ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 






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ϵ۹ƶ

Ϊձ֪ʶͻ֪ʶʻⷢģIndia, Goa, 2002/11/2529۹ƽʻֶģFrance, Paris, 2003/2/1518ԭΪӢģڷʱɾ2002ӦLeRobertTransculturaо֮дɴġ

DzӦüװΪгģʽѾ߱˭ҪȻΪƽṲ˼гҲͬDzʵġ»W.

ؿŵ۹ڳΪʵغ

ۿԶԣ۹ֻǸĻ/ƶȣһǸǿȨʵ塣Ŵΰ۹˥񻰰ʷ£ǵ˵Զ롣ִġ/ҡϵս˹Ŵģʽġΰ۹ʹ֮ΪΪ䣬Ѿdzϰ/Ϊλȥʵȥδʵ۹ϵʱΪȻɵƶȶڣ/ȴִֻIJִ˴ĵ۹ŴͳҴ˸а˼;ãûбʲôҵִܹ񻰰ijɹ

۹ִݱΪһʧȥȻʵƷʵĸİ۹塱
塱ǵ19ͺڲűһ˼Ըݻ˹ķĿ۹һ1970ųֱ֣1990šͻȻһҡÿϡų֣˼ûʹùҪĸ۹磬1999꣬6465ҳںܳʱ۹屻ΪҪ˼ĵ⣬һҪԭ˼ǶʱУ۹屻Ϊʱķʽ嵽۶ٶƺԴгʱDZزٵģˣִʱ塢ֳ͵۹ܲɷֵϵи˵۹ǻ/ƶȵij/һοƺ;ðϵŷ޴ͳ۹͵۹Ĺͬǡһͳ硱ѧǡԲ֧塱/ҵĸʹõ۹Ϊԭܵ۹۹⣬Ӷʹøʧȥ˴ͳ۹ղػҲѵ۹ǿȨս淢չ˼£ʷģսִ۹Ʒ

мƺһµʱµϵ/ϵܵȫ򻯵ս˶/ϵᱻƻ A.D. Smith ͼ˹ļΪ/ϵƣΪʵڿɼδǻѷչһֱǿľҲԷչµϵ
μ Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era, Chapter 6, Polity Pr, 1996.ôδһµ۹ʱ𣿹غսԵ۹ΪھѾʼµ۹ʱָؿŵ۹ڳΪʵ/ҵͳȨ˥䲢ζͳȨһȨʵsovereignty as such˥䡭µȫͳʽν۹Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri Empire, Harvard Univ. Pr. 2001. Perface.ⲻ󣬶Ƿdzֵ˼⡣ܹƶಢܹ࣬ϵʽҲ࣬ʵϵ۹͵ϵ۹ָӵĴģ⣨comprehensive problem漰з棬Ӧ˵Ǹ顱ģ͹ʱ˼άΪʱʱǾͼ˼硢۹һeidosIdeaﲻȫ۵۹⣬׼۵ǣѧϣйͳġ۹κһֿܵϵʲô塣

һ˵δʲôʱ֪ȫѾеط绯ˣκһطⶼòϵб˼ͽִһֱŵһͻȻִƶֻǹƶȣƶȣ˵ִƶȵЧΧԼ/ҵڲᣬᡣǣʹÿһҶΪ/Ҳҽ˱׼ִƶȣκгԱ֤ÿһڲڹ֮ҲȻƶȵģԼ޷ʧؿռ䡣ֹ״̬ȫ㡰˹״̬˷˵״̬ζѧǶȿִϵڱǡ״̬chaosϣѧΪֻе״̬ɡ״̬kosmosγȻ磨kosmosĴԴKosmosԭΪӼɣ棬˵Ȼ䡰ʽųΪ档μJ.Burnet:Early Greek Philosophy, Adam & Charles Black, 1930, p.9.chaosҪkosmosҪeidosǶȿȻûгΪ硱Ȼͣchaos״ֻ̬ǸĴڣǸ硱nonworldϣѧkosmosڣҲֻǹȻij壬ǹĸkosmosӦġͬгġ硱йѧҵһģʽǡ¡²ǵͬʱζᡢƶԼƶȵĻǸȫλһҪڣƶйϵ

ⶼʱͲò˼ƶȡ⡣ɽִͨƶȶóΪִƶȻȱ㣬Ѿ㹻õƶȣ˲ƶȸĿԣʷҲˣͨΪʷսᡱ׼ȷμFukuyama: The End of History and the Last Man, Free Pr, 1992. еĹؼʡendı˼ǡսᡱ˼ǡʷĿ֮ʵ֡Ե¹ŵѧĹΪο˼Ҳڵ¹ŵѧϰ󹲲ģҲΪʷսʷĿ֮ʵ֡˵ʷʵʷĿġһʷɡĶȻڴæʹȥƶȸĿԣijƶȶԣҲҪһƶȾ߼걸ԣܹ⣬ܹ⡣һ߼ʵܼ򵥣һƶȲֹڡҡһλ뿼ǵ硱һ/ᵥλܶӶڡԻ2003/3/17ϣ븣ɽ۵⣬ǸɽڼΪƶƶڹDzʵģҲûʵĿԡȻһƶȽڹҲϻóɹȻûĿģ糡вЧôͲһЧƶȡΪȽϣǿԿ˼ƶۣ˼͸ɽӵкڸѧ˼˼Ĺһģᡣ˼ٿǵƶ⡣ʣ뱻Ϊһ˼ͷλйⶼܱЧطͽЧطͽԵ⣬ôҲܳЧطƶ⣬ΪκһıҪԼDzÿһӼģܼȴģܹЧ⡢ͽ⡣

Ҫ۵Ҫйġۡͼ֤κοܵƶȵζѧ֮ʹѧ⣬ΪѧǷκķҲǸаʲôа̶ͬȵʵķ档а岢ܹʵапܻһֱȽȷӶʹƶȻ۸ݣ˵ܹ֪жԶ

һ¡

1.Ļ걸

ᄈеġ۹empireͬ¡һйͳ˵ǵ۹ĸ˵ǹڵ۹Ȼһ£һijֶֶʣϣΪһ־Եġʽұֶܴﵽ״̬ڰͼϣڱʹijΪ߼̺ţΪijIdeaͱضζ루idealһȻûģΪȻϣȫغϣDzҪʯͷø롱һΪ˵Ųɺӵ壬ΪΪҪеűȻ壬ǶҪܿ룬ʵϣδܹ롣ΪʲôDzܹ֪һʲôģһָܹΪʲôġڴˡ

¡Ҫǹڵ۹һ˵ܾƶȺʵԶǸ⣩ÿĻ˼ϵеĹؼŶ㸴ϵ壬Һȫ˵ԶŽͺ۵ء¡Ҳһһ˵Ļǣ1ѧϵġء൱йʽԪṹ졢ءˡеġء൱Ծס硣

Ŵй¸Ȼָ磬ʵ֪ʶޣʵ⵽粢̫ʱǡݡֻ൱ڽʡҰǼϺأԶΪĶ˷չҲ۽Щѧߣɶ81ɣйֻ֮һƺ󡣣μʷǡ742344ҳ2ָ˵˼ġ統˵¡Ҫ˼ǻأһҲûʵֹ˵ô˵ġӡԡԻȡߣǸض֮֮νҲҼ˶ӡð֮߸ð߽֮ð֮١߾߶¹֮ȥ֮һҪ¡ǵԵԵģ3Ҫѧ/ѧ壬ָһһҵаνĺһңһ/ͻڣŲͼ׷ij֡ƶȡԼƶ֤ġȻ¡Ȼǹĸ˼еġ硱ƺŸĺ壬ǵƶߺһġ硱ŲɷֵĽṹΪֱƻµĴʽζһѧһۣ硢ĻĻ¡ָǸƶȵ硱ǸѾ˴haoskosmosת磬Ǹ汸ĺ硣롰¡ȣġ硱ͨԣֻǸڿѧҰе磨ܿڱָʲô磩ѡ硱Ϊʵġĺ͹ݲʽģȻǿѧҰе硣һ岻ƺ㣨μPopper: Objective Knowledge, 1972¡ǸѧҰе磬漰ĸֿ壬ǸйĿıthe full concept of the worldҲһ漰ĺͳģ˵ҲǴѧԵģġ硱Ǹʷ磬˵ǹʷӽ磨horizonHusserl: The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, Northwestern Univ. Pr, 1970ǸԵ磬Ϊǿ͹֪ʶԭʼDZѧڸǺıԭԾ磬ѧġڡ¡͡硱ķdzͬĸ֮䣬ʵԷһЩңԶҪԣҲ˵ڡ硱˵Ǹƶ硱

