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ν綨˹֮ķֹϵ
ƽȵı
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һЭ֮
ǰ̸˹ĹϵһԸġ໥Ĺϵṩ
ҪĹƷ񸶸Ӧı꣬ǰйһ塣ǣ
֮ĹϵǴ۸ӵģһԣìԣкԣгͻԡ
Ϊڲʹÿ涼õߣΪʹʼᲩռ
λҾͱЭƶԹ淶ҪЭƶƴΪķɷ棬
Э̾ҵĹԱҪҵЭ̾˾ƶȣо
ҪũЭ̾ߣغҪڵʡЭȷʵİţ
ԹҪŮԹЭҪҪڷ޼佨໥ƲķɣһҪЭ
̾ҪҪҳǮһСţһеҪЭ̾ҪҪѽʽһ
ͶصѧؤҪʳǵЭ̾ҪҪ
Ҫ͸Э̾ν˰ƶȡ
Э̵ĿҪȡùʶԴһ˫ܡϿɡͬеĹ淶
ߣӴɹ淶һԣЭ̺ǿƲ޲ͬĹ̺Ч
ӦǿرЭ໥ͨ໥⣬ȸԼ֣໥Эͨ
Э̳˽˶Է̬ԸһЭ̵ķʽͱ˴
ʱҪͶԷijֹʶҪɸԼĹʶǿƶ
ܳɹĻɵĹʶȺͶԷЭɵĹʶԼ
һλɷǶɫȭߣ˳ܣɷ
ԼӵȫϽʶйʶλɷܵͥ
ů
ЭҪһ˫ȽĹʶЭȫܴﲻɹʶһŮ
Ͷϣһɢ̸£Բǩͬĩ
ȥ棬˵ȥɽһ˵ȥˮȥˮȫԲǰ
˴ɹʶԼԼġǣһǶԣ֮ǧ˿
ϵһЩҪɵΪ淶̵ҴӦò
ӦãԼסܱܲðñ˵̱ܴܲˣЭ̹Э̣
ûûˣ޷Сԣһʱ򣬾ͱ붨淶
淶һȻԿԱΪϱӸմɵĹ淶
Ҫܷ
Ƕ֪ɹ淶ԭ򣬾Ӷһֳԭ򡣼һ
ٸСһˣ10˲ϲ̵
ңôĹ9990ˡ10˲ͬӶԭ򣬵û
ôȻǽӶԭӶԭͳΪ
ٸйĹʶһʶǻԵġȻ80ΪͬΥ
˵ȻԣԲܽ飬Ȼ20˳෴ΪӶԭ
ǻԵģ20˽ͬܽķɡʹ
ӶԭƶɣѡپʹӶԭԱ

Ҫ
ȻڽѾεΪۣDzӦǣκһ淶
ƣʵжģijضᲩ£ͼ
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ҪͰյĹϵϽڱĵڶƪ˵
Ҫڰ֮佨Ҫ
һҪǻʵϵռ
ԸĴׯƽʱûʲôΪˮԴ˳ͻչ
еʱׯͳһͶƱķʽˮԴķ䣬
ôǸӵȻͬ⣬ٵĴͲͬһΪ
ζԼؽ˫ֻԹʶˣ
ֹϵ淶һҪǰǣ֮еĻԹϵʱ
ܲܲ˵˺˵棬ΪһԼֻԾ
ǼĺԡĴׯõ·ЬӡñӶǸٵĴṩ
ģˮԴʹõİϣ˫ͻøЭ̵İ취ˣһijԱ
ԽǿԽҪ໥Э̣ԽҪ໥չ˶ԷԸΪֻ
ܵԷԵͶijɹʱٴӵĴпͬ
ͳһʹķʽ֪ʹԷڶȨҲԼһ
棬ΪԷҪԼһҲõ㣻ٴӵĴͶԷ
ͳһ󣬽ĺܶ෽ͶԷںһ𣬱
·µľСƷȵȡ໥ͳһ
Ե淶ͳһԵ淶¸㷺ȶЧĺ
Ա֤ÿ˵棬ʹüʹٵСȺ壬ҲĴ󵨵ͬӶ
