ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ΪʲôҪƽʵ淶
ƽȵı
--ִѧ ϵ֮16
Ⱥ

ΪʲôҪƽȷȥ᣿Ϊƽȸе׷ǵһֻ󡢻档˹˵ص󡣵ͱ˷ϵнʱÿ˶һֺͱȵϣԼԼ¡һ֡һнϸߵIJǶԱ˵ԽУԼȱǿȱúãȱ˵λߣԼͻʮָˣеãôộƽȸǽϵ͵IJ֣Ҳ˵òԽУҲҪƽȸУҲҪijЩƽȸУʮܡʲôʲôûģǿݻƵġЩԼλߵġõģԼˣԹߡᣬǵùˣDzŸءһ²⣬ҲԸ⿴һƽʱڸԼ·ˤһӡһж͵İ༶гɼǰʮλѧЩԽУʮλĻЩԱСѧУЩɼѧǻԱͬʱѧУǻϺЩɼõͬѧʦУԽԽΪǵһֻûеõ㡣
ǿԴ״̬淶Ƕȥһƽ״̬Ȼеʮֲƽȣ֮롢ɵλᡢʳסеˮ׼ȵȷкܴࣻеʮƽȣеƽȰ벻ƽȣе30ķƽ70ķ治ƽȣе70ķƽ30ķ治ƽȡIJηģ䱳ԭڣ

һΪʲôũҵġԹϵռλ壬Ǻܲƽȵģ
йǧν⽨ᣬǺܲƽȵᣬ˵ǵȼᣬӻʵ۵󳼡֪֪أһƷƷȻܰѹȵĹˡͬŷԹҲ״ӹӡоũũũũūŴӡƶȣţɲᣬ͵ײޡѧϳΪͳᣬȼһ
κһƽȻƽȵij̶ȣ֮жһָ꣬ÿܵȨСҲһָꡣڡΪԪƽȱ绤һһ׼˵һУһԴֱתΪԴǮԴȨѧɹɱ˲Ȩܸ㶨жǾ˵ܲƽȣΪֿԴǮȨ˾ͱԴ˸ơ֮һ̶Ἧţţ¢һԴǾƽȵ״̬Walzer,1983
ӡȹŴźɲգǷֱڽ̺;´Ȩ弯ţƾξϵͳελзĸֺôԽλƽڣֻܴͼְҵɨӶ˵ȡ̶Ե¢ϣͨϮƶȻ߼巽ʽάġӡƶϮģŴŷ޵ĹҲϮģͳĹɳʡʵ۵ϮģūũũҲϮġȽ϶ԣŴйڹԱʵпƾƺһ⡣ǣʱйͨά¢ϣ˵ǣһһλ˹ٵΪģȻͨ׬ǮȫӦԡȻ¢ϵij̶Ҫѷֱ˵ϮƣȻԿһԹ̶ἯŴϲ㣬ԹλΪģͨ巽ʽԴ
ڴͳͨƶõȨ˵ĿԴһϵԼ򵥵״ũֹҵʲƸڲƸ䡢λصȷ涼ơƣΪȱ֯Եڸ涼еƽȣ޿κΡ˳ܡͳǸǣһжİšʼʱǿܻܽ˵ľˡˡˣͬͽ˵˵ܳԱůѾ֪ˣ˵СƽȸвҪҲգҪҲҪ粻ȥ롣ȻҲȫòڼС֮䣬ܵƽȸСеģʱİǶڼͥ塢ͬ磬иġǼ˹Աֻк¡־塢ηԹߡݣеͬϲ֮顣ԱڰУ죬ѹ֬Ķħڸڰյġ֮޷͹ԱͬһΪԵĴͳĹٸѹ̰գΪպ͹Աദʱܲƽȡ
ԵĴͳУͳμŵڰǰгֵԽУһ̫үʵȻҲҳһصԼأ̾͸еﻨ㣬棬ָʹ󣬲ֺռ̫үûԽУûУûƽȸУûʶϵĺǷϵģⲻָʲƷ棬100λܲƷ200ɵĹٸ30λ20000˵İռ70λҲָس̶ȵķָ100λܵЧӦٸ9010ٸ֪úࡢܼѣأûƽȸУԹأЩ̫үʲôϵйͳʶ̬Уͳ֮ҲǰѰտţ֮࣬λֱӳ˺ţʲôƽȹϵھʶ֮֡ʶǵʱԲĹϵڵʵ̫֡ү⣬ʲôأһλͨũΪ쿪ۣͻȻ״ԪȻҲ롣
ˣͳữ̶Ǻܵ͵ġΪũҵֹҵԸ㾭ã԰֮ȱΪͳμŶ԰ջǷϵĹϵǵȼƹϵҲܱܾͱܣͳμźͰյĹϵ90ֻ˰ϵġһԭʽᡣһͥһԭӣ໥ûʲôϵʱûƽ淶Ϊֻ֮ҪΧ˱屾磬ͲʲôϵٸͰ֮ǴIJƽȹϵҲɸı䡣ʱйĴƽ˼ѧңƽȡһʲôǣһŲᱻǿߺ͹ѣDZĵ˵Ρ
κһУʲƸһڸԱֲ֮״ͬƽȸԼظСԽҲһ״ôΪʲôũҵᡢԹϵռᣬǺܲƽȵأ
ΪũҵʱĹңijһǿľ¼ͨġǴһʼǺ͹İһԹϵƾѾıƵλDzҪܶض߰յʲƷҲظСλСΪʽѹաǻڸܱʤԼķ˶ʵǻϡλԽеȸ߰һȣϵ˶µˡؼǣDzض࿼ǰǵĸܡԸ棬Ϊ۰ո˻DzˣǵҸʵӰ졣һdzձȥˣٲҲ췴Ǹ˲ˣжӰ죬ҲͲͳμŵˮƽӰ졣ˣչ˰ǵ𣿷ȥӰǵ𣿷ȥذաƽȶԴǵҪ