¡йѧֱӹ涨һѧӽ磺˼ܹ˼Ķ󡪡硪ΪһĻ걸ĸȻDZƶԣ뱻Ϊһƶȵ磬Ͳ˵ͬʱ¡ζһѧۣһﶼΪġ龰(context)вܱЧͷôضһ龰ʹﶼ֮бͷܹΪκĽ龰ǡ¡ֻеǸĻ걸ĸʱܹ˵ӵгֵۡǽȱ۵ѧѧڽʱ
ŸԵѡ

2.ϵ߶Ⱥ߶Ȫ

ȻǸƶȵ硱ôͿΪƶȵѧۡ/۹ӱĸֵ۹ģʽͳµ۹۹ģʽִ۹/ңӢ۹ģʽԼµ۹壬ģʽͻһǣմϵĶλ/۹ϾͲǸҡ䲻Ǹ/ңһ/Ļƶȣ˵һᡣָģǸڡ硱ǡҡĸѧѡʦѧ磬1992꣬332ҳ۵Ҫڣѡ硱һελһߵελͬʱҲͳΪһ˼/˼λҲ龰й/ֵλIJνṹ--¡ĽṹȽıȣ硶ӡ*4ϡԻкԽԻ¹ҡζһֱλṹ˸DZĽͿܡҲλڹ֮ϣ£ûб¸ģΪºһҾѾελˣֻǸԿռ䡣dzǰңǵ۹/ңֻûС硱Ӹϵ߼ϿѧķλϵDzȫģӸˡͬ嵽ңǰƶȵ履ǵˡ硱ĸȴȱ䱸ƶĻֻǸȻ˵ֻǸ֪ʶ۵λûнһΪ/Ļλ/ĻλҶֹѧһҪľԣȱһҪӽ硣һֱִſʼƺȹҸĹελ翵¹ڡĹҡcivitas gentiumν繲͹󣬵󲢲棬ʵڿµֻDZݲἰѣֻпնĸΪȽʵӦһЩġɹҵƶȡ£ʷļúƽۡӡݣ1997ꡣDZ̨DzܳԽ/ϵڵڱֱ˵ˣ˼Ĺǹƶȵ󡣴ʵ˵ڵϹȥǿʵֻǸ׼Եĵλʹ׼ҲǷdzԵģΪϹθζĿǰģελȴҵλߵελΪӵڹƶ֮ϵƶȺȨֻ/ҼЭԻԴʵ˵ֻǸ/ϵķԻ

¸Ҫڣһѧ˼һ߶ȡʹöһЩ/ҳ߶޷ĴģΪܡһ߶ȵڹŴʮԣڽȴͻΪʲôŴйǧǰ˼һ߶ȣѾѽſԿ϶˲Ԥϵڽ壬ڱʱͺǸȻ룬ˣ¡ڹŴӦǸǴѧǾ֪ʶʵϵʱҲûӦľ֪ʶ֧

¡ѡ硱ΪһԵģcategoricalϣܺͲɻԭķ˼λ˼ͽ/Ļƶȡζһȫͬķۡ˼ĻλǸϵġҡcountry/state/nation, ұ˼ͺľԸݡ׼߶ȡйۣ˼߶ȣֻǴһͿܵĴһĵλζţ1ҳ߶ȵҪ³߶ȥ⣻ң2ҲԹҳ߶ȶĺϷԽгֵı绤³߶лúϷԡˣǵ͵ڿԳΪжһǷĽṹԱ׼˵вͬļֵ۵Ҳǿܵģκһֿܵ߼ṹӦͬġһṹԱ׼ͺжһϵǷһ׿۹岻һǹΪ۹ǹ棬Լҵ浱棬жļֵ׼ԼҵΪжҺϷԵı׼͵۹壬ӵСȷˡȨκҶȫDZвĻԼҵѰ˵ȹΪǷġ

Ϊһȫϵôһϵֻһϵ˼Ļλͽͱ׼ͬϸ˵˼봫ͳֻй۶ûۣ˼⣩⵱Ȼ˵ûй˼˵㲻ͬ߶Ȳͬ˼ʽͲͬϣ˵˵ǡlogosͬպ˵Dzͬ˲ͬġӽ硱˵˼ǡԹҺ硱ôйǡ硱ӡ¹¡һԭִ桶¾54¡ͳһԵڹԭ򣬻ڡ֮ϵinternessչԷ޷ϹƵĸ֡֯ǶûҲܳԽ/ҿܣ˾ͺͨϹȷﵽԡ/ҵӽע˼ʱԹΪ׼桪沢ָ棨Ҫȿҵ棬δҪ̫ߣҲظDZģľݻҪۺͷٿԳ˵ָйص๫棬ȰʷҲ棬DZ֤ıҪ๫󻯣ijʱδijҵܹﵽһ£ܵDzһ£ӡʱΡ޴ij߶ȥߴӼʱȥô๫󻯱ضÿһطһµġ

Է֣ǿռԵģʱԵģҪһԳ߶ʱͱȻ߼ؽһҪһԳ߶ȣΪҪͨԵʱױֻе类Ǹģa prioriελʱܹǵ磬ڹҵͼֵ¹¡۽ȻȡԹ¡۽ӹԶ˵һǵ߶ȿռʱ߶ĸֻаΪһɷֵ鵥λпܿij桢ֵΡ/ҵ۾ԣǡڹ硱ûп桱

Ϊʲôйѧš¡ڹҵ桢ֵελѧȴûУdz̸˼йءϣѧȻûеȼµĸϣȻǵĶȫλ磬ǵchaosΪkosmosܳΪձζѧ⣬п߼ĵ·Ͻһ履ǻ̵ʤѷѵ˼룬˹˼ĺȨҽЩȨ磬ǣͽǸѧ⣬ͱ⣬ν۾ͣȻϣٷչΪĵۡڽ̵ΣеϣνģķԷʽ绮Ϊʥĺ˵ģַԵ⼸޷ͻijͻսȺ˼Դ

3.⡱ԭ

Ҫһ/۹ҪۡӡӴ൱ġʵۡemperorйʼСʵ֮ۡйŴڣӡʡۡȳƺŵָͬǿĺвͬʱΪƹȣʱϷij⡢Խǵسսʱ׷׳ʼʲԾۣԴʵۡƺţãԺΪ߾λ¡ȫڡempireӡҲȫڡemperor µ׸ºӹͬ/۹ۻҪһƶȸҪӦ˵±ҪҪö࣬ҸΪΪƶϷԵı֤ܱ֤ƶȵĺϷԡȻпǻġʵйʷϵĻʵۺõIJ࣬˵ǸûеĻĩ˵Ϊ߽ҲDZ顤ûʵټΪƶûеõܺõʵֺ͹᳹йʷϣ/ӡʵб᳹ĸӹһƬĻȱʵ۵Ҳ̵ķ˼Ի֮Ҳ֮ڿҲĴ¼ԭȻƶûбʵʵͽʵӶԴֻʹļڿǷdz̵ģΪDzǸƶȵƻʵϴӴԺͲбȽϽӽƶȵŬˡ

/۹Ĵϣ£ν¡¡Īǡ¡ԻԻӡʫСšɽԻ֮Ī֮Īʵϴûһ۹ӵй磬/۹Ǹۣȫһҵĵ۹Ϊң˲⡱ԭߡϡϡԻ⣬Ϊҡ˾Ǩʷǡ8汾͡ԻĺΪҡ˾⡶ͨ2719Ի֮壬⣬һҲΪҶ⣬ǸζĹdzʹй˼ﲻġˡԭͬҲն塣Ȼ⣬ֻڲûвɼݵⲿҲֻڽṹϵԶϵܺеһйҲȻȻػԼΪĵġط塱ǵط壬ȴȱ綨ĺͲġߡthe othersԼʶ߻ߵ壨йִǽִ/γɵġ´ͳǣ뱾ֻͬİġңԶĻԶģǶġ̵ĺҪġ£еطڲеط֮ĹϵԶ綨һֹϵ綨ģʽ֤ԣͬʱֱ֤ʷԵĶԣΩһܹĻ̬׼ƶȡ翴ǸķģʽôԾֻͨ߻ߡձ黯ԼãĴȡΪ̬ҪĶԡ

Σϣ⡱ԭѾų˰ģʽģʽʵϣ⡱ԭȻȫ˷Ϊ֮ĵط壬Ҳ̶ܴϼ/۹طìܡ峯ѧ߶Ծá⡱ԭ͹ģǰĵ۹ڲĸϵԿԭһӦһϸ峯ѧⷽΪҲ˵峯ԭԶԡ⡱һԭرȤܵȷǸԭ򣬵ֵ˼ǣ⡱ԭȷʵõʵЧңԭ峯ЧҸܹ֤⡱ԭ̺ĺʶ峯ѧ߹Ϊ⡱ԭζѧ֤ʥ⣬Ҳ䣺ȫࡤ徭ʼߡ˵Ȼ⡱Ǹ޿ɵġĴʵôµȻҲӦá⡱ܹ䡣ζѧԭǷѵģûй֮ͨôζšڡǷѵġгģΣյijͻͻȻѧسŵгĴں磬ôͲкг˼룬͸ӲкгжֻԡͬһƬ족Ϊ׼Ųķʶ