ǰ˵19Ӣʱҵĵģһ˽׼ͶƱȨ
ͻֱӰʱǵIJƲʵ֤ǵĵǶġ
ֻڳԱ֮еĻʵϵռУƲпʵУ
˵ʵв塣ijЩԱѡ
һҪзֲȽϾȡڹŴŵ䣬ͶƱȨ
ֻռȫ1/10ôûѡȨˣū֮⣬󲿷ν
ˡɵģܶǹҵߣŵлϵûѡȨ
Ϊȱ֯ϱսҲɣҲ㷺Ͷ
ȵĽ֮У˴ʲƸ;Ƹֺǵ
ѡȨܵƣǵȨܵӡҲΪȱ֯
һһǧ˵У40֯Ժǿ60֯Ժ
ôƺֻܿ40ȺʵУ70֯Ժǿ30
֯Ժôͻֻ70ʵУֻ95ϵ˶֯Ժǿ
Żձִкܶ֯й֯ҵЭᡢҵЭ
ᡢЭᡢũЭᡢʦЭᡢЭᡢЭᡢŮЭᡢЭᣬ
Ǽ໥ָȡԼȨ档֯ķҪһ̣
ǹͬչַٽǵ໥ᡣһȡ
ȨṤߣҲһְijƵĻۺԺԱ

ֲȻζţ֯ijԱǽģִҵǶԪ
ᣬ໥ĶϵᵥԪһ˿ͬʱһԱ
һߡһԡһŮԡһͬߡһͽһڶͨ
ѧijĸסһȾܺߣڸijЩԱ
ںijЩԱ
зֲȽϾʱΪһɾ̬淶
ӶһЧķʽ
˵ٽһ
ֱԶԣԹϵĹ淶Ҳ˵˭󣬾Ͱ˭
Ը졣Ҷкǿ֯Ȼǣ˶һ
ǵԸֱӵõء˲Ӳûкôġкܳһʱ䣬ڴ
˵֧£ͨ涨̥ǷЩ̥Ůôأֻ
ߵҽԺ͵͵̥ȫò֤һ֣
ҲܵƲáڱֽϡ̨ϡϣʹͬǰ
Ķ̥Ȩ޸Ľֹ̥ġ񷨡ܵ÷ӡһŭ֮·Ż
Զ̥ھӵķӣʹ򷴶Զ̥ͬµ壿򷴶Զ̥̼ҵˮ
Զ̥ӰǵĵӰԷԶ̥IJ͹ϰȹ÷Զ̥Ŀѧҷ
ĵԣܷ̥ȻҪ˲ֻΪܷ̥ţҪʵ
ǰʶʱΪܣɷ졣̥ܶȻеί֣
Ҫ˺ͬǾѣƺ²ġ
60Ϊ̥ڶɱԾԲܽܣ40϶̥
иԸɲΨһҪǵģ˫Ͳ˷Ǵ˼˵ijͻû
Эءʱֻ˫ĶԱȡٵһǰǶ
Լǡ֮١ԵģӶԭ򱻴
ձܡԴòͷΪձеĹԡ
˵Ƿͻһֱأô˵
ǰһ֮Ļԣ˶һ᲻ܲ˵شһ
棬ѹϵ̫һ˶һĺڶһԲ
ӳԼڷӷɵǰ£Ѱ޸ķɣ羭ijЩŮ
ǰ̵Ŭڵ϶̥ˡԭµֱӵ
Ⱥ壬һضĹ̶ȺȺ岻ָԱйˣҲ
dzϵйˣָˣҲָˣָˣҲָũ
ָijһijһضϵϣͬͬ۵Ķ˵ϡ
ִֹЭǶԪģÿ˵ݡɫλҲǶԪġһŮԿ
ڶ̥ڹѧУͶڶձϵǶ
ڼ˰ǶȻʧҲеáģһЩ淶ϣǹ
һµģЩ淶֤˴ҵĻ档
֮ϣȹ涨Ĺ淶Ҫٽҵĺ
˹гֵƽԣÿһƱǹϯ
һƽ̻ǽֱؤɺȨΪ
һΪУÿ˶Ǻ飬ֻÿ鶼dz
ԡԡǿҹкܹͬɷչŹ
ʵԼ־ܲ޴Чܣÿ˶Ը˳ֵ
ɺȨ

Ҫ𽥳
Ͽ֪һһǧˣôֻһǧ֮Ѿ˺ǿĻ
ԹϵͬʱԱеķֲʮ־ȣſܱһǧ
СˣÿһԱͶԱDZҪġ
ֵģÿһԱͶԶܵΪˣÿԱԸ
õأÿԱȨ涼õϺ㣻ͬʱľȷֲ
ˣÿԱǺ۸ģÿԱѲÿԱᾡȡһ֮
Ϊ˽ԲĵijɱӶһЧĴ
һǧһһԹ̶Ⱥ壬ŰȱԹϵ
