ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

֣꣺Τ۵ıо
--ΤɵĶԡѡ

ԴϺ硶Τᡷ֣Τֵ

һְҵͷѧһʷ̣Τ۵ıо
ѧһŹϵѧƣʷ׷ݵʱڡѧͬѧDz׷֪ʶ""ʷһֱ뷨ְҵʷܲɷֵġļҪ򣬲ͬȺڳڵĹͬзչ˲ͬʽЩʽIJ̺ͬŲͬĹ򡣹Ŵϣѡ˷Ϊ֯Ҫ˷չ˲ͬĶصʽԼΪĹ(й)ͬɾкǿ"ڻ"ֻܹ˵ⲿΪֻܿжߵά֡ҪһЩרŵԱάַɵΤԷɵһԸ˳ֵӣд"ķɣֻ
һϵЧԵĿܹõıϡ"һ͵ν"õϵķ"ָһ"ǿƻ"ҲǴһЩרְԱʱ׼רŵǿֶ(ǿ)ʵʩɹ淶""ʷϣһרְԱȺIJͷչ˷dzҪһص㡣
ֻǴһרŵְҵȺϷɵǿʵʩҲѰѷͬĹǿƻֿˣDZע⵽еһҪص㣬Τָ"˼ά"(legal thinking)Ҳһֶ̬ķ֪ʶɻơֻͨƶķ֪ʶһ㻯󻯺ϵͳң֪ʶǰѷְҵ߽Ϊһ"ͬ"ءΤʱܵĽʹΪ"ְҵͬ"еһԱҪѧҲԴͳѧоԷְҵԷ˼ˣǵ۽ŷ½ְҵͷѧʷʼ
͹ʱڣһԶԵķɼȺѾһЩרŽ⡢ڷͥɡоԭΪɹ(jurisconsults)ѧ(jurist)ǶԷIJͺоγһ׹ڷɵϵͳ֪ʶǰ֪ʶΪ"ɿѧ"(legitima Scientia)"ѧ"(jurisprudentia)"ɿѧ"˶ҪĹףʹɴͳΪĻͳеһdzҪɲ֣ʱռĵλá۹֮�"ɿѧ"Ĵͳڶ۹õ֡ʿʵ֯׫ļƷ⣬ְ̻ͨ̽Աѧоʹ"ɿѧ"ĴͳʷһҪĴͳ--̴ͳΪһ塣͵Ľ̻ѧУѧѧΪҪѧƣǶעͲ;ΪҪоֻѧԵľѧľǡʥоϵͳʹѧ�"ѧ"ĵλңԽʾ""(meaning)ΪҪĿĵķѧߵIJϷչշչΪһϵͳķѧ""(interprebtion)ĿѧйĿѧ(sciences of man)ַѧĻϽͷչġ
ڽĹУڷ˵СԼѧ˵֪ʶϵռݵĺλãײ㶼߾ȫȡڷѧеĻ¢ȨΪѧоҪԴȪ"صʱ"ΪΪµġ׵ĺ塣ͬʱҲڷϰ߷ΪǽʽϵͳļӹҪѧչΪһ�"ٿȫ"ʽѧʣַ̽򡢵Եȵ֮ĹϵԹҵķƶȽʷĺͱȽϵо18ΪֹѧѾΪоҪһѧơͬʱѧͷְҵõ߶ȵķչɳΪͳκ͹Ҫߡ