ڡ⡱⻹ҪԼӷйԹҲʶ˵⡱ʶ͡⡱ʶ棬رҪעǣڡ⡱ԭ͡⡱ԭйڡ⡱ĸͬһϣԲûйìܡ⡱ԭƶԭǡûκΪ족ĺһҹ⡱ԭǹʹϵԭ˵бԶϵ̳ܡƶȣܳƣ͹涨ˡ͡ڷϵڷܣֱϽġǧ֮ءأΧܰһȦıſ뻯Ĺ滮ʵϲ룬ڵϲȴɣԣĪ룬߱ؾ֮УҲӡԡ˵ʹóͬ㣬ˡ֮ࣨʱΪСŷϡԻ֮ƣڵҪֵһķĪ١˾ԻǧԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܣⷽԻܡֿɲμ顤顤ھʶںչΪν֮桱ʶڱϾԭԼֵȻ֮УĻ죬ΪɹĶ˵ߣһ㲻ɲ졣йʶطΪ澺ߣûбΪʶ̬ߣͬĻij̵ʧǿԿ͹۵ģʹءĻεʵʷǡһر͡أʹأѹԻйʫַΪȻʱң޴ˣΪΣѺԻйҲʥƵΪַȣ֮СΡԽIJȻϺ£»ϣһ֮һ֮Σ֪Σʥ֮Ҳѹ˶ʷԻڹʥˡ˵ܹ˷Ļԭּ塣

۵ġ⡱ԭ򣬡ӡҲӦؾзרԡйݣidentityĹһƹԿǡʵۡһҪɲ֡صʵ۰ิ۵㣬ڴ˲ϸۣرҪһԭǡдʵͨνġʵԭСԶԶƣһ˵ṹٰԭ1κﶼⲢΪеijǡȻеijκﶼλԼλõϵ壬ǣijλõļֵԼڹϵе壬֪ʶϵһģ״ʣdescriptions2Ǹλζһ/ŵԣеЩκŵռλõijֱҪУppҽpp涨Ҫ顣Կаһ˼ṹڡǡ

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йڵѡǺϣν֮ش֮Ի˳Ӧˡ顤̩ġ֮ش֮״˳ӦˡвɺϣDZΪűȻǺϡֱȻǺҪ֤˺һ裬ƺڱضгһµģ򣬱ƻĴھͱɲڣȻгģô졢ء˾ͱضǺгӦģɼŵģԵʵضԵı;Ǿͻ֪ϣҲ֤˵Dz֪֪ĶȻңԶһԭԹ֮硶󴫡ѹ1718꡷ӲԻԶ˵ǣҲ֪֮ԭ˵֮佨˺Ӧϵ֮Ӧ˵ȴǰ˵ıģΪ˵죬ش˵ѡǣľΡĵһ֤ͳεĺϷԵȡ֤ķ㡣ⱾȻֱӿɼȴŵȷ֤evidenceˣʹ֪Ҳͨһȷ֤õ֤ûеõ֤νη*3ɼν֮ΩǸ֮飬ɼӣ顤ھܣע衷Сధķ伲¡顤ھڡ֮顱ŴйȻûֻ֤ʽִѡٷʽϸϵִѡƶһֱûбйãǸdzӵ⣬ƺƶһֱûܹй˵ij֧ܴ֡峯ĩƶDZĵ÷ʽȤǣΪԭΪй֮˼뷢ʵһԭķʽȴķΩ̩֮Ժ֣ӦʢΣԡԺ1900ʵ֪鲢Ҫֻġ׼ȷͳƣΪDZΪֱܹ۵ĻֱӸܵգңǹֱۡյĸƺԭǣıֻ¶ȻϵķӦֱӱʵѡ񡣶ִͶƱĴӳȻԵþȷֵijȴʧ棬ΪDZ֪ͶƱѡģǾ˽ƽϵѡ񣬾ͻνѡٻѡٺΥѡٵԲο޵ġԶ֤ȫѡٵIJԣһܵƫĵIJ󵼡Ȼֻ֤ʵһֱ۵ȷ֤ϣӱΩһǡ¡Ϊأ顣֮ʵӵλϣǾϡԿйĵ۹У¡ǸϷԵ/ĻλǹľԱȻ˼뷶룬κξȨڽͳȴϷԣӡһλҲϷԣκξĻʵȴϷԡˣ/ӡζһƶȣһۻ

Ȼ/۹ġ⡱ԭǸ߶ȵԭ򣬡/۹۱ԣζţ緶ΧڶκԻܾԭijЩ˲¹Ȩ˵µִȨǶκ忪ŵġΪһڹľʵ֮ǰѾڸϼȰ˵ϵְ񡣰Ѿʵ϶ѧϲڹŴйоĻʵ֪ġ硱dzޣ¸ȴȾζޱߵ磬Źʵľ֪ʶһձͬڽṹЩ޶˹ġ֪֮Ļͬǣ޶˹֪֮ĻΪǣȷԼԿ˽ԭ򣬶й֪֮ĻȴΪԭDzȫģdzܺڸȨ֮⻹Ź棬Щ沢ǺϵĹ˵ͨdzǺϵĹ棬ûԸȡͨ򡣵ǣȻԴԴˮͿȣԼƽ繫ȹ棬Ͳһ˻ҵ˽Ǻϣ˾ƻǵͣȵ25%ԴԸƣΪԼսƻ繫

¸۵ĻǼ£䡰⡱ԭģйûͽʢ֤˵йĻݵģݵģܻСĵˡԭ򣬵־̱ڽ̺ʶ̬ìܵġ֤˵ͽ֤ݵıҪμΪ̫ƽѧ磬1999꣬113122ҳͲ⣬Ϊʲôй۹۹һûȷĵ߽磬ûĻ߽硣¡еļݲԺͽʷʵԵرֳ磬ʷԪ۹۹ͳԭ꣬ǵͳںڵʱܹϲΪϷһ棬ɹźͳҲͽͳεĺϷԣĵ۹/۹һģʽʹͳɹŵ۹ĹŸΪԪʾʶ1271, Ұɹŵ۹ΪԪȡ׾ǬԪ֮塱 Ԫʷ7ġھԪҲҲԾ֮ν֮Ԫߣ֮Ҳ40¼ۺšΪɹŸԵǵطԵģԱǸ֮µ۹۹Ϊ/۹ͳŸȷǰʶ֤Զ֮ǰͶδµ۹ʶ׼Ŭ۵һУ˵֮䣬棬֮Ҳϳ֮֮֮˽ϳΪ顭Թһ֮гΪһ֮ǧ򡭡֮¡й飬֮СۣԷ֮Ҳǰʷѡ1йѧ磬1984꣬289296ҳ

ʷϻ̶ͬȵԭ籱ԼɽģȻֻǸһ඼/۹󡣺ʵʯ詳Ƴ̫ڻԭʵʵ۲̫ڽһΪԭģʽĻʵۣ947ԭΪйʽʵۣĹΪɡԪΪͬ京롰ԪƣԴڡ/۹̫ۡӽ飺ʦãΪͼ¡ԸۺţϭӦǧ˻ࡤ3̫¸ȤͼǨ⣬Ҳµ۹ɣѾȻƫһ磬ܡլʵڲϵ־14ɽʱڸʵ൱ֻ¹µľߣźʱΪʱµġֵ֮ΪͳҪɽԭijϻԭ˼Ľܣʾ/۹Ŀԡִй˶иʾ˵Ŀԣִ˶˶ǻͬһģԼеһ϶ִ/ƶȡƶȺֻйһĻġ׳нʽĻԶָ60ʼġ޲׼ĻǹĻйִĻΪĻֵۺϵĸҪйͳʹãָƶȺṹĸı䣬ָЩıϺµȻĻ϶µй˳µػȨλûбĹйƷԼͳʶ̬ͼֵ۶֮ԡߡʶ̬ͼֵۡ

˶˿׼ҵ֮󣬾ѡй˼Ϊʶ̬ͼֵۣЩڽܸΪʶ̬ͼֵۡ¶ڡ֤֮˵˹ϲùƣϱظٳ׼ƣԼҳײ˾Բ֮¡һطһľΪ
֮򡱡˵ĻɡһҲȻҪıһִͳĻйִĻ˾ң䱳к˼ݡ¸йûĻ߽硣

4.ĵλ

/۹ֿʹȫͬ/ҵļֵ׼Ϊߵ/ĻλζŴűȡӦļֵ׼ˣмֵڡελеõԱ绤˵ЩµģЩڹģЩڼң˵ȵȣֲε벻ͬ⡣˵Լҹۼң磬԰۰¹¡¾54¡һԭǡϵõ֪ʶۺѧζÿڵλελԼġɻԭȨǾζţ1ȲһελҪһελ棻ͬʱζţ2һģIJελضűСģελĹ档ԭ򣬼Ȼڣôʹģڹҵ棬ֻгϺܹγɶκһִڶϵ

