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Լ޶˹John Rawls 1921- ѧҡѧң1921ݵİͶĦ1943ҵ˹ٴѧ1950ڸУʿѧλԺ˹ٴѧ1950-1952꣩ζѧ1953-1959꣩ʡԹѧԺ1960-1962꣩͹ѧ1962- ν̣Ϊѧѧϵڡ
޶˹࣬ѧӰ1951귢"ѧһ־ĸҪ"ij֮Ժרע⣬DZĹһʵۣһЩ£ڴ˻ϣۡһǰ壬1971ʽ淢С

ۡһ޶˹ʮŬ˼һѪ֮޶˹˼֮ɣ޶˹ʮб˼뷢չΪһܵһϵһּ̳Լ۵Ĵͳͼйġйṹۡ

֮ۡ󣬸׼ȷ˵֮ǰе˼ͨ޶˹£˹㷺ķ죬ҵۡۡijһϵŬͼԸķб沵Ȼʹ߼ϸơԣһܿͱΪ"δսѧѧҪ"Ϊ뾭֮֡һѧѧΡɵйѧƶΪҪıض֮һΪ"׼ľʳ"ѧרŽⱾĿγ̡Ϸ£һЩרŵļ͸ԶٿⱾĸֹģѧۻᡣӰ컹һЩңǶҲҵķ졣

ۡһ˹㷺Ӱ¼ԭ޶˹о漰㷺ΪһѧҴӵµĽǶоĻṹģоṹڷȨ񡢾򸺵ַ֮⡣ȻһʣѧϾͱȻҪ漰ѧѧѧѧѧ򣬶ңоֹϵÿ˵Ҫ棬ˣ۾ͲΪѧΪһЩѧѧעĿΪһ㹫ġ

Σ޶˹дۡһʮгսķ˳ȣʮķйŰ͵ΣԽսڹд˷ݱȡȨ˶˿У԰ѧ˶ԶԵƶҲΪĿ⡣ᴦһΣ֮УһؽϵĹؿڣ޶˹ֵۡ̽ƽɡᡢݶԭ⣬ǡһ۵ķʽһЩĽϣ޶˹˵ʵģ漰κʵƶȺߣַ̽Χһ"ɱϸӵ״"һ"֯õ"ֱ˳ΪһаۡǣⲢʽġϻڴаۣ˵һ֤ʽͱ׼һΪṩijԡ޶˹Ϊۿɷֳ֣һּ벿֣ȷЩĻһ֯õԭ򣬼ЩвɱȻƺʷżȻصԭ򣻵ڶּ벿֣ʵҪɽԭɡҪǵ벿֣ȻΪǷ۵ĻҪΪԴʵIJṩָԣʵһָ߶ȵԺǿҵʵԵĽϣижģһֱͨʵʽ෴ʱ˼ij̶ߣܱʱòˣ˼ΪĶʱһ۹⣬Ȼ˵עĿͷӦ

ԭ漰޶˹۵һЩص㡣ʮӢѧѧһֱʵ֤ͷͳռλġѧǴרעڴʽֵ̽³߼ϵ̫Ľȵʵ⣬ȻҲڹζϵġԵѧϵij̶ֳϣѧʵϱ˵·߼ѧʶۣ±˼Ϊ"ѧ"ѧһЩҲͬڡ޶˹ġۡij棬ijϱ־ѧѧһҪתۣʽתʵԵ⣻ɻɺͷתͼ¿϶ʵ֤ķת˼ĸתijϿ˵ǶʮͼǰĹŵķǻɵѧѧͳĸ飬ǶԿ¡ܶѧͳĸ顣޶˹ȷ̸һǵĵͼۼΪǵеһͼǵ﷨Ҫһ﷨ƣǵҲҪ漰ԭ۽ṹԣܸ߹ڵвռĵλҪ۵˥˥ңʵԵؽ͵¹˵"ϣǿоʵԵ¹ĵλ"ǣ޶˹˷ѧijЩɹ磬ڹϵʱŬϵ򣬽Сĵؽ߼Էãϸĥ֤ķʽȷԼĿ꣬һЩشĸۣ½۵ȵȡ޶˹۵صѧһ㹫ڵĹ㷺Ȥʵϣѧתʵڼмǿ֮ơ