ȻѧӦĹҵķչ׸ı19֪ͣʶ翪ʼ"˼Ե"(speculative)ѧͳУͼȻѧоֲ˺о֮УȻ滮Ϳᡣѧͳѧ²ҷģǵijֱ־ִѧĵ"ִ"ĹУѧʧȥ̽͹(measurement)Ȩż"ѧ"УΪһѾΪȻѧԼģȻѧ׷ʵ֤(Positivity)ѧרڽ֪ʶѧУѧȻѧ(sciences)ѧ(social sciences)Լѧ(arts/humanities)Ϊ֪ʶֻ̬Ѿѧְҵƺʹѧȷѧ޷ҵԼλáڷѧͳʮǿŷ½ңѧΪһŶѧƶڣѧλ޷ѧƿ⡣Ӣѧں̶ܴΪһ""(craft)Ϊһ"ѧ"ڵġɽҪڷְҵ(ʦ)Щְҵ"л"ѧУ(ӢInns)неģֵĴѧԺϵں̶ܴȻϮְҵѵķͷʽһֵΪͻѧҽѧѧȵһͬ�"ְҵ"(professional education)С"ְҵ"һǩʵѾųЩѧƵĴҵ"ѧͬ"еijԱʸ񣬶ʹ˳µؽ"ְҵͬ""lawyer"һָзְҵߣѧҲУ"academic"ǣڷڹҹкĵλδɥʧְҵΪ"Ա"ȻкܸߵλʮҪáѧ֪ʶеʧ貢δΪְҵҪһԱԽĵλͬʱڷְҵִѾ�""(autonomy)ѧԼԼ""ܾѧ
(һ)ְҵ뷨ѧὨ
ѧǴ֮УͷչĶҪӽѧγɹҶԾ֪߱ʶĹ˲ŵҪԼгԳ䵱Э˺ʹ˵ķְҵߵ˾Եãѧͷɽķչֹ̺ʹٽ˷ְҵĽΪҵȶͷչԼгṩ˱ϡһ֮УѧѰڽеλã֪ʶϵŬ뷨ְҵ׷жϣΪԵԼʵԵķְҵӮһƬĿռ䡣
ŷ޷ѧͳĽת
ڷʷϣ""ʼںʱ?һֱһ⡣һֲ̽ڱĵ֮ڡҲɵ¡ڵĹ۵㣺
ɴͳ12͵ձĻ֮Сһͳ֪ʶĻ壺һǽ̻ᷨѧѧ壬Ķͷɢŷ޸رкͷϲ"ķʡ"ѧʵԵġ""д塣صر޴ѧĽѧ--Cassiodorus 12͵"ո"У˵ײ"·"ϣȻѧ͹ķɿѧԴΪԿ̻Ļ¢ȨҪΪ̻Ĵѧ࿹⣬ײչϣ"ѧ԰"(encyclopedia)"ѧԺ"(studium)ںϰѧѧҽѧͷѧȸߵ"ѧ"ּ߽ѧͿְܵĻչ˽ϵĴѧ(studium generaleΪuniversitas)1300ʱŷ޹20ӵнǿķѧоͽѧĴѧ1500ʱһѾӵ80Щѧ½ѧѧоķѧͨΪ"ѧ"(doctores legum)ΪǶȡ˷ѧϵеѧλǷչϵԼΪ"ѧ"(civilis scientia)"ǻ"(civilis sapientiaԴעͷѧɵľ֮Accursianͨôʻ㡷)ϵͳ֪ʶϵΪŷ޽ѧ˼ijΣΪѧ˼ͼ̽༯Ĺ淶塣"Ϊŷ޵˼һպͿŷ޵µʵֶΡṩһ׹ŵԣԽûож--һ仰һ׹أȨ"




"ѧ"ʵǶԹ"ɿѧ"ļ̳кͷչڹѧһɹǷְҵȺеijԱרŸϵ˻˾⣬ͨشЩʵеԷɽϵͳķоһЩһԵۡͨǵŬһֻзְҵ߲ܹȫ""չˡԷɸͷɸԱ֯ɵʽԼΪְҵͬṩһ""Ļʽרҵ԰(ѧ)ųһ֮ͬ⡣"ѧ"ʵҲͨʹɳΪ"ı"ʽϵ綨͹ŷְҵĽ