ϵ롰ϵworldsystemͬϵҲԿϵһģʽаʷϴڹϵбʲͬջ˹̹ĸϵǡһϵзΧṹԱšϵɳͻĸɣЩͻѹðϵһ𣬶ÿŲϵͼԼʱʹϵˡ˹ִ̹ϵ1ߵȽ磬1998꣬460ҳȻϵɹ֮ijͻͻγɵģõǹ档ϵǿǣijЩ繫棬Щﵽһپ٣һ𡱵ij̶ȣûһԸƻЩ档ʲȽϵĻƺ˵ϵܹһ֡¾⡱һѾ⣺ţ㡰һپ٣һ𡱵Ļ̾⣨p iff q

˼λϵвͬΪй˼ҵ˼λϵͨøΪұȽϹĸӵķλСˣڵ˵˲Ǹ浥λҲǸµλҲϸ棬ƺԼͥΪλȻҲӡֻӡԻ֮ڹ֮ڼң֮ӡ*4ϡ)ҡ¡һԣҡ͡¡й˼ά֧ԵλԴγɻĽͿܣ˵ҡ͡¡п˼λԸĽȨΪȽϣ˼ԡˡ͡ҡΪͿܣijЩ˼λԸĽȨ˼/һҪ˼άѧԣûʱе飬ԱضҪѡҪѡ񣬽ҲͬҪѡȱѡ򱻿ǵĶ;и֧ȨȨͬļֵͬǣѡʲôļֳֵΪڼֵѡԪ⣨dzӣڴ˲ۣȽϼ򵥵˵ִļֵڡˡ͡/ҡϣеļǡˡһ鱻׷ʵʱͻԭ˼ֵϣͳйļֵڡҡ͡¡ϣмǡҡͬҪʱͻԭҡˣй˼ά˵ͱΪֻDZȽϴļңļңνĺһҡ˼άģʽУ¸Լ֮ijͻʵֻǸط֮ìܣִΪĹҺ֮ìܡ

ҡ¡/Ļλϵ˵ǡҡԣͥԣfamilyshipͳΪйͽ/Ļƶȵԭʷֻкٵй˼ӼͥԼͥϵΪϵΪĴļͥʵϹDzṫ棬ԵķǸҪġμ̾顤ҡڹᴩżͥԭ򣬴Ӷγɴ൱λһĽṹռҵȻŸĸĹȨҲŸĸĹػ顤鷶ԻĸΪ룬ԶŵĿʥҢ˴֮⣬ʵϵĻʵ۶ʵǷdzɵġ/۹ʼǸаδʵֵ룬ȷʵΪͱ׼ڡ

ѡ/ijϣ˺ͼͥͬԵȻʵй˼ѡ񡰼ҡΪƶȵݣһڣѧѧĽǶȿŴйũҵᣨТͨ˵ᡱĽṹ˵ũҵĻõλǼͥǿ˼ͥҪԲҸ塣ǸҪԭ򣬵²֡ǣͬѡᵼ²ͬѧЧйͳᄈͥһԵġɻԭСʽһ嶼ͨڼͥеĴڶΪض壨һ˼Ϊ˵ıϵܺ͵Ĺ۵൱ӽڼͥдڣôһ˾޷Ϊijˣ˵˵ijaض˵ijaҽabģacģadaͥԱĹϵСֱӷ˸ļֵйͳ룩Ҳ˵ٶѡˡͥΪij㣬ڼͥ߼ǡҡģôҪάһԡͱȻӺ׷󡰹ϵгΡԼƽϵиٶѡˡˡΪij㣬߼ǡߡţǾͱȻĺ׷ȨȨ桱͡ϵи

ͳйϵļܼͥ򵥵Ϊϵɸɵġͬ塱communityͬϵЭϣйļͥһڵ˼ƶȺ͸дڼͥʽ͵壬򵥵˵ͥǸʽγɼֻͥǡ롱˼ͥһʽǡɡ˼ͥʹΪԵˣͥǸ彫ȻԣνԡʵΪԣν¡˵ıҪǰ˵ȻԺԣйѧдۡԵ˵ȻǸ綨ġ֮νԡӡϡӶġ֮Ҳѧ¶ν֮ԡӡԶ񡷣Ӷġ֮ߡӡ¦¡䶨ġ֮ԡ瘝ࡤ64

¡һͥҲΪһ뻯ָ뻯ļͥȻʵϴܴͥﵽָ꣩ͥӦƽСһ̬Ӧڷչ֮ĻġгͻΡǣԡͥ͡ԡ±Ϊһµġ˼봫ͳԣͥԼ˶Եȫ֤νҲҲܣʳ£֮壬˵ӡǡ󴫡

ҪڼͥΪԭֱȷ֤evidenceôע⵽йѧ϶ʹˡ֤԰ѡס֮Ϊס޿ɵֱʵеĿˡȻĸ飬жľȷҿľ淶ľԻνĻҲ޷йϵǡֵƶȱ֡ǡʡԻġסľԱֱϡһȷ֤ڽṹϵԿѿܻڻɡ֤ߺ˼˼ego cogito cogitatumȡӹڡס֤ǿΪdzʵܹΩһԵ֤һ֤ĻǾ޴ģȻʵܹҵеľ֧֣ôͲҪԽеܹΪʲôй˲Ҫڽֱ̣֤֤ǿʵֵձʵԽڽDz֤й˼֮УijЩDZҪģijЩûбҪӺҲ
Ի֮壬Զ֮ν֪ӡйʽǻ۾ܼʵΧҵ˼жľԸݡȻǿijʵ֮Ķάظ˹̹ġ˵ĸȻǿijֲ˵ĶȴΪDzijDz֪ĶäĿij֪Ķô߼˵DZȷ߱󵼵ĻȡһԲοͼŵƪġŵۡʹѰҵ֪ĶȻ֪ôҲ֪ǾѰҵĶ

֤͵˶ԸԼĽͣûɽκα˵Ľͣڽγвɵ͵ijͻĸԴȻͥԱٶֱܹԣôͥԭǴһ⡢ձԭֻҪ˵/ͥԭƣô϶ԸʵҪƷףǡʥ±˵ʼӡǡ󴫡Իʥ±˵ʼӡȨ£˷׷ɫպţе·Ҳ䲻ɵñӣҲҲҲŮб𣬴䲻ɵҲ˼ͥǴµĻԭ򣬾Ͳ⡰¡̺Ժгºͼ֮ͥ乹һѭ֤һ˵ͼ֤κһֻʱ޷ػѭ֤ߡˡǺе·˺ȫڽ̵ĽҲǵ·һɣۡⲻ֪ʶ۵ĽԵĽ֪ʶ۽ǶȿĽȫģΪܹijֶô߼ϾͿһֶκ˶ܾ˵˼롣ԣڽ̵Ľ֪ʶĶʶ̬ͻĸԴ

ٿԿ϶ѭ֤Ҫõö࣬һһѭ֤֪ʶѣ෴֪ʶϸľԻνij֤transcendental argumentºͼ֮ͥdzܴų֤Ľṹ

ͥζҸضгһǷԵģǾԵġȻĸŮ֮䡢֮ҸǻΪͻٽģԼͥԺг
ÿԱҸĹͬôκβгҲͱضΪɽܵ顣һһģʽҸгƽΩһЧԭǣһͬ˼ƶȣܹ㣨1ͬκһԱҸĹͬң2ͬκһԱԵȣ˵͸һµģκһԱûзһԱĻԡһͬ׼ͥģʽϸġǣǻҸгƽϣɰѼͥԭƹӦõ硣Ȼһ۲߼ۣɼͥĺгģʽۡµĺгģʽѧġӳʽmappingintoģȻͥģʽγɺгϵԽԣô½ɼͥģʽҲܹγɺгϵӳʽй˼άģʽǣɼҶһƹ㲢ûκʡһ൱ɵġͥ˵ģйϵΧһģ̶ȲԶȥշТͨıǸͬԲĽṹй꣬1985꣬25ҳͺ󣬵йϵߵdzԶIJʱ˵оͿάּͥģʽĻమˡҲ˵ͥԭеĵΡɼͥԶԵƹ㻹ȱijЩʵͥģʽȻģʽ룬һ㲻⡣ТͨԼͥģʽǶԾ۵ТͨΪѧġ֮ߣߣңߣ޶룬Σζƽξζһ˽ƶȣһΪԼңΪ˼ҿΪ˵Ϊ˹¡й꣬1985꣬27ҳĽ߼ƲģȤǣƽ׶˽𣬰˽ա̾顤Тͨѡġ˼άйĻԻĵ˼άִֵ۵ĵͱ֣ұһЩ͵ѧ硰塱塱͡Ȩ֮СйȻҲĵۣ͵ҸֵۣЩйƶţʵǸʵIJ⣺ҵļҹһʵҲаȴ˵һĵƶţʵϵľԣʵ֣ǹ۲쵽ѧʵšθĽͥ/ۣʹĺƽгʵҲΪܣҪ⡣




