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), 11; 2; 11; 1; 154; 155.
2ͱ֪ġŦԼʱʢʱձɼʱȣӢС̩ʿѶԼѧˡȡ
3 Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974).
4 Libertarianismһвͬ˽Ϊ壬ҲΪŵ塣Ϊ壬Ҫǽǿ弰ƸٷLiberalism壩աҲὫɣNew Right彻ʹáʵϣŵ˵ȨΪͺܶౣߵ뷨кܴ졣Դ˵ķɼ Jonathan Wolff, Robert Nozick: Property, Justice and the Minimal State (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), 136-39ɼWill Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy (New York: Oxford Uni-versity Press, 1990), 155 n. 1
5ķ˼ѧҿºࣨG. A. Cohenϣŵ˵Ӷϵ˯оѹG. A. Cohen, Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 4.
6Telegraph, 28 January 2002.
7John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972)޶1999档
8һλѧǸThomas Nagel˵һ󻹻ᱻĶ۵Ķʮͺѧңֻ޶˹ŵˡNagel, Other Minds (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 10.
9ӢȫStudent League for Industrial DemocracyΪ Students for a Democratic Society
10˶ηԭ1975ġ˹־Forbes MagazineתNew York Times, 24 January 2002
11252627 Robert Nozick, The Examined Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), 303; 28-33; 286-96; 17.
12ͬע1ҳ4ŵһηУرǿһ㡣Giovanna Borradori, The American Philosopher, trans. Rosanna Crocitto (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 83-84.
13ĺ1990Garland Press档
14ϣŵ˺޶˹ľΪơ޶˹Ҳ˹ٱҵȻţѧһ꣨1952ŵ˲ûἰţ˼кӰ졣
15Ӣȫ The Society for Ethical and Legal PhilosophySELFѧ˲Ҫĵ¼ѧйۼע8ҳ6
16 Peter Singer, "The Right to be Rich or Poor", New York Review of Books, 6 March 1975. ĺJeffrey Paul, ed., Reading Nozick (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1982), 37-53.
17ֹ۵㣬۵༰Ϊ̵ģţѧڿºࡣֶJonathan WolffΪŵ˵ѧһӵȨΪĵһֵsingle-valueۡйۼע5Cohenע4Wolffҳ3ƹ۵ɼע4 Kymlickaҳ103-25
18ͬע3ҳ151xii
19ͬע7ҳ302
20뱾ɺλ룬1991йѧ档
21޶˹桶ۡʱѾ50ꡣ޶˹ƽ˼ϸܣɲıߵġԼƽ塷йhttp://www.cc.org.cn2001810ա
23Robert Nozick, Philosophical Explanations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), 3.
24ϸۼɲοA. R. Lacey, Robert Nozick (Buck: Acumen, 2001), chap. 1
2930ȫģɼ"Assisted Suicide: The Philosophers' Brief", New York Review of Books, 27 March 1997.
31 Robert Nozick, Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001).
3233ͬϣҳ259280-82

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