޶˹۵һصǣΪƽУֳһͼﵽȫۺϵ򣬴Ӷʹ۾о޴ϵغͻռ䣬¾൱ͬۼҶܴиȡҵ֤Լ۵IJϻĶۼȿЩ廳ִڹijһ۵˵˼ȤֿΪЩƵʵеزʾ֭ṩijЩ۸ݻȿ˵ͨǿԭƽչʾ״̬"񲻷"ijֺԣΪƺͷߵṩijֿ֧֣˵ͨǿṹҪǵȶԺͿԣΪͱijЩ滤ͽ顣ӹԣͼΪṩһʵġ㷺Ϊ˽ܵĵ»ͼһĻһѭֱʵسϣҪͨһַȽϡﵽһеġǺصжϽӽһµ״̬Ұ"˼ƽ"Ϊ֤۵һַʽ
Ȼʹ޶˹۲޴ӰҪԭ򣬻Ļ۵ľݺȣҪ漰ġ




""һʵʹѾáʿҪ˵ΪȻڽִ˼""ĸԽԽرרƶȵһֵ±׼ƶȵҪֵ޶˹ȷع涨УĶĻṹ乫ĻȨ񡢻͸ҪƶȡΪǵIJͬǰܵƺһľáƺӰ죬ҲܵdzʼеIJƽȵλȻ̶־õӰ죬ȻֲƽȴǸ޷ѡġˣЩIJƽȾͳΪԭӦö󡣻֮ԭҪͨҪƶȣȫĽǶȴֳ㷽IJƽȣųʷȻżȻضǰӰ졣

Ϊˣ޶˹ͨһˡ¬󡢿ΪԼۡʹ֮ߵijˮƽ"ƽ"ۡڴˣԼĿ겢ѡijһƶȻijһضᣬѡȷһָṹƵĸԭԭ򣩡޶˹ԼȫʷֿġΪԼ"ԭ״̬"original positionһ״̬һ˼ƣиּͬ۵IJͬͣǿԺԭ״̬ʹһκʱּܽ״̬ģкԭѡЩѡ֪֮Ļthe veil of ignoranceеġԭ״̬໥䵭ĸй۵һ֪ʶ֪κйظ˺ϢʱϷе"Сֵ"maximin ruleǡģѡѡ˵ýѡһϾų˹ѡΪڲܶƽǰһ˵ƽɵַ޶˹ΪѡԭǴһ"ʵʽ"lexical orderеԭ򣬵һԭƽɵԭ򣬵ڶԭǻĹƽԭͲԭĽϡУһԭڵڶԭ򣬶ڶԭеĻṫƽԭڲԭԭҪƽȵطֻȨͬʱƽȵط͸ְָ͵λƽȵ˿ţֻܸܻߴIJƽȷ䣬κ˻һܻߵķʽıͲܻһֱ˸õν"ƽ"ζԭһֹƽԭ״̬бһͬģ˵ζڹƽһͬģﵽһƽԼҲһƽĽ޶˹ȷʵһƽ

ֻǶ޶˹۵һԵĹΪʹ߶һ۵Ҫһŵӡ󡣾˵һ۷Ϊ֣һǶԭ״̬ĽͺͶҪѡԭĸһǶʵѡԭ֤

ȶҪزΪԭ״̬нѡԭݡ޶˹Ϊԭһһ۵һרŷ棬һǣ

еֵ˵ƣɺͻᣬͲƸĻҪƽȵط䣬ǶһֻмֵһֲƽȷϺÿһ˵档

һ۵ԭͨιԵijﵽǣ

һԭÿ˶ӵе㷺ƽȵĻϵݵϵӦһƽȵȨƽԭ򣩡

ڶԭĺ;õIJƽӦţʹǣ1Ĵԭһµ£ʺܻߵ棨ԭ򣩣2ϵڻṫƽƽȵְ͵λ˿ţĹƽԭ򣩡

ԭʾṹ󲿷֣һйعȨ֣һй;IJ֣һԭҪǰһ⣬ڶԭҪһ⡣

Ҫעһתһ۵"Ϻÿһ˵"ԭ"Ϻܻߵ"޶˹۵һؼ޶˹ʵǴܻߵĵλͺκһֲƽȣ֮۷ӳһֶܻߵƫһ־ͨijֲٷʹһгԱһƽȵĵλԸ޶˹ѡһλܻߵĵλⲻϵļҪģ֤"Ϻÿһ˵"Ҫӵöࣩʹԭ򲻽һ۵ļչǰߵ򻯣ʹ޶˹۳Ϊһֶɫۡ

Ҫ"Ϻܻߵ"ϵĹҪǣ1ܻߵĵλ2ǵ棬˵Ϸˮƽǰߣ޶˹Ϊÿ˶ռֵλһƽȹĵλһͲƸеĵλٶȨƸͨΪһ壩ȷܻ߿ͨѡijһضλˣ򰴴ﲻеˮƽһı׼СڶǵĺϷˮƽĺ޶˹ΪڻƵָ꣬˵ƾ㣬ôƾһҪʲôҪơЩưɺͻᡢͲƸԼĻ