5.ƶԼΪʽĺΪʹ窥

ʷ龰contextʷѧԣֱһ/۹۵˵̺Źڡ硱ıƶȵΪϵƶȡҪĴԼƶȵʷʵʴڵĵ۹ûкܺõرһƶȵʼ/۹ṹ/۹ijģʽ޷/۹DzϵΩһܵıģʽܿϵһЧģʽǰ˵ģ౾ԺΪԼܹƶȵĻࡣ˼ҶϣܹϣҲǰڳֵʵ飩һƶȶ˵ġͨ۷ѡʵԿǵľ֮ҲϺѧΪͨʵѡܿɲܳܵĴۣʷDzģʱ򻹺ܿDzתģһ˾Զȥʹ֪Ҳû˶ģʽ˼۾ڲ˵ִᷢչŤΪ۵ģִܿת˼֤ڸ˽̰ԵԼ£ƶѾ㹻ˣԲŻʷս˵иõģǾDzʵġ֤൱һ޷رܵѣƶǽڡᡱԼЧܳԽԼƶ󻯺ձ黯Ҫ󣬲ܳΪһֶйģᶼЧƶȡһ⣬ҲǾ
ӵ⡣

νƶ󻯺ձ黯ָһƶõģôܹΪһձЧƶȣܹܵչΪκһ/ᵥλЧƶȣǸ׵ƶȡһƶҪΪձЧģһɣ/ᵥλǸԶ޹أǻӰ컥ԼŵģЩ/ᵥλ֮ĹϵǰϵģһһǣģȽϴĵλγ˱ȽСĵλⲿʹһȫʱøͻһⲿڽ磩˵εĵλ֮ûһԣȻҪ޷ƵĻҡʧìܺͳͻΪһƶȲܳΪƶȣôͲһƵƶȣͻûƶȵ󻯺ձ黯뱻һƶȵıҪָꡣ

ȱƶȵԭʷʵʵ֮⣬˼ϻϵԭǣʱȱ׼ûиһֻۡеܹȥʱܹСֻۡǹijֵطֻۣǡܿthe view of the world from somewhereͲ档ϣ¡Ϊһ۵ҪԾ¡϶ǸڸѾɵ磨conceptually completed worldǸѾԽṹ磬ŵԡȻԣôĴڱںгʽʷͲһ۵յ㣬һҪȵʵĿԣfinalityĿĵ

ڸ˼͸ɽʽʷս۶йѧ˵Dzģٶһfinalityνthe end of historyۣʷάг״̡̬Կµ̵Ӱйʷۣʷ̬ķʽȥڣڣbeingĿάõĴڵ״̬state of beingΪ˴֮ijĿġйԴ״̬ȥʷرԡ/ҡģʽȥжһִ״̬Ƿùڡ/ҡģʽһƪиۡμʷΪط֪ʶ

Կ˲ͬĵӡ⣬ǵ۹Ļǵ۹ģ翴ǷѵģԿδɵʷʹͬʱڽʹһԿǡʹǸĸͲɱΪ˿˷ķѶսֳ񡢴ΡúĻdzڶ⣬dzΪʶDZʶġʹСԿ/۹۹ڶ˳ߵĽṹ/۹ǸɴСĽṹȿ϶ԣȻڸ£ٷطҵĹϵеۣ۹СĽṹȿ϶Լ͹ҵľԣȻԼҵļֵ۰ѡطǶġѵĺδġû۵ۡҲ޷Ƚ۱ǸȷģΪʷûоԣҪ塢ƶȺƽһЩ飬ô۸ڴﵽЩĿꡣ

һ䣬µڵĶԵĺгάֵģһгԭν͡һνͣΪûʲô֮ɡ͡ٱϵĶܹγɺ͡ȻֻһֶڣǸߵ͵𣿶Զԣ͡ƺǶġ⣬йѧ2000ǰͽ˲ͬѰ뷴˼йؼ֤ģ1϶֮ĺгκһֶܹıҪ˵һֶ棬κһֶòһֶ棬ǣ棨coexistence˴ڣexistenceȾ2㹻Ķܹʹκһֶ˵ֵ壬ˣ㹻ĴڷʽĻıУʼһһɣʷΪϺͶӡѵͲӡԼʵͬ򲻼̡ƽν᳤ܷ֮֮ͣͬͬӡ֣

ĿǣֻжĺгһģʽܹͬʱԺ˫Ҫ󡣲Ӧָ۵㶼dzֱ۵ģֱȻ棬ʵҲܹ֤ȴܱԵ֤ټһԼԡ۵ܾܹijԽ֤transcendental argumentб֤

6.ĵ۹ʵ

ȻΪֻڹϵʥʱʵʹʥʱҲģδҪIJ벻ʵ֣DZҪı׼û͵ûгӡʵϵĹŴй۹ȷ/۹൱ľ룬෽ֻǸѰģʽĵ۹Ŵй۹ϾĻ׷һֱͼ/۹Ļ׼ȥ¡Եģ

1һҵӰ£йʶﲻڡʶǣй趨롰ߡthe othersĹϵڱϲǵжԹϵڽ̹ͬ嶼ҪĶⲻ˵Ŵйڽ̹ͬûгͻؼǣЩͻڱֻǵطĹͻھϻ֪ʶϷߵľԳͻгͻвʡȻҪڡ¡롰족һDzɷֵĹռ͹Դһ

2¹жΪһҵʶ/۹Ϊ»۹ķչơա¡ĵ۹һĴڡʵˣйŴ۹˿ں;÷涼dzͻձʵʮǿ˿ںٵ¼ԶΪԭ۹֮󻼼ʹƺǿ纺壬вȻأ˵γȽԪ۹⣬Ԫ۹ȻǾµ۹ģʽʷϸ䡱ĻʵҲ⣬ǶԾȤӦùڸԶ۹޹ء

/۹׷Եľµ۹Ļ۹Ļ۹Ҳձ黯ͳĻ۹ΪйʽĻ۹ԡΪԭγƣ

3/۹ĸһҡ˵ȫһң˵߼Ȼû壬/۹һƶȡΪһελ/˼άģʽDzܵġ/۹ȻһƶԴڣոطֳࡰ˵ƶǹģǸطھáͳκĻǶģ

4/۹ָ£Ȼռ⣨صͿռռУǸ⣬ʱͱͻŴй۹ȷʵӡʱԡⳬռԡ⣬˼۹ij־ԣĿء۹ҪƶȵĿɳ־ԣνǧ⡣й۹ƶǵ˼Ȼھ÷չٶȺ͹ЧʵϣʽȶԺгϣ̶ȼͻ͹ðԷչΪԭžΪʲôеѡƶȵһԭΪƶȾ޿ɱȶԡǾΪƶһ㹻õƶȣƶܹṩĿԣŷdzɽܵľԣ³ѸԱºƶȴڡˡвܱοƶڽѾʧЧعǸʵֺţȻϤʵѧΪԭ˻˵Ļ˵ᣬԭϵģfundamentalйڹŴȻźܴռ䣬Ժԭ޽ƵͣȡзϸϵɣԱѹֵᡣ

5/۹Ǹңελ/۹µġʹϵͲͬͨϵĹʹϵµλ֮µġ/ңӦ˵ǡطͳΡĵġʼʱָԼطǡʱǶ·ΧŴӵֱϽ֮һȦһȦΧŸ֮ЩŷϵijϵʼһͳϣȻ˵¾ҲھԭֱϽأϽ֮ĵطϱ˻ŵĸԭģȽСҰڽṹӳ䵽ģȽϴҰСЩңԶĵطͬһĻϵҲԭġϵתΪԸϵԭͳȻΪӦչϵǿӱϿԸƺڿ緽ʵޣҪԭӦй⣬ΪǴ˼ʺ͹ʵһʼ䡱internessϵձԭ򡣪

7.̡ԭ

رҪ۵ǡһֱй飨heartʵԭľʵǻԣνҲҲǡϡйʽĻȻҲϵĻݣƺǿ֮ĻݣĻغӦ˵ϵĻܹ棬ôĻҸ黥Ǹ̵Ļݡ涨ϵΪŵģΪ˵ԻԭʡʵֱǡˡһṹζʵĸдΪ*5ƺǧеԻͬϿɵԭ򣬿ΪԵձʶ˵ձҪǧı仯Ϊʣеƺȷмأӿӵѧʣٿ˵Ӷʵ÷µĺ壬ҪϽ͡˿󣬶˹ϵҪ˹ϵҪģʽΪ˹ϵ˼ʹϵ

