ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

޶˹˵Щʲô
ƽȵı
--ִѧ ϵ֮18
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DZоϵеһƪ£޶˹ѧĻ˼ΪҪݡΪ޶˹ǹϵĵܳѧңĹ۵õ˹㷺޳ɣʹ䷴Ҳ˼ԱͻӦ޶˹˼벩ֻߢȡ伸۵㣬ʹۡ

1ձԵԭ
˹ٴѧ1985ġκ͹14У޶˹ˡΪƽ壺εĶζѧġһģڸĵĵһмвԭ򲢷ζѧԵġ۵š
ʷϳֹĹι淶Ƶ߻϶ǰԼǡȻġȻġǻԱʵģǻԱġǺ㳣ģǷ֮ض׼ģǾȷġ޶˹ֹ۵ζѧʽġΪԼһǡζѧʽģijһضƣԼӦض;ƣеưڽս֮ʵֵڽ̿ݣҵȵȡˣ޶˹ΪԼġԡΪƽ塱ΪĵһܹձõĹ淶õǸض˵ҲûһձЧĵԭΪ
һ׹ι淶ζѧģ˵ʹҽͬ⣬ҲʶϵģһƵ̫תĿ͹Ҳ׼ȷ߼ԣǴӼȷĹƵȷĽֵۡʵԡǹ֮ͨ໥˽Э̣Ըɵһι淶Ϊ˴ڽԵжԸ⹲ͬصΪͱ׼ǾͿ໥Ҫ󣬴ҵΪһԣͽڴٽÿ档
޶˹˶һָٹ̵Ĺķԡ֪ܶ໥۵ֵΪԼǿ϶ȷģѾ˼֤һ㣬޶˹ֵֿͬϣһ󡱣һѧҵԺǿԼĹȷɣͻʮԼĹ۵ȷǿ͹۵ģǿ͹˲ͬ⣬ǾDZ˵ĴһѧҶԼֵһֽΪ͹۵̬ȣͻԼļֵһԣ˼ʹԼҲһǴġ޶˹ӦþںߡûаԼļֵۿǺ㶨ǻʵԵIJͬͬ
ôӦ޶˹˵˵ʵ
һˣ̼ǣһΪĿΪҪԼӵкյͨԼĻһھԼҪ˵ʵĻһijһضĶʶԸĻнеģҪʵͻϣſܲijɹijЩûһЩڻע⣬˵ڵĵΡòǻľ÷չˮƽˮƽ顢·ǻĸĸֵھӵ״ҲĻ
ԵڶǿȻʹԼͻ컷ڸΪ˵ֻȿ廷ԵزȡԼĻʽֻĴЧԼҪڴ֪ԼҪʲôģ˵ͻˮƽȴʮޣ˶ԼĻĻ˵Ļ˽ޡˣDzȡΪ󾭳Чʽϵ͵ġԯ޵ġҪԼʵΪЧܣͱ룺һԼĻ˵ĻڶԵزȡΪԺͻܸЧĽϡԻܸЧáȡжȰԵжͻжҲ˴ij淶ж
޶˹ġΪƽ塱ǹԱijضĻ£ȡĴij淶ΪһijһĹԱ𽥿ˣ˺չԽΪѾȡһĶԼijɹǿһΪȡøijɹֳɹԼ˲ȡΪijɹ档ڶʱǻԵءʶѰ˽Ժϵֹ̻ϵ淶ڶ档
ȫпܣԼĻпͱչԽΪԼʲôôʹкôҲԼ˲ȡΪijɹСʱǾͲȥѰ˽Ժϵ淶ʷѧ˵ûйҵŷ˾ͲῴֹձҴôôгù淶ҲͲŷ޽ˣ޶˹˵ԼġΪƽ塱ձԡǣʹԼĻп˻ԽΪԼкܴôȴȻܲθݻһصԼǵʵΪԼӦֽ֧ʲô淶ʱΪƽ塱óˣΪƽ塱ļֵʵԡֻµǣӦΪѡӦòȡĶ˵̬ȡӦֵ֧淶ġӦáָʹԼ󻯡
ǻԴһǶ޶˹ԭ򲢷ζѧԵġһ۵㡣