ҪָǣһʱڵķѧȻоΪоʵ"þƿװ¾"ѾһȥˣӦڹ˵ʽķɺͷѧ12͵õָʹϸ̰"ע"ѧңҲڸԼ"ǰ"ΪԼԼͬʱܹĺ塣һ�"ط"֪ʶӦڲͬʱͬIJͬʽѧҲò"ط"ı硣ǣᾭúλıǨıǵʽͬʱҲҪ淶ĹϵӦת䡣ǽӣȱ"ʽ"ĵطϰ߷Ѿ޷Ҫǣѧ"ĵ"(ratio scriptaa)ṩĸܺۼܹϰ߷ϵͳԵļӹԣҴͳʱڵĵ¹ûͳһһ廯˾޷˾͸ȥѧǻǸݴгۿˡ־(Deutschenspiegel)͡ʿ߱(Schwabenspiegel)ϰ߷Լɭ(Sachsenspiegel)ⲿϰ߷顣ŷ޵ѧҲƵĹǰѱĻע뵽֮УṩʽĹ淶ء
ŷ޷ְҵ
ʹŷ޷ְҵԭǶ෽ġȣ̻;ȨĹжҪ̺׳ԼĹŻҪרҵ֪ʶԱڷͳԵͳιߣܹɽרҵԱΪȻ֮ѡΣ˵ײΪάԼ棬ԼȨҲҪרҵԱΪṩѯ䵱̸֮енˣκ˾дǵ档ó׺ҵķҪӦķеĸӹϵԼٽ׳ɱͬʱҲҪϤɵרҵʿͬд顢䵱н˺ٲߣͺڣڽȨķѾԣԭеͳκ͹ƵĺϷԿʼܵҡ⵼ʧ򣬶ڹӵĶԪ᷽ʹΪҪĹ淶̬ӦأְҵҲΪרҵԱ
ŷ޵κ֯ʽתĹ֮Уְҵʮֹؼáȣְҵ߰ѽ̻᱾һҵijΡ"ͺڣ̣Щ̣͢˷ְҵ߶ѧҡ"Щְķְҵ߳׸ı˽̻Ĺʽʹ̻ᷨϵΪһΪϵͳġԻķϵΣְҵڸҳ䵱ߡ١ԱԼ֤ԱʹɳΪҶʵʩƵĹҪֶΣյ˽�"ι"(Rechtsstaat)ij֮֡⣬13ڳֵ"ʦ"һְҵȺȡά˽Ļ""̵һ֡ʦһײ㹲ĺϷԴȨĽ׷˽ĶʹⳡվײϡڷͥϣײҲԼĴˡײҲл""Ļγ(djscourse fomation)ڴ˹֮ͷչԼԿȨϮʵհԼΪһ߱һԵĹͬ塣
ѧչľƣְҵķչҲһձʹĺͲĽ׶"ط"(localization)תĹ̡һλ12͵Ľ̻ᷨѧ˵"˵˶Լ"ʱѧϰоɵҲòѧϰġǣɱϾʵիеIJְҵҲòʹñԡıϾûгΪŷ޵ͨԣǡǡ෴ҶڼͷչԼԣҪǣũ˺ֹҵ߲ûлϵͳĽ޷�"Ժ"ְҵҲòΪ""""ġرڷڽ̷ְֵҵ߳ΪһӵԼл""Ⱥ֮󣬷ְҵı̻Ҳˡ
ڲȨֺͳηʽĹ֮УְҵʹԼΪ"ִ"ͳӦʶ̬Ҫ塣David Sugarmanı˵"ְҵʶ̬Ҫ̡磬ǰί˵ijﻮǡֵϵһԵ֮�"ִУҪʶ̬ν"ִ"(modernity)ڶ"ִ"пĹУ˹ע⵽ŷɸԤ֮ȡΧ΢ϸԵţһIJ"˾׻"(jurification)˶ν"ִ"̵һҪ档ͨ벢һְ̣ҵ߳ΪִλҪߡǰճתعΪ"ձԵķɻϣһԪ(meta-language)"Ϊһ"Ԫ"ڹߣְҵȺ˰Ϊһġкܸλ"ְҵͬ"Ȩ
ѧΪһְҵ