ģʽǿ۵ġٴִĽṹ˹ϵԭΪ˹ϵƺЩ֣ʵĻģʽӦ˹ϵһҪǣһᣬִᣬǰİ˵ġܹŴй˵ǸᣬİȻڣͬ⡣ģʽԽΪٴһİ˵˼ʹϵһӵĶģʽеͼ˵ǣָܹ˼ʹϵǹĿѧľѧѧϣģʽȻŵġܼ򵥣ڶ˹ϵУһ˱ضԼĴԼʧȥһֻʣԼû壬Ҽ档˶ģʽǷչгϵģʽάҲƵļʶڶĹϵУһ˾Ͳͬ·˵ġϢϢصġ㡱˶ģʽǸ㡱ܹϵģʽ֮Ļغ͹ijΪġǿӻάɶ޷֤µǻڶģʽӲܹ˵ʩˡ ͡ˣˡĵԭԨӺҲ

ģʽҸͳΪѧԭͺ/аǰ֤ģģʽǷչгҸԼƽΪڶģʽУҪԼΩһ;ͬʱȥߵ棬ضԼǿԡˣˡ塣Ȼģʽָ˵ᣬָ֮˼ʹϵﵽ൱ڶ˹ϵˮƽڴͻʵϲ˵ĹϵʵֻݣǣʾͲòھ龰УֻijЩضϵвܷչԽ滥ݵ黥ݣreciprocity of heartsν塱͡񡱾ͱչΪʵʵľ򡣪

һdz͵ǡԥԭ򡱡ʷǡ26˼ʹϵ˸ʲôļֵʴҾֵּΪرԥԭԭͲԭĽϣΪԷԣ˵dzӽִб֤ΪڳڲɹġӦԡģʽȲȡ˺IJԣԺÿΪ趼ģ˵һԻӦˡг߶ԼΪ˼ĵġԭ򡱡

һҪԭԸԭԭһֱûбֱԴڵġйǿǡ򡱶ǰԼļֵۼˣġ̡ģʽйĻԭԭ򣩱ϿЩĽɣЩѧ߾ΪSee A Global Ethic: the Declaration of the Parliament of the World's Religions, ed. by Hans Kung and KarlJosef Kuschel. The Continuum Pub. Co., 1993.ǵ͵ò룬䱾ڣѧԭ򣬶йѧԭĽɵ۽ͱȽֻܰԼļֵȥʲôDzӦö飬ûп˶IJͬһȱʹԭֻʽϵĹʵϵĹйѧȻǵ飬˵ļֵۡзʽDzɻԭģߵĹϵԸԭ 硶ǡ˵ͬףྴ£ϾҲģϰҲ ǡּǡԻȡˣȡˣѧ̡ǡϡȴѧǿȻȫͬԭǣԼΪԼĻôԽƺ嶼ҸоҲΪԼĻиȨȥձ黯ʾԭ򡣪

ʷʵʾйŴ۹ĻӰ췽ȷʵˡȡˡ̡ԭ򣬾йŴ۹3000걣Ƶĵ۹ĻĻӰٶȷdzֻӰ˽ڵֻΧձ⣩෴йһĻģк䡢ִ̺ŷ޿ѧĻ˵Ϊ/۹һܹĻͻСĻƶȣĻƶֶһԺΪƶȡĻƶƶȵ﷨ṹ͢Ҳʶһ㣬ϵ˹ʹϵֻ˳ͻ⣬Ϊֻ˼άģʽͨ뷨


뵱Ԫ

1.Ϲģʽ

ռͥԹϵĺһҵ/۹ģʽʱ뵽ϹģʽǻЩԣǶٶij֯ʳͻ֤ƽȻǵIJDZԵġʵԣ/۹ģʽʵԶԶûдﵽԤڵı׼ѾйŴ೯ʵб֤Ƚϳɹά˺ƽȶʹͳϹʵȴ˵Ǻܳɹģڱ֤ƽȻзdzľޣϹûԵĹϵοЩɾڽ컹һӸ˵ϹĸһûṩһԵ/롣ȱӦ£һԵƶǿɵĺûȷԵģΪ绤ûȥͺͽ⣬ٶݲƥ䡣ԣȴǻģǸаӶһϵĵ۹ƶȣָŹͬȴŰȨϵУгͨͺͨһͬϿɵƶȶõ֤ȻϹСġʵԭֻۼ跽ȱݡ

Ϊ˸ϽзDZܿģʽϹģʽʷᄈеľʧɰܣֻǵͼ衣ģʽԤһԣOneness a prioriǰ֤ȻǸ룬ôепͱ϶ΪȻϷģΪʽκοԶһԵĿɽɲ֣ǹıҪȻһ߼һΣԣΪȷijЩΣյĻкġһͣڿϲȫûƣԳǡԡԭԼгԭ򣩻ͻʽͱΪDzɽܵġЩΣյҪģʽ֧֣׼ƻģʽ
ա֤ı׼κһpԹɶpijqķ񶨣ȻĴDzģô֤qDZҪԼЩΣͱųˡɴǿԸ׼ȷģʽԣпģʽĴûгͻôȻϷġ

˵µĸĬĶԡͬͽDzͬѣijЩҪ޸ĻˣΪκһνͬĿһԡۣһԱȻҪģʲôҲûС¾42¡ԻһһѡࡱǡһĴҪڵһѧԭ򼸺йѧͬǿģǰ۵νʼһһɣʷΪϺͶԼʵͬ򲻼̡ƽν᳤ܷ֮֮ͣͬͬӡһһģζһ޹һ֣ȵȡ ȻһģһʽĸȻԳɷһԵıҪôͲܰijֶΪɼݵġɽܵˣİ켺ˣģʽձ黯universalizationҪҪֱǣձ黯ڱ׼׼ȷ˸ձͳһı׼Щձ黯ı׼϶ƶʵԱ׼ΪʵԱ׼ģκĻձԱ׼ʹرǿͱͨйĻҲμԹ飺йŴ׼ɽ磬1996ꡣйŴı׼漰֡֯ũҵ·ҡˡ̵ȵȷ棬׼ķΧĿĻͬС죬ɼ׼ҪĻ

ԡձ黯ʲձ׼ָͳһͼͼԼļֵۺʶ̬ϵ֪ʶϵ赥ƹ㣬Ӷ֪ʶϵռ䡣ɴ⣬ʼʵġͬġͬ족Ӧڱ׼ձ黯ʼʡ塱Լġʶ̬ձ黯˵ģʽķʲô鶼з⵹֣

۵ĵԲͬϹģʽڶҵϻʵǶսȨϵ¹滮ϹڷչֹܵĹҲչӵ˼ر˶Ԫۺձطìܵԭ򡣵ȻϹģʽڿѵ͡ʲôҪչ˵ĸΪģһҪԸͬϿɡԭΪѸ׷ijЩձġֵĿ꣬һ棬ȻϹһϸϵԵλͱضǻȿ棬Ի򡰺ͬԡƶȻγɣȥļֵۡЩνġձ顱ֵĿ꣬һαװձֵij棬һֱԪؽͣȻֻǸıѡԪۺձ屾ӦǡߡĹϵϹƺαװɡҡĹϵ

ҲԸ׼ȷ˵ϹǸƶȣinstitutionֻǸ֯organizationǸڸһ̸гһǸȫ̸лԭԵģһƶȣͲڳԽ/ĿԣҲͲڳԽ/ҵϷ򣬶Ҳûȥһʵ˵ձ黯桢ֵ֪ʶߵķչսﲢϹʵϹѾ˺ܴŬͼͨԶԻٿܷսسͻһģʽϵľޣܼеͻԵIJ෴άϸֲĺ˽˼ά۴׼˵ǴʵϿϹģʽûгԽ/˼άǸ/ϵһ֯ϹģʽĸԼ/Ļϵ/ϵˣϹضΪ/ҵĹԼҪչ˵IJ棬Ǹ棬ҲʵϺױijЩijرǿ/ҵĵ۹áʹԸⱻ۹ã۹ҲԽԣϹĸԣܰһµϵµĹ෴缪˹ָģϹƺûǼǿΪִʽ/ϵcf. Anthony Giddens: The Nationstate and Violence, Chapter 10, Polity Pr. 1985.ǰǣȫ˶ѾʹƶΪһ⡣ûҪһƶȣҲûԴһƶȡܾǰ۵ֲתʷԶ䡣