ôһ˾ͻ᲻ԸǾŰһͳһ壬ΪǾŰ
˿ܻ˶ѹּ棬ӶֱӺôΪ
Ű˲غܹ˼һ˵Ըŵ˾ͲԸ˹ʹһͳһ
壬ΪǴӵũҵ˹ʹջ񲻵ʲôԳɹȴȫ
ܱ˹ʹ˼򵥵˶زŵͳһξߡ
һȻǾŰнǿԹϵԵ֯ԱȽ
ûкǾŰ˽ɶϵӶϴڽΪƵ
״̬ôǾŰ˾ͿܲһȨɲõ
ˣһһʱ֯Իǿǻûȫڽû
ڹ桢桢桢Ůȷ棬ˡߡͬ
ߡŮԣԣǵȨںܳһʱܵѹ֡
·¡쵼֯ͬʱҲڽ
˹˵õ˹˵ļˣΪ׳󣬺ʱǶгɹգ
ǰ˹ֺ֧ȫȨͬߵõ˺ߵ
ˣݰ˵õ˼ݺ˵ļˣŮȨ˶õ˺ŮǵļˣЩ
˶ֺ֧˻Ȩ˳µأҲͻ˳ֵȨ
һҪ߱Ҫ뾭һʷչ̡磬1920
͵;һ̡һУδѡٵĻе
Ȩݶ˥ֱʧѡȨ󡣲Ʋʸͻ֡Աų
ˣ1948ϿˡձƽȵѡȨȨɲ֣
Plattner,1998
һǶȣһ廹ô95£
ǸձʵСǸһձʵֻ
ǵԸûʵԵġ5ǾǣȻ
߱ȷʵơķֻ
ǿ룬ӡȣҲҪߺˡ
ܷӵṦЧۿۡйĴгоÿ
ûÿܲ㣻ǣƶɽũǼʹһ
Ҳûʲôáκƶֻһ²ܷ书Ч
ܶڡ۴˵ڲͬ壬ͬ׶Σвͬ
ûһʺõֻ̬жijһضʱշ
Χ壬˵ijõģ£ܴ
ṦܡҲӦģҲǶ嶼õ
Mill,1975
ǣ˵˵ȫСҲ˵
ԺҲС˵ȫҪƵᲩ̬Ϊ100
̬ȫΪ100ôһ20IJ
̬ͿԶӦʵ1030淶һ50ֲ
̬ͿԶӦʵ4060淶50Ҫʵ淶IJ
ֻ̬ʵ20淶ĸʵ֡
һеijԱǻԽԽǿķֲԽԽȣҲǡ
ָôͻԽԽߣͻԽԽ
ʵ淶ij̶Ⱦͻ𽥼޶˹ڡεصԹʶ˵
ֻеõѹĹԾԸ֧֣һȹ̶ã
Rawls,1989
Ŀģÿ˵ĿġΪ˸õѣ
ٻ˾ƵꡢɻԺȵȣΪЩѣͷ
ÿߺͰٻ˾Ƶȵܶһƶȣÿʹʹ
Ѷӷ㣬ߺ;Ӫ߶˻ͬÿΪ˸õͲ
ϼǿ໥ЭԣҲǿԼΪ˸õ໥
໥ķϵͷƣ𽥶һơʵ
ʹܸõغƴ໥ìܣӶʹÿ˵涼õߡ
˳˵һ㡣Ŀ˳˵һÿ˸Ե˹ϵ
󣬵ڶʵIJ̬Ǵɺά̬淶ǹ
ԱǵĿ˳򡣿ǣ˵ڵڶλʵIJ̬ʵ
ʱ˼ʵĿģʵIJֻ̬Ŀ
˳͹ԱĿ˳෴һЩ֪ʶӵĿ˳һЩ
֪ʶʮƳʱ鲻ԽذĿģĹԡ
߱ʱϣʵ߱ʱҪҲҪʵ
һĿ˳ͺڵĿ˳˴λ
Ǿ⣺ҪҪʵ
ڻش֮ǰǴȷʣҪҪʵд׶԰ѧȫ
ƶȣ
һҪΪƶܴܺȫ֪ʶʣʵʩ
ᷢչźܴáڶDzҪڲʵʩƶȡеĹ
ʵʩƶȣ翨DzܡΪûʵʩ
ԴIJãᷢչ޺ôҪڵȷû
ǿǿƾȻȲ㹻ʱ԰
ƹ㵽н׶ΣȻҲ40ǾͿʵʩ׶԰ѧȫ
ƶˡ
ҲӦԡ
һҪΪƶܺܺõشٽ棬
ˣǾӦóֵؼʵʩӦΪһеѧΪʹһ
չˣҲֻӦòֵʵʩƣǶƳijǣҲͬ
ֹ۵㡣ڶDzҪڲȫ׵ʵʩơǵĹ