ʷϣѧһֱΪһ""ķʵڵģѧǷְҵȺеһԱ֮Ҫǿѧ"ְҵ"ԣΪں̶ܴϾѧļԺ뷨ʵ֮ԸĹϵ֪ѧĺ"׷ǻ"ķչDzƵнײ̽ȻصΪһְҵķѧǷѧȡҵʱһֶΣǶԼе淶ͼӹ˵ѧ"ѧ"ҪĿ׷""ĻѧĿ׷""һϵͳĺһ㻯ķ֪ʶӶΪְҵȺ崴һ׹ϵ""ϵȺ彨Ϊһ"ͬ"ʷϿѧҵҪְҵ
1ͨеĹ淶ؽռܽᣬһ׳ķɸͷԭ򣬴ӶΪʵְҵṩһ׹ķϵְҵѧҺۼҽϵĻͬ"һԵ"(gener-al)ȴ"˼"ѧµҪǴӾ飬ضݼƳʵЧĽ۲ЩΪһϵͳ֪ʶϵڷѧĹ"""""Ϊ"Щճеĺĸĺ壬ֺڷɹϵ(Iegal classificatory system)Ŀģбְҵص㡣ѧָ""(person)ķɸбһʵͨ塣""""(individual)ݻÿһ˶Ƿϵ""""ǷȨͷ塣֮/"ܹӵвƲܹԼȨе"(ڷɿѧ)""(things)ָһȻ壬һάֶΣһijʽͲȨƶϵIJƲ
ϵΪ(act-in-the-law)һּڲijַϿɵĽԸıʾ˼ʾԽͷԱʽҲԱΪijڵΪ(罻һƷռһƬصȵ)Ծһȫ(ĬĬϵȵ)ζӦΪ߱˵ȷͼ
ͨһ׼ȲͬճԡֵȷԷʵԣѧΪְҵͬһ





֣꣺Τ۵ıо£
--ΤɵĶԡѡ
֣

ԴϺ硶Τᡷ֣Τֵ

2ṩһ׸ϵάְַҵͬͬһ(identity)ΪһͳһʲȻһֹ""(meaning)ѧǡǡڽһϷӳĿõáǷɵ""""ߡѧҳ䵱ֽɫʷȻ׷ݵڲʿġѧ˵롷Уǿҵ䣺�"ԲʽɷѧҴķ""ֻڷѧҵĽ֮еġĵ"DzѷɽͽΪһ˾ǿһ""Ὠ̵Ļͻ֣ᷢѧҵĽͻάϵְҵ"干ͬ""͹ͬ"ҪⲻָѧҵʱᱻٷʽϿΪһ"ԨԴ"(磺۹ʱڣ¹˹ʵȹ涨ijЩѧҿԸȨ⣬ǵĽԷپԼ˹Ԫ426ꣻά³ʵ۸䲼"֤"涨ᰲޡڶȰ˹Ī˹͡λѧҵзЧ)ָѧҵʶŬ۽ΪְҵṩһֿɹְҵȺõ֪ʶԴ
3˽۽⣬ѧһ䵱Ŵڷ֪ʶͷɼĽʦʹڴһʱѧΪְҵߵҲʮԣIJһϵ"֪ʶ"(intellectuals)ǷְҵߣڵҲijڵĿ͹֪ʶԼҲ佨ķְҵͬ�"ҵԺͼ"Ƕ֪ͨҵ"ѧͽʽ"ɽеְҵʵҲŷҵķѧУ̶ֻͬѡԷķɽΪͣѧеķɽλ"̻ᷨϵ"ҪĻԭ򣬶ʱĽ̻͹ҲǸԭʵʩġĽѧʼ·ʮͳʱڣΪ˹̾Ȩ·ʮĶԷķϵĸĸҪǿɵԣҪѷеķĻյʽƶ16794£"ʥȶ"Ҫڴѧϵнڷͳʱڣķѧʼĵڶչʱڡ롶䡷180251"ɽ"ҪȫĴѧϵȫĸĸȫ10ѧԺ(Ecoles de