2.ִϷ

ΪִԵҪ֮һ/ϵڻֵ˼С塱塱Ļ߻˼λһµģҴӳϵֻ/ҵλǿԿӸ嵽塢ӸȨȨ֮һ߼Ĵʽijĵλ˻ңңκһλ˼άģʽضǣҽǶ󻯡һ߼λ֮ijͻDzɱģΪ1λ˻ؼٶΪԡң2ǸḶ́޷Ḷ́ԳͻԶ⡣/ϵԣһ/㹻ǿôͻᷢչΪ۹壨ͷִαȻҪ۹壬֤ܳŬ֤۹ʱıȻʱ͵۹֮ʷʵϵйϵǷžԱȻϵȻҪֵ֤ʱֻһأĻͳڽʶҪڣпǸءμ۹ʱ߽׶Ρ

ûбҪһϷмֵУΪһϷǴģֻ˵ڲ߱ʺϸϷijϷɹʶһҪģͻڽʵʶ̬ǣijϷϷƶƻϵϣǷȥܳܵĸѡΣȥ˼ǾܹѼֵʶ̬֮תΪܹ⡣ʶ۹/ԼĹϵʶ󻯡˼άֹĹϵʶߵķ˼άĹϵǾͻֽᷢΣոԴͻʶԭ򡢾ԭԭΪԪƵִϷûάϷĺԡӦ˵ǶԡִϷκελϵ˶ΣѾȷʶˣƶϣϵϣǶϣܹһԱΣպͻƶơɴ˿Կ򡢷ɡȨȨ򡢶ԻͺԳΪĹؼ⡱ɡ

ôִϷǷܹͨƶչһԱ֤ϷͺԵƶȣһ˵ִƶģһɺϸķɺƶ֤ĸκζʵȨгô˵Ϊᵼ»𺦣ڡָ֡´ٽͬ棬˵ֻҪƶڼϣϣǹģôͿԹΣյֱӳͻγɹƽгףǻ
ǵ˹ʽʵdzɣΪûܹ֤ͻʽֱӵıɺƽͱȻܹ»һ֤ȱݾȻڲ죬һֱʲⱻ֤űձʶ

ʲ֤˽ĸ廥಻ΣӶγɲIJģγɹͬ󻯣˵ɻܺиĽDzܡִƶȱҲִϵȱݣ޵ġԶ˵ˣȫѡٷʽѧҺ;ѧͼͨһЩ޸˷޶֤ѣѲûеõĽ

ܾ˵ʵʵѡٲûôɾҩִκгƶȾܴȱݣȻΪǸȽϺõƶȣҪѰһԸõƶƺףǸɽơʷսᡱҪɡ

ﲻִƶΪһֹƶǷۣȻǷdzҪ۵ģִƶȾͨôֹۣΪ۵ƶȵ⡣ֻҪ߹⣬ͺ׷֣ĿǰΪֹûһʵʴڵƶȣԲЧؽԺ͹⡣Ϲĸһƶȣthe world institutionֻһͼԺ͹ġҼan international organizationǰģ˼ʽλȻ/Ϊ׼ֻչ˹Ҷ硣Ȼ롱磬Dz硣Ϊֹ硱ֻΪһʵڣȻΪһƶʵĻʵڣζ绹ûȫʵ硱硱һֱǸܵѧһֱûбֵءȫλءεر˼йġ¡ǸöѧУġƶǻȻһġ

˼ƶʱ¸ȻǸҪԴΪ绹ûһΪλƶȣԹʵֻ֮ͨĶԻЭ߳ͻϹġ顱ʵȻǹЭ飬ΪտԻԭΪЭ飬˵ͬЭȼۣЭıֻǹ沩ģڸ/ҸƶݡΪȨԳΪձķɻˡȨȨòԭĿںšȨǸdzնĸľݵĽȨͳ⡣ȻȨûлһԵĽͣɸҸԽͣǾͳˡ͵Ľ֪͡ʶ۵Ԫ⣬˸ʽġ֪ʶ/Ȩ֪ʶѧ⣬򵥵˵ȨĽͱһȱݺԹ顣ʹϿɵȨ˵츳ȨĻҲص߼μҵġԤȨۣ͡ѡʦѧ磬2000꣬191203ҳ

ִƶȵľԺ͹ϾرԵر¶ִƶ/Ϊ˼λIJƵһڲƶȣǵҲǹڲûл򼸺ûпǵ档Ȼִƶֻǹƶȶƶȣû⡣ִƶƳҪ硰ɡƽȡ͡ȣ۸ԣȥƺӦձЧģ֡ձԡʵֻڹڲЧձЧ硰͡ЩԭӦڹʹϵУЩִġձ顱ԭֻҪһԺ͹̻ΪСǵִƶȲһƶȣִƶȾ͸ӲֹˡִƶȲ߱áν綨Լ룬ȫʱйڲⶼѾ޷ϵһϣѾ޹صġԼġ⣬һִƶȲһֵƶȣҲ˵Ҫһƶȡ

3.窥

ĻϵżȻй˼ƶȵ⣬йġ¡ϸ۹ܹﵽӱ׼¹¡һЩִ˼ңӿ¡˼޶˹Ҳ˼⣬dz˼˼ҲûܹһԽ˹۹۹⡣˼˼ͳжԵö辶˼Խ˹Ҹձڸеġ׼Լȫ򻯵Ľ׼ԡȫ򻯵֮һƣʲ׼ڿгʹһйҵѶΪԵˡˣҲˡľƷ˹IJƲƬԺ;Ϊܣĺ͵طγһסμ˼˹ѡһԭliteraturɡѧǷdz׼ȷڴɡס

˼һ조ȫ޲׼һûйҵĹᣬֳԽ˹ҵDZҪģ˼֤˵ΪֻнȫԼ˼֮رڡܲżȻΪܹⲻͬ˼Ͼʾһ߶ȵ˼άһй˼ڡʽϡͨ˼ûбձܣ˼ԣ/Ǹϲĸ˼ʱȻԹΪĶλȥģˣνֻǡ⡱Ϊλ⡣˼άʵϱΪϹȹ֯Լ͵رΪ-޶˹۵㡣

޶˹ҪǼ˿µĹ˵ЩĻҪͻʽȨȨĹ۵㡣µ˼ȷǿԵģ¹ڡ繫񡱡ˡfoedus amphictionum򡰺ƽˡfoedus pacificumۣ漰ԸȨ/ȨΪ׼ܹĹʹϵģʽμ£ʷļ繫۵µձʷúƽۡӡݣ1997ꡣ޶˹ϸϷչ˿µĹ۵㣬ҽһ˲һƶȵġ񷨡law f peoples޶˹񷨡磬2001ꡣڿûпǵ˷dzպΣյ۵㣺

1ʺڹĹԭڹᣬر漰乫һߵġԭڹʹõġһԭƲϵʹѧȥֻ֤ӾѧĽǶȥԭҲάıҪΪάߵһ踶ĴۺͶʣȥ߾ͻΪƻߡ޶˹ڹȡ˲ԭʱ͵ȡ˹ʹҲ͹ǿʳĹᡣԭDZ֤һ˻ΪǿʳΩһȡԭΣսǾ޷绤ģ2ֻǿʳ磬ѡôǿʳ߼߾ûǿߺȥάǿߵѹȺͰһֶܲεطǿ߲ԸΪͶʵıȻӶԵ˵ΣյҲĺ͹ġ޶˹Ǿijȡʹ뵽˽ΪӦðߵIJ򷴶ԵȨ߲뷴ʹûһݵǡȨȨĸ塣˵ҪĻҽǿƲ桱ǡ
֮£ɺͺ˵ȨȥݷҡͬСעB8086ҳ

޶˹۵һµ۹塣µ۹еģԸΪͶʣȴԸΪսͶʡʵ¹Լ۱൱ģܴ/˼άľޣµͷ쳣Ѿǰ޶˹ʽĹۣ˫еκһܱΪĵˣΪ͵Ԥȼٶһַͥо£ʷļ102ҳ

Ҫ֤һԼЧԣͱƶȵ֧֣һƶЧģͱһȨϵһȨԼϵĹ֯˵ϹԲЧΪûƥЧƶΪ֧֣һ˵ûһ磬κιҵȨϵ֧֡ˣһ㹻ʵǿֻҪԸͿԳԽϹ֮ĹԼ֯ؼ֮ڡڡˡ塱ҡڽ̡ˡȼ㵥λɵĸϵУͽԵ⡣ЩΪ׼ġֻµĸϵܹµ֪ʶϵ˼ԡ׼һΪɸϵͻƿڣӶƵأĹغ˼̬ͨ۹͡ڡmultitudeЩٴͼͻƾɸϵĿ⣬֤˵ȫ򻯻ڡµ۹ӶȫᣨЩ˼˵ģʲ׼ԼΪʱĹ˵޲׼μHardt & Negri: Empire,Harvard Univ. Pr, 2001.ʹǵ˼ĹҲûȫԽ˼άģʽ׼һʶ̬һˣ׼ȻκιҶڵģһֺ淽ʽ⹹˹壬ȻķԺͶԣ׼