嶼һƶȣһƶȶÿԱĻȨκз䣬һƶȰáκȸ档֪ƶȡһֹ˼ʹϵ淶ʶʵ״ĴʽԷΪࡣеƶѾijһʱշΧʵˣǸеijԱжϽƶȣƶȿԱʵֵƶȡеƶijijЩ˵Ĺ۵㣬ûеʵеõʵ֣ԱΪ˹۵ƶȡһijһʵ˵ƶȣһijijЩģһijΪ˹۵ƶȡΪǰģǵȻܷ˵κһƶȣκһΪ˹۵ƶȡᱻijʵ֡ңһУijԱΪġΪ˹۵ƶȡܻ͵ʱʵеġʵֵƶȡͬ
ƣ塱ʶǡƶȡʶĵЧߵֻڣƶȡǿʶݣ塱ǿǶʶȷŸС塱ҲԱΪʵֵ塱͡Ϊ˹۵塱ࡣһ˳ijһƶʱһΪһƶǡ塱ģΪŮƽǡ塱ģӦͨƶȼȷһſʵ֣йҲûеõʵ֣һǧǰӢʵϣŽ⼸ǧ꣬Ůձڵ󣬶ұ쾭ģΪŮͬΪŮ˶ҲһٶʷôһУijԱΪġΪ˹۵塱Ҳܻ͵ʱʵеġʵֵ塱ͬ
޶˹ԡԭΪĵƶȡ淶壬Ҳ˵Ĺ۵㣬ǡΪ˹۵ƶȺ塱һ۵ܷеʵ֣ĸеʵ֣ʲô̶ϵʵ֣һ⡣

2ԵġɵġԼʽĺ
ô𽥵ؿ໥ܸԼԽԽĺôӦˡԼ˵Ĺϵᣬȡһʲô̬ȡʶӦֽ֧ʲô淶͵¹ʶ
ڡΪƽ壺εĶζѧġУ޶˹˵ӦĹ֮Ҫϵһͳһ壬ͳһͷɲǵԼΪҶϣкΪԼ˽ϵԼΪӦֿǣΪǽϵΨһݡңǻΪһ֮ϵ壬õ壬ΪܸԱ㷺ʵơȻκڲìܳͻΪ˶ͼþܴݶǺȣìǵڶλġһΨһ壬һ˵ӦĿģȥѰ͸˽롢ȫķֹϵһλ˻ԼĻ㶫Ϻɽ½أȻ쵽¹ݿ˲˹䣻ܽ˰Щƽ˴򽻵ʱΪԼ棬ԷҲΪԼźλ˷ijֻΪоúһ˵֮еĹϵdzֿǣôӦתǰӻʵΪհѻʵӡӦһ¸ӦðѻʵۿԱԼ͹ԱĹϵǻĹϵǰ˰Ϊ֮ĪԱ뽻˰Ҫһ嶨˰Ĺ淶
ôֽ໥Լ淶ԾԸطӹ淶޶˹Ļشǿ϶ġ˵нжͻƶԼһʱһĿأԼijṲͬһԹϵζһ˵Ժķͬʱв㣡໥ٽ޶˹˵ԡҲ˵Ϊ˸õԼ棬гֵ˺˹ͬ塣˵ǹƽȷĻǡȻһֻ˾лDZڵؾô޷Թ淶ģ˵ǣڻϺͶɽӥкܴͬȺ۷䡢ԳȻÿ˶ԣǴʷķչѹ˶Ƶ˼жƵƣijһʱ̣γٽӶһʵо߿ĻԹ淶
ΪͨǵԾԸĽ϶γɵģǿԽҲԲϣ޶˹ϰdzɵġǰ˵ԷСȻġ͡淶ġ࣬淶Сʽɡ͡ʽɡСʽɡ޶˹˵ɣӦùڡ淶ɡ֮ڣԳԭɡȡ޶˹һ۵㣬˼ڡԡ˵ġ塱֮ͬʷУɰǧ嶼ͨԾԸĽ϶γɵģЩ񶼲޶˹˵֡ԭɡֻһҶֽͬϷʽҰֽϷʽΪ淶УžɡͨǿγɵУ繫Ԫ֮۹ռӢ类ʼռij򣩣Ҳ淶DZȽܵġͨԾԸ϶ɵУ淶ǹԼġ޶˹˵Լ淶εĽߡԼ淶Ҽල໥ලԼԼĿꡢΪԼҪڻԹ淶֮ڣԼԼΪ޶˹ūȽϡͬǰʱ빤عūDZȰʱȥģūƶ˹ʱ䣬ūʹūȥɹԸͬⰴʱԼͬ⹤ʱİţԾʱϰࡣ
ЩΪİ޶˹֡ԾԸ͹ң͹޷γɣԭе͹Ҳֱֹ۵ںܶȷġʼռ˺ϺͻȻʵʩ֡ԾԸԭ򣬺ϺİջѡʼʵͳΡһǧռ˺Ϻʵʩԭ򣬺ϺİҲѡͳΡڹԪǰռﵺʵʩԭ˻ѡ˵ͳΡ1775սҲΪӢԸԵʱʵʩԾԸԭԲŻᱬġǣһ۵һ棬ΪijЩ£ǵȷԾԸһ塣ɻʢͨγɵģɵʱʮԸ϶ɵġŷ˸ҲѰھáΡĻȸ潨ͳһĹ򣬽ͳһܷԺȡԣȻͨԾԸԭһͳһ弫ΪѣҪһϵп̵ڻϣ˵˺ܸߵҪ󣻵ijЩض£ȻʵֵĿܡ