ǣǻע⵽һԭһ塢ֻһ׼ƣֱ۰޶˹Ļ˵"ֻǰ"Ϊͣһ׼ϾΪDz׷ݵĶѲǰˣȥѰΨһĸ׼Dz׵ģ塣޶˹Ϊ"Ϊƽ"ȫųֱͼӼֱҪľһִʵʽԭ⡣Ϊһԭڵڶԭ򣬵ڶԭеĹƽڲԭֻڳǰһԭ²ܿǺһԭȹ

һȹɵԣԭӦԴʵʽУˣֻΪɵԵʶơΣ1һֲ㷺ɱǿ˷ϵ2һֲƽȵɱΪЩӵнɵĹܡ

ڶȹЧʺ͸ȣڶԭһִʵʽЧԭ޶ȵ׷ܶԭ򣬹ƽڲԭҲΣ1һֻIJƽȱչЩߵĻ᣻2һֹߵĴʱռһظǵĸ

ʵϣȵĺ滹̺ŵҲҪȣrightƻ˵""(good)ȡ

˵ѧ֮ĹϵҲͳΪѧһҪ⣬˼ʷĿɵķҰйءĿΪǶģǸȵģǾжĸ׼һĿԱ׼ƣ޶ƻƵĶƵĽͲͬиָĿۣ繦塢塢ʵ۵ȵȡĿ෴ΪǶƵģǸȵģ¾۵һͻ޶˹Ϊ"ƽ"ҲһַĿϵۣͬǿƵĶԺԣȹѾֵúˣƩǿɵԣǿϵȨεĽ׺Ȩ⣬ɵĽ׶ô򽫴ôֻΪɱԵʶơ

ijϿ˵һӷ룬˵弴Ӧƶʱ޶˹˵ѧۣζijƽȣ˵һƶȾҪʹ޶ȵʵƽȡ޶˹ԭҲȷʵ͸¶һƽƽΪIJԭﵽԭijĿģЩ츳ϵ͵ijֲСƽ츳ϸߵǵij㷽IJࡣ츳ǵӦõģdesertӦѸ˵츳һĹͬʲȻȻʵķֲֻһԵʵƶԴʹȴֳʡԭᵼһӢͳεᣬᵼһᣬرֳһԤڣʼѭԭĻδ˲ƶʽϱ֤ƽȣܹӽʵϵƽȡ




̸޶˹۵Ļ㣬Щݴ󶼼ڡۡĵһ""֡Ȼ޶˹ΪԭӦƶȺӦĿǰǺصжϵģֲ˼֮кϵǵĿ־ģ۾Ͳȫġ

ڱĵڶ"ƶ"У޶˹ͨһԭṹͿԭְչʾԭݡڶ£е"ƽȵ"۵һԭҪ漰ѧͷѧ⡣ҪƶһơһУ޶˹ȷ˽ԭƶȵһĸ׶εУ1ԭ״̬ѡԭ򣬣2ƶܷ3ƶɣ4淶ӦãΪһһų֪֮ĻĹ̡Ȼ涨ɵĸĹ̽ƽɵ⣺ĵƽɺͿݡܷͲɡ뷨ϵĸɡЩ˵Ϊ˲ɵԣһԭԵڶԭȣƽɶᾭȣһȹ򣩡һµһڣ޶˹һֶ"ƽ"۵ĿʽͣΪԭ״̬ԭɱǶԿµɺ;һֳ˵

"ķݶ"۵ڶԭҪ漰Ǿѧ⡣һУ޶˹ͼһִҵıڶԭҪƶȰšȽξ÷˵Ϊһεľ۵ԭΪһᾭƶˡˣһƶȵѡ漰ƵĹ漰˵룬ΪƽǡΪᾭõİṩһ׵ʽ֧㡣Ȼһ۾ϵر̸г˽ƲޱȻϵҲݵģ˽ƺ͹ƶԭǿŵģܹǡ޶˹ؼ˷ıƶȣⷽ水ܷΪĸţȶתúͷ䲿ţڽԭ޹ء֮޶˹תʹ棨saving⣬ÿһҪΪ١ʱƫΪδڣֻڶδǿ֮ĹƽΪһޣԹҪĹߵĻʣϽһ֤Чʵȣڶȹ򣩣ǿԺĸΪڶһĹƽݶȻ޶˹ͼ˵ԷݶIJܹijʶ׼ĴλΪЩ׼ߵһԭˮƽ繤߷"׷""Ŭ"׼֮ìܡ޶˹˺ϷӦãmoral desertһӦ¼ֵijʶԹ۵㡣ڱµУ޶˹Ϲԭ˱Ƚϡ