droit)ɡطɽ¡1804313շɺ1804921ȷ涨˷ѧԺΪ"ְҵѧУ"(professional school)ʣҪѧԺҪ˽ʵ񡣵1838꣬ڽѧѸͷչԹߵӰ죬ʱĹ(de Salvandy)һίԱԷѧԺγ̽иĸһЩѧγֱ̡գȻѧķԺϵѾپְҵѧУʣ䱾ƽΪĽڣҷϵıҵһ·ְҵѧȻ˽ѧΪķʷѧۺѧγ̡ͨڲάȴ淨ƶȵ֪ʶͼɣһķְҵߣѧΪְҵͬеԴš
4ѧΪְҵ"ͳ"ĴߡϵְҵͬһְҵȺ强չصĴͳﲻָһЩصļɡʽй棬ҲָһְҵԵĵɡǿŷѧҵо�"ҵ"ְҵֹϵġҲϸµĴͳԴΪһȷִͳѧҵŬѱԣʹְҵͬijԱһ"޶ȸ"(sense of limits)DZִͳģܼԱʸ
ˣǷְ֣ҵ߱Τڡ½ʱ徫һ"ְ"(Beruf)ЩΤԣְ½̽ɵĺĽ"ϵӦΨһ淽ʽҪԿ޵Ľ峬Խ׵£Ҫɸλκ"ְҵ¼"ְ"ȣְҵһ־ƾôͳְҵΤʷУǿԿ͹ʱѾһְҵɼȺ壬ְҵֱͬӹͷְҵȺҲ½̽ɲ֮ǰѾˣΣְҵ봫ͳ֮̽䲢ìܣ෴ְҵIJͷչ෽滹̻̽᣻ȻְҵĽڽʷϵijЩ¼޹ϵǣְҵڽԡͨΤ"ְ""ְҵ"ƺԵóĽۣΤѻ"½""ְ""ְҵ"ķԻΪʱƽе
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ʵϣѧ(legal scholarship)һֶص(subject matter)ҲһֶصоѧоԹΪһڵġڵķɹۡѧ߰ѷΪһױΪһϵĹ淶˵(normative statements)оǿ취ɵڽṹ塣ѧDzõķҪ֣Ե(descriptive)͹淶Ե(prescriptive)Įʮ"ʵȻ"(is)"ӦȻ"(ought)֮֡
δ"ڲ۵"ڲӽǵȷк壬֮УԿָ"Էְҵ߶ѧһѧҵӽ"оɡɳ"о"Ҳȫǰѷɹ淶ϵͷְҵһַյϵͳѧϵͳһϵͳĹϡȻ"ڲӽ"۵ȷӳ˷ѧоһҪԣǣ"""ָʾ"(prescription)ѱΪоֻDZ˷ѧҵij""
ݲ˹ѫĸɿѧоҪ֣ζϵĻ(a priori)ķʷķԼȽϵķνζϵоǴȨȳƵһ׷ɸͷķĿֺ֤̽ɵļֵΪѰҵһԺĻķעڷɹڲṹԾ߼ΪԷͷн綨ȥ첻塢ìܵijɷ֡ʷķѷΪһھʱͿռвݱͷչĻͨԾ巨ԭ͹淶ĺʷԵĽͣԽʾκձԵġ󻯵о޷ֵ塣ȽϵķǶԸҵķϵкıȽϣҳЩϵеĸָԭƶ֮ͬһΪͽ»һΪĽķƶṩ
ݿάĺɭĹ۵㣬ɿѧаݣʵĿѧڿ͹ۻ(Sinn)ĿѧԼڼֵĿѧݶʵIJõ֣һʦĵ˽˵(1)ӿһϵȻЧķɣⲿɼʵĽͣͿʤߣ(2)ǣⲿִĹDzģ(3)ʵϣǡ˽Ⲽʷ٣ԷĽͣˣĹ˾϶䡣һ漰һֿ͹۵壬ڶ漰һֵּжϣϵʵ״