ôȻԭʵ֣ǻжʵأشǣȻʵ֣ij̶ֳʵ֡ˣĹ淶100ǿƻϵģʵ֣Ĺ淶100ԾԸϣ⼫ʵ֣ʵģҲǿӡԾԸԵıءĹ淶ڽʵ70ԾԸ֮ϵģôԱҲŬһߵ75Ȼߡ
˵ĹϵҲǸ˵ʶĻ״̬ŶԼʽϵһ֡޶˹ΪΨһݡԭɡȹһ£˵ĹϵԼʽġԼǺͬƽ̸Լͬھúϵģ޶˹һչΡáĻ֡ĸ档˵ҰѡΪƽ塱ԭһԼۣContract TheoryԼĿҪγɡһ淶ɵԸ̸ͨкԼɵһ໥Լ໥Ķ˫ͬЧĹ淶˵ҵĿľһĸʹǹΪϤԼ۸һ㻯ﵽһߵijΣһԼˡ¬Ϳµ˲Ģɡ
ִѧУԼۺ͹ʮҪӰԶƳͳר߶Ǿӹ֮ΰǣ֮ش硣һһ˵壬ÿʵʩһ淶ͻÿ桢СӰ죬һ淶ġֵĸ淶ġֵ󣬹ʵĸ淶ڶÿ淶ġС򸺣мʱÿġȨءһġ
ǵȻӦÿĻ塣ǰĹͳѹȰգԼԵ˵ǣҵͳȨϵۣϵĴߣһʮͷרѧҲ̣ڡʥʾлõΡһָģģӶʹ֯еʽУձ顢ϡȻõʽΪϵȷ˹ɹȥͳڹȨϵ۵ģ˹ȨǾԵģϵۣκ˸йĻʵҲΪӡڹ岻һ㣬ƵԽڹ֮ϣ⵱ȻǸԵĸı䡣ҹΪÿ˵ġȨءһġƽȵģԭĵȼƶֱӶ
ǣһǾǣؽijֵܴߣԴ˹ͬġһ˵ͻᱻؼѹǾͻĴ־ͼɵ⵱ȻήǶͬкŽУ᲻Ը塣һ˵˲û޶Щˣκ˶ܳΪ˶ԱԱΪǺġеһ̶ĵϷ̼ÿ˶ţ֪ʲôʱԼᱻԡ桱ܶ˶ֹ֧塣ŵһǶȶԹ˵ͬһ˵Ϊͬһ壬ԸԼijһ棨ʳԼǣһɼʮʮɵ壬ˣһˣʲôҪijһΪһԼ棿
ˣҪٽ֮ĻԹϵ岻һܺõơ޶˹1967귢ġ塷˵Ψһݡ룬һõӦÿ˵棬ԡ桱ȥѹ˵ʡԣijطɭִȻȫʡɾ޴󾭼ʧȫʡҲȨҪ󵱵ؾðΣվȻְ𣬶ǵؾְ𡣰Լɵ壬ȻҲѹͷijԱͽݲΪˡȫΪΥ˵ԱµԼµͬ
һȤȻԼ۰ѹ淶Խÿ˵֮ϣǿǡ桱ͨԭ齨壬徭÷٣ʵǿҹǸΪעŸõĵˮ׼ΪԼ涨ˣԼ˵ȵĹϵ˵һ˵һλҲζ˵水ijһҲһ֣ÿŬʹԼѸҲζ˵ҲõͬѸңΪÿ˵涼õ˵ijأͻԽϧԱĹϵΪӹԵ淶вϻúôƽȸСɶȣȵȣͻԽϧĹ淶ԸȥάߵĵҪǻdzԼȱʵԵ黳dzԼɸ˵ζʵֵģʹǿµֶȥʵʩ෴Ѷ˵ĵҪڶԸغ֮ϣֵʶڴҵʶʹԵõ 3ԭ
ʵġԵġԭɵġԼʽĺԹ淶޶˹ᳫ㡣һ㣬ЩѰڽк֮ǰҪȷһϵбҹͬܵĹ淶Щ淶Ҫȷÿ˵Ȩθʲô˼໥ìܳͻΰţ³ʲôʲôʲôDz壬ұγɹʶ
޶˹ڡۡһµһһξĻ
룺һһȺ˵ϡDZڴ໥ϵʱϽһϵеΪԼҵΪҰЩȥЩγһ壬ԴٽÿԱ档ôȻ໥ٽΪεĺҵһһҲijͻԡһڣÿԱԺϵùеͻڣÿ˶ںȡõܳɹη޶ԣÿ˶ϣȡøķݶDZѡȷһԭԽַ䡣Щԭԭƶȷÿ֮仮ȨεķʽԼÿ֮ηҪijɹˡ