飬ǻ߱Ҫȫ׵ʵʩ
һңḶܴĴۡҪǴ
Ļһһػչ
DZͬʱס档

ġָͬ
Ȼֱ˵ԹϵĹ淶ǽڻΪ
֮ϵģˣľߺͷɹ淶ٽ֮以ԵĹϵ
Ӷٽÿ˵档˵ҴµĶԸũҵ
֮俴໥ֹܸʲôôֻҪҳغ
ܰܵĿԣôԭͲܱʵСԳӡ
ּ⣬ֻڹҵбʵУũҵ໥Ե
ġ
ڱĵڶƪУһһ˵ũҵ壻һһ
˵ķֹЭĹҵ塣ڵĹܲƸ1ǧλ
Ἧţһ7ǧˣһ3ǧˣ˫ij磬Ҫͳһ
ķɡ7ǧ˼ƾԼϵͨһ7ǧ˼ŷֵܵλ80
ķݶӶ8λ档
ǣ3ǧ˼пܲ˵Ը½мָ
ڷãһ˷ֹϵ3ǧ˵
ܻᵼܵλļ٣½7λ7ǧ˼ŷֵõܶ
8λ560λ7ǧ˼ˣɴͨһ
ɣֻ3ǧ5ķݶ95IJ7ǧƽ֣ôͻܵλ½
ֻ1λ7ǧ˷ֵõ95λ
7ǧ˼ͨһֵ60ķݶܴ̼Է
ԣȫһжʵаȡԭͻʹܵλ
1500򣬼ͿԻ900λ
ѡ֮μֱ7ǧ˼60807
ǧ˴ԼԳѡĸأȻѡ60ķǴ¿˵60
ŵIJľ㣬ϲ˫涼ﵽ󻯡Ե
һͶƱʱDzͶֶԼǰķͶԼ岩
ķͬ3ǧ˼˵ҲͶķDz̫
ߵͶ50ƱΪǺͨġô7ǧ˼֪֪60
ķԼأ϶һ޵ѶȲСڷһҩ
7ǧ˿Ҫʮϰʱ䣬ҵѵĵ㡣
ũҵеι淶ζ̶ǰ£ĸɵ
⣻ÿũԼȫճɵ70400ʳˮƽǧ
䡣ҵι淶ζԲߵ£ĸ
ɵĻԾ⣻ÿ˰ͶгĹϵȡ꣬ˮƽԲ
ߣһӢ˵ˮƽ18͵ά±ֻͿ
סٽIJߣٽÿһԱߣʵ
ԼÿһԱȱٵι淶ǹҵ
ԱĹͬ档Ҳֻϣ¬˵ġͬԸ
general willһѡֻҪԣһҪͶٵƱ
Ӣ֯ĹˣƾϱʱǶ࣬ͨķʽͨ
ʮķ䷨ɣͶƱͨdzù֮⣬Էֵһ
˾һ롣ôǿֱõнϴĺôҽһ
淶ļʱЧӦǣʱǽͶʣȿ׬ǮҲǮǣ
ʹ׬ǮҪһָˣǣǻͶԸ½ӪĻ
ܴ죻ǻ֣ᷢ˾Чһ겻һ꣬ԼʵҲ٣
ҽһֹ淶ĺЧӦԷɸӢ˴棬Ǽʱ
ЧӦЧӦ֮ͣԺЧӦΪӢ20͵ʮ
ȻǴӹ˾һ룬ͨ۽˰ȷʽʹٷ
ڹˡַ䷨Թ˵淴ԹתΪһ
Լ棬ܶ๤2080ûͶƱͶ
صƱʱҵֵߣͶʺ;߹ĻԵǵ
ҲߣӶ˫ӮĽ
һضᲩ״̬£ֻһĸʱ
ѡķͻһ¡һĻԽԽǿǶԾ㿴Խ
ԽپͻԽͬӢٶʷУǿص
͵پС룬ڹĹģְܡ
ʹϵᱣϡȸ档ͺñһԷޣսʱ밲
šϢʱ䡢ӴѡΡӵȵȷ棬кִܶᾭһ
ʱIJĺͽֻҪ˫Ͼ˭Ҳ벻˭Ͼһ
ȷֿãǾͻڲһʱʵУ
ɾ⡣ǰӶɷȥԼʹģƽ
ˣɷҲΪͨӲӻɷ
ؼ壬Լͬȥ֡㣬򲻵ѣ
˫Ҫȥıƻֻһʱ˫ð
ˣÿΪԼԸ㣬ͱ뿼ǶԷԸ̶ȣΪԼ
ԸҪ࿼˶ԷԸԼԸֱֻӰ졣
ָӵƽϵаסԼ棿Ƕÿִ˵顣
һҪִܵijɹͱ뾭Ŀ飬ֿиԼ