Ϊְҵߵķѧо⼸ʱҪ"ʵ"ֱݷְҵͬľ顢ʶ͹ϵļֵж׼ǿѧои߶ȵijԺͷԣǣⲢζŷѧоȫѼֵжϻػųġѧоֻһֶصġְͨҵѵӽΪ¼аľأͼһһĺͳ˵ʽЩءķУǽ֣ᷢоΤо̵Ӱ죬Τķ۹ں̶ܴϵڶַĴת
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ѧԼ""һرķʽΪһ⣬ߵĹؼǾۺͳѧdz֡ͨߴ1830ڵã"ִ"ᱻһִ״̬ζϵIJ⣬Ѿ뷨ɵԺ͸޹ء



֣꣺Τ۵ıо£
--ΤɵĶԡѡ
֣

ԴϺ硶Τᡷ֣Τֵ

ڵ¹ͳȻѧ(Kameralwissenschaft)ϣٳ""ѧ(Staatswissenschaften)оԺͷķ"ʵԵġõĺͳѧ"ת䣬"񾭼ѧ"(National-Okonomik)IJոѧҺ͵ѧڲ·оƲȨƸȨ""ĹУ֧ྭ""Ӷ˹ŵξѧIJڷҪ·ѧξѧ
ѧ֮޷ǨеĸҪΪڷԼij߶ڹѧעʵҲ޷ṩоʵԴѧҵ˵ȱ�"ʵ֤"(Positivity)Ϊһְַҵѧоάȶṹȴ޷ıתṩϵָˣȻʼûзԷΪҪͳηʽԷƶȵĸĸȴھѧѧͳѧѧָɵġѧűķƶȶת䣬µ"߶"½ϵ
ȻѧͼͨʶȻȻĶһѧչҪһָݿѧ19͵ѧֻ"ҵ""ʱ"ʵٵ⡣ڷϣڵѧҪģţѧʹĽ۵ģʽͼͨ۲ʵռزģȻѧʽԶЩزĽԵ߼ӶóһЩһԵĹʽ⡣Щʾ͹۹ɵ⣬Ϊ"Ṥʦ"ľߡҷչƻƶߺ͹߾ͿƶӦķɺ͹򣬴Ӷʵʩ"ѧ"Ĺⷽ棬¹˹׵µ֪ʶۺ"ѧ"Լ˹Ľѧͻ֤ǶῴһϽĻ壬ҵŽϵĸ߼׶Σͨʵ֤ԵĿѧоͿȻǹҵҪ־"ʵ֤"ȡ19һֱѧķչͨ"άҲѧ""ѧͳһ"20ͼҪλһѧͼȷȻɵķͨ"ѧ"(nomological science)Ӱ죬ѧҲһѰ֮˼ͻĴǵ¹ѧʩķաڳ1906ġúͷɵʷΨһѧĿ졷ⲿУͼ�"ѧ֮ʶۿ"ȷȻƵĺ㳣Ϊ"ܵⲿԼ༯"ԼľijЩ͹۵Ҫ۵ԸΪ:
1ܵⲿԼЩ(
¹"ѧ""Ļѧ"(Geisteswissenschaften)Ϊо˺ṩһֲͬ˼·ԵҶ̩(Dilthey)(Simmel)¿ѧΪѧͳǿྫĶԣ԰˵ɿȻѧоǿΪоĿѧܺ˵壬Ӧصо塣˹ΤִͳӰ죬״ΰѹעӽִѧ"ѧ"(Verstehende Soziologie)ͼΪ͹۵ؽ;ͼжṩһۿܡ