ô޶˹ᳫĹ淶Ļʲôأ˵Ȩ˼ɡΡЩʵǵ֮⣬޶˹ĶԹס޶˹Ĺףġԭ򡱡ڡۡڶµ11УԴ˱̡
һÿ˶ͬȵȨ㷺ĻɡÿеɺеɣݵġFirst: each person has an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for all.
ڶĺ;õIJƽȱaܾЩٻߵ档bеְλԹƽĻе˿šSecond: social and economic inequalities are to meet two conditions: they must be (a) to the greatest expected benefit of the least advantaged; and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair opportunity.
Ǿ˵޶˹ԭĹ۵㡣
һǿӦͨ淶ȻϵĻɣbasic libertiesϣõɺǶֶģһЩǻԵ󣬱粻⵽Ĺѹ֣ڽɵ˼ͷۣɵؽΪ޶˹ΪDzһԵȥ淶ɣDZ뱣ЩɣЩڵõ淶ԵȨıϣǹ淶ɣЩȨѡȨιְȨȨȨԼƲȨʵУЩȨ֮ʱᷢһìܣôͱ໥ĽİţְӦðղͬƶͬǣİţÿ˵Ȩƽȵġ޶˹ڵһü˵ˡɡƽȡ޶˹ҲΪߣģ͡
ڶģbһְλƽȿԭ򡱣޶˹˵ǾǣΪṩƽȵĽᣬְҵгϽֹϰɲƽȡ
ڶģaһԭ򡱣޶˹ͻס޶˹ڡۡڶµ13ڶ˲͢Ρ˵νٻߵ棬ָҪģprimary棬Ȩɡᡢ롢Ƹء޶˹֮ҪһΧΪÿ˵Ǻܶģһкܴͬеϲ塢еϲ㡣ܶ淶չ˵Щһ㰮߲ΪԼҲط˵ԼٻߡҪġǾ˶ҪģԱܹÿԱҪ桱ʵ̶ֳȽڿ͹۵ͳһһȷЩڡٻߡ޶˹˵ˣЩٻ֮ԳΪٻߣܿܺԭйأƵĽײͥ
޶˹ͬijЩƽȵĴǺģ뽨ڡÿ桱ǰ֮ϡһ۵㣬һҿ³һƽǹнײƽһٱǰǣֺйˮƽõߣ߿Ϊ˾ЧˣҵˣҲΪȼýı׼ˡͨʲô;˵ˮƽߡDzƽȾԵıҪǰᡣô˵һ³һǹнײһٱdzֺ󣬹нײˮ׼ƽ˵ûߣЩ˻½ˣ޶˹ͻΪⲻ塣һЩز̣һЩԱͨغأþ޶룬ȴΪǵġӪ2500Ԫһƽ׵ļ۸סȴҪ35004500ļ۸򵽣޶˹Ϊⲻ塣
ԼۼоϵģҲ棨áΡĻȣۺϵġǰվϵԼܱ֤Ψһݡ϶ܹʵ֣Ҳܱ֤ԭܹ϶ʵ֡ǩһҵͬһִͬУпܽǿġͱ˷ԸʵԼϵͱ˷һϵЧһһ˵壬ʮúͬпһͬijһ𡣶һùԱ֮ػӦʩԮأ޶˹ΪӦʩԮ֡ⲻ˵ҪֱȥЩùںͬеľʧҪ壬Щ͡ٵ˾òʹǵˮƽϲǰ͡ԱӦþĹʶӶγƶȡͨ˵ġη䡱ҪԭȻǡ׷ԭ򡱣90ϵķǰһԭеģǡһη䡱η䡱Ƕԡһη䡱ıҪơһη䡱˾ԼһΡ͡ΡԭۺʹãۺϵԼϵ