Դӻϣ֮γ˹̶ģʽ˼άԸַʽ翴ǷѵĺսԵġ˵ѧлˡ硱һʹ硱ھϺʧȥͳһԺԣ硱һԶûɵʹ߼ҲԶɣΪģʽ˼άϰߣʹij˱ˣôͱһֶΪˣͲ֪˭жˡսĽҲνˡĽ͢Ͼͷµ˺ijͻ

ǰ۵ģһŵһԣһֹ˶ڲԵijϣΪԲǼȶʵκζĴijЩԡ͡иֶġһҪϾܾˡˡսͻΣ˼άѧ˵ǹڡ硱ȫλǸĻƶȸѧ;ѧ˵Σ͵ƶܾ˰ϵͳһڹΪѵ磨磩δҪһƶȣ۾һ˵ۻ


ۻ߿ʼ绹ڪ

ȫڽ⹹ڼǿ/ϵǸdz⡣˶ϣڽ죬κһطıⶼϵϵ⣬κһطϵط˾ȫг硢֪ʶƹ㡢ĻǨ㲻Ǵͳϵ񣬸ǣ˱䱾գȴع

µ۹εȡڡһ⡱ߡһ顱֪ʶȨṹУ硱ڣǿ硱һ桢ƶȺġ硱˵ΪʵͲƸԴ֮⣬һƶȺͼֵϵ硣һûƶȺȻ硣ĸѾγ˶ƶȺͼֵ󣬶һҪڱԽԽǿңҪһȫλġ硱ͬʱҪһӦʵѧûϵۣϵѾǸȻȹҸ󣬵ȴȫλ¸Ϊȫλġ硱Ȼ˼һҪ˼·

۹Լ۹˵Եģdz/۹ģʽĵ۹ģʽûֻۣйҹֻۣԹΪ嵥λͼչ磬չʲô̶ȣ桢ֵԼƶ붼ǻڹҳ߶ȵӽ硣ﲻԼֵ͵
۹ģʽм򵥵ıȽϣ

1)۹ģʽǾձԵĵ͹Ŵ۹ģʽ۹imperiumԭִָٴͳȨֳͳκͶΡһ˵ֵ۹Ǹ͵ľ´塣乫ƵĻεĿĶԣȫ硣ǣֵ۹ֻʱԵġfrontiersûзȷ϶ġ߽硱boundariesֹŴ۹ʵϻϣִ/ʱѾˡ

2)Ӣ۹ģʽǻ/ϵĵ͵ִ۹塣һ۹/ң塢ʱֳΪ۹жԭ򡣵۹ִķʽʵ/󻯡ִΪһ֡ĵ۹塱ִձһȫģʽṹϵͬԡǣʱȫȴʵϵͬԣDz˲ȺͶϲȫϵΪƽȵķչʱһҪS.Makdisi: Romantic Imperialism: Universal Empire and the Culture of Modernity. Cambridge Univ. Pr, 1998, pp.177-182.ֵ۹ȷı߽磬ȷı߽粢ζŵ۹׼ҿƣ߽ԽֹΣ۹۹档Ŵͬ۹ڿ緽ҪΪ1ĵطؾֳأ2ڲֳͨصķǿзչƽóףӢ۹ԸҵԡǸóϵD.Armitage: The Ideological Origins of the British Empire. Cambridge Univ.Pr, 2000, P.8.

3ִͨԻᡢʷͼֵ֪ʶ£Դ˰绮ֳĵġġʥɵλһЩȨҡͱԵġġûԵġֳɡʷĺͽġ͡ûʷĻͣ͵ġ磬ֲͨƽȵ֪ʶط֪ʶ˻սֳ֮ط׷׶/ϵͬʱǿʶȨҪִ۹ҲʱתΪȫ򻯵۹塣

ȫ򻯵۹۹ģʽM. Hardt and A. Negri ֤˵µ۹ŷϵ۹dzͬ壨American constitutionalism۹ŷ޵۹塣μEmpire, Harvard Univ. Pr, 2001ȣȫ򻯵۹御ִ̳۹ܹ̳еԣҪΪҵΰȨ֧֪ʶȨӶγɡνָһЩҵľһõķչš״̬ͳιһ־桱˹ɣ˹۹ѧ׳磬1999꣬302ҳ

κ;øȻִ۹ԣֻȫʱſܱǿ£ȫ򻯵۹ܹγɶȫλƺͰȨԼϲ˵ǡ쵼American leadership֡쵼J.ؽΪӲ͡˫쵼J. Nye ǿԲӲѾǡ۹ǿӲԡΪΪμ J.Nye: The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2002.쵼ͲݵȫȨϵгϵĻ֪ʶгϵЩϵﵽͽձ黯ĻͼֵۡҲǶԵģĻ֪ʶͳακ;õͳθһݵĽΪֻĻ֪ʶͳβܹͨʹĻ֪ʶͳ϶ﵽʹǣthe other mindsϡҪﵽĿ꣬Ƿչִ۹ֶΣȻDzġǣȫ򻯵۹崴һֳԽִ۹Ϸ˵ִ۹ϷУ۹ǿʵԶΪӮң˵ܹǩƽԼôȫ򻯵۹ϷУ۹岻ǿʵԶӮңһΩһȨѡϷ壬ԼϷΩһƶߡǣͳɹسΪϷΩһķҡȻѡ֡ϷƶߺϷָһʱͱضǸѡ֡޷첢ȫҰģҪԭӦȱƶȺ֧ƶȵʱ⡣

ģʽ˼ܵƶȵϣģʽƶȵĻԭϾѧѧƣvirtue߶ȣܹ˼棬һͻСģʽڱ֤Ļ֪ʶ̬¸ζġʽԣǸȫ۵㣨globalismȫҪ󡣱ǿǣȻйۣϵ벻йŴ۹ʵйŴ۹ֵءҷdz޵ʵ룬һʵҪγרƵ۹ûγһҪİȻֻһ׼Ǹֵоֵõ˼ԴرһԹѧԼгۡ

ƶʵϾңԶҪһЩԡ˵սΪ硱ļб֡Ϊ˲뷳֤DzһȽ壬Ҫǣһ¼˵û⡣ڸֳͻûм˻ʱ򲢲ԣΪƺָԻǹ˹̸ijԶԻǹ˹⣺1һЩ۾ʲôԶԻȻDzɻܵģⲻܱ֤ܡ⣻2һЩ漰棬жͻʧȥ棬ʱҴ⣬˵ڶԻϵʱͶʻᵼϵʧǣԻķʽʱDz̫صģжķʽãȻʧ룬ΪûʲôĻܹӦж⡣ǡԻѧƲ

ͳѧͼϵظǸĻͲ֪ͬʶϵĴʹõΪܣǵѧһŬǰ֤תΪĶԻͬ⡱agreementڡֿ˶ԻѧƲжӦʱԻѧƲˡѧ׷֪ʶ̶׷ͶԻ·ߵͷΪͨͷġϵdzȱݣڲȷϵ˼ġ㵥λ㵥λʹ˼ļ߼϶ȷģȻܴҪ⡣ǰķͼϵеһƫãѡ硰塱͡/ҡʵΪԵļ㵥λּ㵥λһڵܣǶģߵҹǣ󻯾Ϳԣ1ߵ濼ڣߣ2漰ļ㣬ôֻΪϵ޳ܻȱݣһܹĴڵλĴ߼ontological necessityĿ棬ôָۣthe ontology of individualsǺʵģǼĿҸôָDzɹģΪҸĴǡϵҸֻڳɹĹϵвҸֻ߸ģԼܸԼҸйѧϵƫõġ㵥λǿһִ۵λĹϵṹ͵ͥ¡йѧΪĵǹϵۣthe ontology of relationsйϵṹĴ۵λṩǹҸ߼ٶԼҸڡϵǡ塱ѧγˡ۽硱the view from everywhereǡضǶȵ۽硱the view from somewhereĸϵڷͽDZģܷ֢ڡ

ͳۻֻǹƶȵij׼ȻдڣĿǰȱ㹻ʵʵһ繲ͬϿɵƶȡȱǣܹγṹ˵ϵ˶ǵΪ϶͹棬ȥֺͷչ繲ͬ棬Ժγ֮֮ġԡΪڿ͹γɻݽṹãҲǸ֮Ļϵ׷ƶȵͬԣܿڽκγͻΪƶȵͬʲ߼̺ʵĶԵȺ͹ˣ
ȫƶͬʻ׷ҲǴģdzЧʵġܹձʵʵȨ֪ʶͻķչˮƽĵϵijͻìܺս򵥵˵ǽܹһȨrightsĶģܹһȨpowerĶʵġ

治ܽǹʵʴڵ棬û׷ĻԡڽҲγɿ͹ϵĻݽṹôƶȾͽңңڽΪڡʹˣȻҪģܹ֪ʲôط


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