"ְ"ڸ˵ĵԭ򣬻˵ԭְ޶˹Ϊԭ״̬еѡṹԭ֮󣬻Ҫѡڸ˵ԭѡʷԭȹҲ˵Ҫһȫ۩"ƽ"rightness as fairnessʱ""ʵϿû"ԭ״̬бѡԭ"ij޶˹ڸ˵һԭΪɹƽԭͳĸְobligationsһԭΪȻnatural dutiesְҪǰ᣺һDZƶģԸһƶȵᣬζһֺϵĹƽݶƽȻ漰ԸΪġԵģƶޱȻϵ磬һ㹫为ֺ֧ʹٽƶȵȻ񣬵ȴûμҵְ޶˹ڱµͷڿԭ״̬ѡЩԭԼȶãȻô󲿷ƪоЩԭһܽṹеְ۵壬رϵþmajority ruleͷӲ巨ɵɽ"񲻷"civil disobedience"ĵľܾ"conscientious refusalԼȶһӽƶеãʵڲַӵķ۵ķΧ޶˹Ҫͨһֹ񲻷ӵȻְԭݡһ۰֣һǹ涨ʽĶ壻֤ЩģDzȶܷƶȷá޶˹˵"'񲻷'ȥв˹ĺгôβڿЩȨȨϣЩǡǡַ֤ĺϷԡ"

Ϊ"Ŀ"һУ޶˹ҪĿϵ˼кĿ־򣬽"ƽ"۵ȶԺƵһ⣬ĸֵּơڵ"ΪԵ"Уһֽ֮ԭ״̬е۸ϸֵۡΪһ˵ںĻĺƻġΪ"ƽ"б֤Ƶȣ޶˹ƵۣһϵĻ˵ֵۣThe thin theory of goodһǿϵĻ˵ֵۣthe full theory of goodǰԭ״̬жܻߺû涨ָʹ˵ڴˣƵDzֵģֻչԱ֤ܹѡԭΪֹȻҪ˵ǵĵ¼ֵҪֵΪƽ۵ȶԣҪһָ㷺ֵۡ޶˹ȼڼƵ׶εĶ弰ϵԣȻתΪƻƵĶ塣ΪƻǣҪѡԭһ£ҪͨĺԣڳйʵϸǺ֮ѡԭЧֶԭ̺ԭͽϴԭǾͿƵĶʵǴʽϵģȻȷijЩձ׷ơ⣬Ҫעⱻ޶˹һĶԭʿԭ򣺼ΪǴʵǵĻеõܣʵֵ֣ӣõҲ޶˹ΪһйǶĻѧʵţ޶˹Ӧڸ˵ƵĶ͵¼ֵȻΪԵۿΪҪƣԼļֵͶԼΡһУ޶˹̸Ƶļԭ״̬бһͬѡģй㷺ͬĽ֪֮ͣĻۻõģȴЩԼ빦

Ҫȶ⣬ֳڵڰ""У޶˹Ҫһ֯õijԱλһеģԼбͬĵ¹涨ʱȰһ֯õᶨΪһּƽԱ桢Чرһֹ۹ᣬڴ˼ҪȶԵ塣Ȼת۱֤ṹһȶ״̬Ҫĵеγɺͷչ׷˵ѧϰִͳۣһΪĴͳѧϰۣһΪĴͳƤǽܵѧ˵Ȼ󹴻һʵԭ֯õпֵܳĵ·չ̣Ȩĵ©ŵĵ©ԭĵ¡׶ε"Ȩĵ"ijʽɿǶͯĵ£Ҫһϵ͹涨ɣչ׶ε"ԭĵ"ΪյµҪ͸ԭж޶˹һ̽˵еijЩ̬Ȼ̬֮ϵԼӵ·չ׶ܽĵѧǿЩĻʣȻϵ"ƽ"۵ȶԷӣָ"ƽ"۽ȱ۴ǿĺȶУǸеġڱһУ޶˹ƽȵĻڶһЩһƵĹһУֶڵ˸DZÿȨƽȶԴij

ھ""ȶĵڶ棺ΪƽΪԵǷһµ⡣޶˹Ϊһԭ֯õУһ˵ĺƻֺ֧͹СжϵĿ͹ԣΪݵģһԭ֯õڼǿǡһһϣĽϡһҲڼڵ߸ҡǵеĶʼɺԹ޵˲ǵ޶˹Ϊִƽ˶һֶʼɵıֵĹ۵㡣ȻͨΪԵƵĹ͵ѧķһԵĸݡйҸһ֧ԸĿΪΪһѡ񷽷ĿͳһԵۡΪûһɸоĸĿ꣬ȻˣһƻǿͨƵijȷĺѡġ֮޶˹ǰ۾ݣԵز˶Ծȶ˵ǹؼƹͳһ⣬ˣΪƽIJȫɣһֻǶ֤һЩع˺ۡ




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