4ԭĽһ
޶˹ԭںһϵв
һ ԭҲζΡ
ֱӴԭ˵ÿԱȨƽȵȨƽȵĻȨˮ׼ľõߵȨЩͨ淶ȷȨÿ˵Ȼϵɺ档߼ǣ淶Ȩ㲢ǣԭöӲҵһ棬ͬʱһ档ΪҪÿԱܵЩȨͱʹ淶õʵִУôÿԱ뾡ԼΣresponsibilityҶΣ淶ͽҪԼΪһΣͱԼ档߼ǣΡ淶 ߼ǣÿӦã
Ρ淶壩Ȩ㲢
޶˹ڡһʽƽȸһĵĽ˵һҪζҪΪ˹ֽߡ˵һҪԾԭĿȥŬӦһƶԼĹԼԼĹƫִϡ
淶ģͬʱìܣ֮໥ͻìܣһ˿ƺԼìܡһìܷȣһںͱ˷֮ǰDz֪ĵƽģҲ֪ں˵ĻУԼʲôϵõ㣻ֻͨĵʵܰա°յƽ㲢ͱ˴½淶ԼҪи淶ƽڶìܡȻԼܺܺõشڶìܵƽ⣬ҲԵһìܵĴа֮Ҫһаѹ淶Ľãÿ˶Ҫͬʱã˺ҪںڣչҺˣԼҪ͸棬ҪȨͳеΡ
ڶ ԭּڴø˺˵Ĺϵ
޶˹ڡۡڶµ13ں͵17ж˲͢С
ǿ԰Ѻͷ俴һʱԵУ1 1 2 2
һ໥ֹÿ˵涼벻˾ľͶÿһη䶼壬һǶԸոȡõܵɹķ䣬ʱÿ˶ȡԼֵܹһЩһǶԽһκĸļá
ּֿԴ濴һDZЩвŻߡϸͶ˸ı꣬ҲҪЩʹԼӵеIJƲ˸Ч˸ı꣬׿гЧڹʹ˵ʹܲƸӡʹ˲ƽȣҲҪΪģΪȷЩߵ棬ҲЩߵ档ְλƽȿʮҪΪֻÿ˲ŻŬŬȡõְλ־ƸְλǶƽȿţеְλҪблڣеĽũų⣬Ǿͻ࣬ƸĸһDZЩ롢ߵ档ǻǿҵı͸СųУǾԼԵˡأǻ£ֱ̬ĶȲǵ棬ҲԱ档ˣҪƽ棬Ҫʵʩԭ
޶˹˫Ĺϵ˵۵㡣˵һ棬繤˴һʼͲͬʱҸߵĴʱҾɥʧԣΪʱʹִҵʱҵͿʹͣͲǰԣʱҳֵڹDZҪġһ棬ʱԼյʱͶгѹ˵Ȩ棬ûн֯ӶƾʱҵĴѹǹս䣬ս½ʱͬʱԭͿͬʱ档
һա׷ԭ򡱺͡гԭз䣬³ײ㣬һӵʱġͥϺõġŬġܹýġġģϸߣһûʱġͥϲġôŬġܵĽϲġһġѿһġһġһģϵ͡ԭǶԭĴ½ܺһǰһײܲԭΪȻʹԼֱ٣ʹúһײԸԼӶԼijԶ档һײܲԭΪԼǰһײŬذܵ󣬶ֱӱ֤Լֵõľֻǰӡ
ڱĿʼ˵ƶȡ塱ԷΪΪ˹۵ġ͡ѾʵֵġࡣҪһΪ˹۵ƶʵ֣Ҫܵõ໥ͻìܵĸἯŵĹͬܡ޶˹ΪԼƶһҪνĹ裬һԭȷһܾʵƶȺ۵ƣܶҶٵһ۵㡣
֪֮Ļĺ塣
ΪֹǷ˵ԭܱ֮ܶ˽ܣΪܺܺõشٽҵĺܴٽÿ˵档
߼ǣʵе ƶԭȹ淶 ÿ˵涼ߡԭǴʵ˳ĿΪÿߡԭԣʵÿ˵档
֪֮Ļһ߼֤ԭԡڡۡµ24У޶˹ƶԭԭ״̬֣һ״̬ÿ˶֪Լеλã֪Լļ֪ͥԼʲôײ㣬֪ԼΣÿ˶һ֪֮Ļ֮¡ÿѡ淶ʱͲȥ֮ÿ˵ĴȫһġʱǾͻṲͬѡԭ򡣶ѡ񣬿϶ǹƽģfairǡ÷ϡΪƽ壨justice as fairnessһԭѡ