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1907꣬ʩķĵڶ淢֮ʣ˹ΤڡᾭϷһƪۣΪ"ʩķնʷΨ'"ʡƪУΤʩķյǰԵķ񶨡ָʩķͼҳ͹۹ŬעͽġȻ磬ǿҵʩķֹɣ)ʹΪܵ
2֮ĹϵǸֹϵԼ3
3Լ͹ϵӰ졣
һǰϵһ⣬һǺжϹȥڡδ¼ı׼ǣжϾͬ˶޷ɹ۲жⲿ֪ͨж֮Ͳ֡ΤΪɡϰ׺ͳڵ�"ȲһִڵʽҲһ'֪ʶʽԭ'"Ϊа޷涨ж߼ĶУ"ķ""Ϊ'֪ʶ'ķɵľڣ֪ʶж׼γɹеĹء֪ʶ仰˵'ķ'ж֮жһ޶ij̶ֳϣһ'ϰ'ϣһжͼжʱͼȥǾȥΥʹԼ'Ӧ'"
ֵעǣΤԭһܹϵͳķѧķѧң֮Դӷѧתѧ㷴ӳ˶ԴͳѧоIJΤͨо֣ǵжijЩ"ʵʳ"Ĺ淶ǰ"ϰ""ϰ"""""Щ淶֮Ľģǿͬʱ棬ͬЧǺеһֵijضУdzͨϿij֮(legitinmacy)ķʽʹ֮ȷͨͳСֵԵԼȷһԡ�"һԿҪķʽϣ1ֱϿǴ۵ģ(1)еģԴڸԣ(2)ֵģȡڶΪijġĻ͵ռֵ֮еľЧԵ(3)ڽ̵ģȡڶ2.⣬һԿܻ()ɶضںԤڡ"ƺһѭ֤ѭijԼԵĹ淶ѭɡԵķʽԵıϷʽǵһЩȡʵΤľڡDZ淶ͨжģǵ壬ˣѭͱǵһµġңʷԵУ淶IJȻǸжĽȴÿһж֮ļ򵥼ܣһижĹͬˣijһ˶ԣһֲ�"͹""͹ۻ"Ĺ淶򣬾dz֮Ϊ"ͳ"ֶһ֡ӷѧ"ڲ"ӽ޷ʾַḻԺ͸Եġˣ˹Τ˷ѧķɹۺѧķɹۣ
̸""""""ʱעⷨѧķɹѧķɹ֮ȡǰһַɹۣǾͻʣʲôзЧ?Ҳ˵ȷ߼Ӧһз֮ʽʷʽʲô淶?ȡһֹ۵㣬ǾͻʣЩжǡЩһӰΪijЩ淶ЧʵжЩ淶ĿԣʵϷʲô?
ѧҲʵֻΪְҵͼڡ޷г⻹͵Ĺϵѧһۼͼж߱˶Թ淶ʶۣҳʵڵĹ淶̬
Τ˼ҵIJиŬѧûбȻѧȫɣǷչһ""""ΪĵĶоһսΪֹȡöλ鵽ѧҪѧƹţʷѧѧѧѧѧͬ""""ΪоĿѧѧΪʲôûбѧѧӪֶܹѧƵλ?ԭߣû˹̹˵Ļ˵Ϊ"һ棬ѧѾһϵĿγ̱ʦҪְܽءһ棬עоձɵѧҲijֻɵ۹ѧƺڹ淶ˣ̫ȱоĸˡĸַǿѧķıƺҲ̫ˡ"ǹ"֪ʶ""ѧ"Ŀ˾޴ĸı䣬ѧΪ綨޶ڽзо֪ʶѾʧȥѧϵĵλѧȻΪһֹ϶ԾҪְҵͬеijԱȻķԺϵѧĿγ(رǾѧѧγ)DzûӰ쵽'ѧоʶ"ɾѧ""ѧ""ѧ"ĽѧƣҲʮ޵ģֻʹְҵߺͻδķְҵףԭ⡣ңѧҺͷѧҶԸԵĽɫзdzѵʶѧҲҪѧҹһԵ(Ȼijλѧһ㣬Ҳػӭ)෴κĶȫоͷ˼ѧҶ㲻⣬һרҵʱǻòΪרֽ̡һ棬ѧҲڷְҵ趨޶ڴоͽѧǵз١ʦͷѧĶҲԸ⿴Լѧٽ˷ְҵͬĹʶ