˼άʽʶԼһԡ໥Ҫԡ
ųһУһԹ̶ڸܵ
ԱĴѹʷϣˡӡڰˡˡˡм
ˡͬߣȵȣǡڻȺ塣Ȼһ
Уʵ쵽ƾ˶һ۸ЩȺʵ
״˵һϵȨȻʹ죬ջһԺ˵ì
ܡͻͽΪũʵʩһϵ߹ȻˬȴҪũ
ֵܵԽԽЩȺ󣬱1964ͨ
ȨרűȨ棻1968ͨӡڰȨӡ
ذһϵƽȨͬߵȨҲڲߣѾһЩ
ǽȨƽȣҲڴٽһ棻ǣƽ
ȡٽȺȨ棬ڻʵϵͬһϵô
֮ȻԵϵ
ڡǰսȻ޵
չٺܶսŷҺȨسĿܣʹ
ѡ˽вƲгõĹʶѾ㹻ǿԵֿԤ
δ᲻ʶ̬̣ͬҪԭ򡣵
ѡٵʧܲʹʧ߾ãǵĻֵ潫ܵʤߵ
вBeoninger,1997
˼ǣ˫˫˺˫Ů˫Ϊһͨ
ʤʹÿһϵ˫ʮ˫
أʮףһЩ淶˫ĹͬDZҪġܸıġ

ԣǻԹɹʶijֻʹùͬ㣬
ĿģֻǴٽÿ棬ҲЧӦڡ
ڵһƪ˵ǣűЧӦͻһֵܡһ
еĸȺˮƽܴô֮ͲкǿĻԣ
ҹܴ󣬶Գ˫ķչȺ嶼ȺĻ
лҪʶСȺIJ࣬йоʹΪԼ
棬ҲҪȥũֵܵˮƽǣűЧӦζţ
ࡢ͵ߵIJࡢŮࡢܴ࣬ܺͻ
عϵֺعϵ
һгԱǶǼĹϵԻΪģǾͻ
ʱȿԼ棬Ҳ˵档ɶ˹ڡŷ
˳ijɹ̡˵Ϊļֵ̬ȡΪʵ
ʢУӦ˶Ǩֿź͹ӮĹЩֲгΪ
ִάϵһĻְԶԵ
źͽʽβȡơ͵̬ȣԼڸȺճʵ
սͲԣЭԻЭ߼ⷬȻֻǷӳŷ
һϵ֮еǣӦ̬Էɺ
ĿݣԹͬε˵Σԡơòǣű˫ȻҪ
˭ȿһ붼ҪǸԵԸ档û̬Ͳܷչ
ͱ˵ϵͲܺ˺ĺôDiamondouros,1997
ɵָۣDiamond,1996һdzͻ֮ͬĽ
šһΪȨƵƶȣûоͳͻûΡ
Сʲľսͳˮijͻʲô߰鶼ܷʲô߰
ֶζʹһΣգýţìܼᶯ
ʹгԱۡԴɵ˵Ҫͻ̫ࣻDZҪ
ģϸ޶һ½ܵķΧڡͨͬơ
սһ־Ҳһ־ս˫ûйͬ棬˫
伫˫кǿĹͬ棬֧ӹͬŬʹҾɣ
ԽԽÿԱ붼ߣҪڹĻ֮Ͼ
Ȼ˹򣬾ͻʤʤฺ٣ûй˫
½
ս˫Ĺ൱˫Ĺ

οף
1 Marc F.Plattner, <Liberalism and Democracy: Cant Have One without the
Other>, from Foreign Affairs, Volume 77.No.2, Mrach/April 1998. Copyright
&copy; 1998 by Foreign Affairs .ת࣬
ӡݣ199912µһ档
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