߼ǣеĴڡ֪֮Ļ֮µ ƶԭȹ淶 ˹ƽԡԭǴӼ˳ĿΪʵֹƽԭԣ乫ƽԡ
ȻҪ֤ԭҪ֤ԣȴͬ˼·Ȼ;ͬ飬Ͼ߼ͬ
޶˹ԭҪҽܣȻӦôӴҵʵ޶˹ʵ߼ӦöԱǸ˵ˣ޶˹ԭľ󲿷ֵǰʵ߼ġҪⲢ˼ǷԭҲӦҪһ˼·Сǿ԰Ѽ߼˼·ǶԭIJԡǵ׺Ե֤
ģԭصʽʶ
1989޶˹εصʽʶ򡷢ң޶˹ⷽĹ۵һͼʽ

صʽʶԵԭ

ңѧڽ ףڸ˻С桢
۵ ڸƫĹ۵㼰Ϊ

һйͬÿ˶Լ棬ɴ˳ӦĹ۵㡢ӦΪ޶˹ͼʽеļס۵㲢DzʹãֻҪҲֹ۵ֻҪûҵìܳͻҲǿʵеġDzĽֵԣ˴ƣ飬ۣܲụڱΣȻdzڸ˻С棬ҼȻΪԽܣҲʹ衣һеĺܶ۵dzڸ˻С߸ƫģֻҪûз߱ȽϷ˵棬ûƻ߱Ƚƻҵ໥ӦÿԴ֮ÿ˶ܷĹ۵㣬Լ۵һų⣬ѹÿ˵档ǣһ۵棬ʮкڴҵĺӦλڱ۵ԼijʡݵƶһɣֹʡڱʡۣʮкڴҵĺӦñó׵Ĺ淶Լ
Ҳǿ԰ѼͱĹϵ˵ɣֻҪûй涨ģ۵㼰ΪԹطкһijһγijֱ๲ʶ涨ӱࡣ˵һֻҪûΥ淶ôΪ͹۵μ˵شӸ˳伫ΪԼı棬޿ָ޿ɷģǺϷġġġ˵һ˵ΪֻҪΥ˱࣬ǾһDZǴģһDzϷġ޶˹һ߼Ϊڼҿɫ¼DZ뱻ֹģΪ˵棬Ϊƻ໥ô˭ڼDzġû涨ô˭ڼġģȻȫǴӸļΪ
ÿ˶Լѧڽ̺۵㣬Ҳͼʽее첻ܹӦõûȥݡеŮԱŴɴеŮܶײףܶԸֱеűԿӱʾ𾴣еűҮձʾأеûиоֻ»ЩŶdz棬dzԼ޶˹ΪЩϣӦ໥ǿһɡŷʷ16ͷڽսҪԭ֮һǴ޷ԭԼͬˣڸڽ̡һҮʮ򯾴ھӡҮͷIJƤЬ׻ͷ޶˹˵ЩϴӦ໥ݣ˾໥໥ᡢ໥ӡ໥ޣôԴҶDzġȻ㿴λھӶҮղأȻҪƤЬΪȷʵܺãҼ۸ˡĻĴйĻĴȻѧ۵кܴͬüķֹ˫ģʹܹͬ죬Ժѧϵֲͬƽദҽĺŷ˹̵ӡŷ̵̩ھϽɽܵͬˡУҲϣDz˵ѧڽ̵ȵӦǶԪģĻϵĶԪִı
ǣѧڽ̺͵¹۵ϱָԹ۵㲢˵֮ͲйͬļֵˡûijֹʶԵΪ淶ǾͲһкƽгعͬڱָԵѧڽ̺͵¹۵ͬʱDZһЩʶԵ淶޶˹˵ЩʶƽȡƽȨ˼ɡεȣȻԭνʶıࡣڼұУٵģڽѧϰߣֻ涨бصЩΪߣȼ۽໥ضԷѧڽ̵ȹкʱܹ·ȵȣڵȺʱĬʥǹһŲܡǾĻҲͬĹ۵㣬ұ뺴˵ɡ˵Ĺ۵ÿ˶Ӧáر˵˵DZ⣬ÿ˹Ȼڽɣ塢ģһȺΪijȥ˺ˣǾDz塢ˣͱа̡ʵϣɱΪҹͬصĹ淶ܱϴҶܵɡ򣬴ûͳһ淶ά򣬾ͻ໥̣ǾǴ״̬ʤֻʤ߲˼롢ۺжɣ˵ɶȻܵؼѹԣȻѧڽ̺ĻҪֶԪ壬ڱصʽֱһԪۡ
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һǺٵģԾ֤ÿиĸɣ˼ɡжжɣҪijһڽ̻ѧ۵ͳһҵ˼룬ѹִ˼ļɵ˼˵ıԣѹѹԡⷽļ˾ڽ̲ȻǣҪõغŽͱѹ˼룬ôҲԸ⸶˼ѹֵĴۣʵϣһûбҪȥģҸɵ˼һŽѹ˸˼չήͺЧʡԴ໥Է˼ɣڴаһסҪʵһ㣬Ҫ໥ء໥ݵػÿԼԼǺ׵ģرˡȴǺѵģںһԽԽãʾŹԽԼԭʼԣԽԽк˽ʣӶҲԽԽܵ˽Լijɹ顣⣬ݺٻζţ8090ݶǼĹΪݺ٣ҲΪ˴ܸõչġ
DzȱٵģûǣҾͲܺƽгؽҲܲɴ˴洦޶˹˵صʽܣǽĻijһѧڽ̹۵㷢ֱӳͻôӦ÷ӱ淶˵ŷѧڽ̵ȹӦеġصʽʶʵȫԺǿ£ڽ̵ͽҲijѰһԵ1993֥Ӹٿڽ̴Ϊ־ʷϵһΣȫ򼸺ڽ̽ɵ6500ۼһãԣȫҪּǣÿ˵ϡɺƽȣĿģȨ壻ʵƽݣమҲǿ˵ȫҲصʽʶ
͢ٵĹ۵޶˹ǡ෴޶˹ΪǿڱĹ淶֮ºƽദ͢ΪIJͬᵼ´صijͻսƽദԽԽԶǣȻżǧڽ̵˿໥ƽֹΪʲô״Ͳڹ֮ʵأȻпڽսŷˣԾǰӣڽͳһŷ˵ĵ·ԽԽԶΪʲô֮ͲأȷڵĹ֮䣬ǿԼҵĿҵĸоǣϿĿǿҸԸ޶˹Ĺ۵㡣
ôصʽδأ޶˹˵DZ뾭ɵۣҿ֤ݡᾭ飬жϣγɹʶ
˵˼ұ໥ϵÿһϣûɹˡÿһϣ뻥岢ΪשߵˣӦðպ໥ϵֹϵԼΪ޶˹ܳЩˣԵˡ

ڵ˱оϵнʱˡ
ѧ䡶ιĽβ˵ͳǶǰοһĻǵ˸ıһʱˣθһ໥໥ĻʮͬĹ۵㡣оϵȻ̸˺ܶ࣬ľǣΪ˸ԵӦ໥໥裬ƶӦ淶γӦ԰ֻĹϵ̶
໥͸ͨеġΪDzھ롢໥Ҫɵƽȵϵ໥Ҫԣͨý飬ƷͨɡƽȺȨЩ淶ý飬ɶȡƽȸкȨɴˣܵΪһˡȥϵҸС
һЩԭƵλռߣԹϵԹϵʷת͹пܻʧȥһЩȴ治ϵջ񣬶ҺܿǵôʧǿܻõǰûеĸˮƽǹԱԱ󼤷Ľǻɫṩ˹ƷõǷĵ𾴶ǹƤϵĹ˳ĵϲĮӡû˻ϲһֻ֪ıȡϴݶԹ׵ǣһλȷԴٽΪΣУ׿гЧǾһõǵİͬһЩԭƵλռߣܵһЩ淶ԼDzԽǮȥƽԼɵһЩ£Ҫཻ˰ȴ治ϵջ񣬶ҺܿǵôʧǻʹЩʮƶ˾ôӶʹðȫȶ˵õԱͬأǻᵽУһָ飻Ǵľ250ԪҪˣdzڵµҪҪ׷ָߵ飻ֻжףſܻ顣ӵһסǶ֧һλʧѧͯҲǴĸԸѡߡ
ζţֻ֮ʳɹɶȡƽȡ໥ܸԻáһԼ澡ϣ᲻Լ棬һаȫСܻͬкʵָСⲻǵ¸ߵֵھ䱦Ȼÿ˵ֻԼеڣһȥŬе˵ˣԼܸؽС
йǧԵģӦҲǵʶС죬ŴũҵҵתͣйѸٵֹĻᡣʵϵı仯ʹӦ仯ʹǶϵʶԾԾʶٽǸõؽ໥Ļϵ
ɺƽȾʶĺݡƾôͳ͹йЩйеıӡӴ弶缶ίἶְȴֽĸǨɡɵȴӹɶȣӳƽȡƽȵȷƽԡ淶ıתͲӦúҲܺҲӦ̫죬Ҳ̫졣ǣ۶ǶӦȷǵ淶ı﷽򣻷ȷǵ·ʹۻٺܶࡣ
𽥵ؽЩΪǾȻԣֻΪܸõ֯໥ĻϵӶʹҹܻͬݡǴͲԷʽΪԼıرЩӵнǿˣᲩƵתͣÿ˻ԽԽ壬ں˵Ĺϵϣ𽥵ؼ𽥵ӻΪǶԼΪġ
Թϵ֮£ǻụΪͷڻԹϵ£Ϊ飻Թϵж־úǸụΪֵܽáҹ׸56һҡ˵ĺ֮ڽֵܣ·¡˵һ룬Ǿǰ˺һమǷdzõͼһΪˣΪҡľǾںܶʱܶطﲻ־磬𲽽ӽһ硣ζÿ˵ĸ֮빲صģÿ˵ı綼˵ı磬Ҳ˵ı磬ӾͻɱͷĴ갢ǣÿ˵ϲ綼˵ϲ磬Ҳ˵ϲ磬Ҧ衣 עͣ
ŢƢǢȣJohn Rawls , <Justice as Fairness: Political not Metaphysical> ,appeared in Philosophy and Public Affairs , Volume 14, No.3 (Summer 1985) . Copyright ? 1985 by Princeton University Press .
ɣۡ޶˹λ룬йѧ磬1988ꡣԣ2ҳ
ʣJohn Rawls, <Distributive Justice>, from Philosophy, Politics and Society , 3rd series, ed. P. Laslett and W.G.Runciman . Copyright ? Basil Blackwell ,1967.
ˣۡ޶˹λ룬йѧ磬1988ꡣģ2ҳ
̣ͬϣģ56ҳ
ͣͬϣģ57ҳ
Σͬϣģ7179ҳ
ϣJohn Rawls, <A Kantian Conception of Equality>, from the Cambridge Review (February 1975).
Уۡ޶˹λ룬йѧ磬1988ꡣģ7176ҳ98103ҳ
ѣͬϡģ131ҳ
ңJohn Rawls,<The Domain of the Political and Overlapping Consensus> , 64 N.Y.U.L.Rev.233 (1989).
(15):Austin Ranny, <Governing: An Introduction to Political Science>, Copyright ? 1993,1990 by Prentice Hall,Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company .

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