ΪʲôԹϵռλ壬ƽΪ֮һ
ǰ˵Щ淶Եɻʵϵģַٽ˻ʵϵƽһ淶ͬˡѾΪһֵ
ѧϰ߰ijЩ˼ҹΪƽߡ޶˹ÿ˵ҪPrimary GoodsƽȵģǸThomas NagelšƽȡֽšԴƽȡһЩ˼ǡƽȡģŵ˺ͲϡʵϣȻŵ˷ԾҪƽȷ䣬ÿ˵ȨƽȵģҲÿӦƽȵķɺδţڼḣʱÿ˵ļֵһģһᣬһʰƶµᣬߵĸЧͬȵġ߸ţܹٴСܲƸ١ѧʸߵͣйѡжһһƱ֮˵ƽǵֵеҪءһֲƽԵֵţһܵ㷺ܺͻӭ˵ûСƽߡ͡ƽߡϸ֣Ҳ˵ֵѧƽģֻڣǿͬƽȡ໥۵ģҪҪƽȣǣҪĸƽȡ
ôЩѧΪʲôԼͬ˿ƽһ
ҲǿԴ̽⡣
һƽΪһ淶ÿ˶ԡԼƽһձΪġ
ʹáɡʱһһ״һһһ淶ͬ˵ƽȡʱҲDZ˼DZ뿴һһ״Dzֱ֤淶ġ˵ϣɣͱȷһ淶ҵɡ˵ϣȢӣᡢ˾ͱͨ淶һɡΪһԱϰһн꣬ͱ뽨淶ʵƽȡ˵κһ淶ԱǶÿijͳһšԹϵζÿ֮Ҫ໥ϵᣬĿֻΪÿߡǸ˵ĻƽȸͬҲ˵Ļ˵ĿΪÿĸ㣬ߵ淶ôɡƽȾһ淶ľ廯ȥȥ̸ÿԱ棬ֻǿ̸
ÿ˶жƽȸеÿòͻʧ䡢ѹʹ࣬˵Ļ棬Ͷˮƽ໥ġһѧʿҵϵṩнǧڲ˼ʹϵгԱ֮ʮƽȣṩнǧڲȼɭϣԱ֮ȨİźܲƽȡոձҵǮλʿܻܿѡУֻҪͿܸԸȥСΪг˵Ҫе濼ǣҪԱǵĻԣͼҪǵ룬ҲҪעǶƽȸе
ڶԵϵʹÿΪԼĸ㣬Ըȥ˶ƽȸе󣻶ÿ˵ƽȸжõ㣬ΪҸõؽлԺ¼ʵĻ
ϵУ֯ˣͼ˵棬ӶԼ档ڻϵУÿ˶Ҫȥͼ˵棬ַʽԼ档˵棬ζŸṩס̡ҩƷƷζŸṩƽȸԽУ˾ϵۣԿΪ𣩡һֽĹϵıģĻģ㾴һߣҾһɣྴֻԵ̬ȵĽУÿ˵涼õߡ
ǿҪƽȵˣдƵȺ壬֯ԵǿĻˮƽߡЩʷᡢͳԼԭγɵġˡӡڰˣйũ¸ڹˣȵȡǸܵ淶ԼIJƽȴʱǷԼˮ׼еȽײԼϲܴʱȻƽǻΪ˵õƽȶŬһУǵֱ̬Ӱ쵽ײʵ֡ײ󻯳ԵȥȺƽȸУʹƽ˳Ӷõؽ
ˣÿ˶ϣɶȡƽȸУÿ˵ӦڻԲвϵش˴õ㣬ΪԺĻΪ淶ɺƽȵ໥Ĺϵ״̶̬ʹЧʸߵءЧõؽкͲġҲô˵ͨ淶Է໥Ʒͨƽȡ淶໥ɶȺƽȸС ξȷƽԹ淶
DZ뿴ɡƽΪ淶źܴȱݣǾģԡ˵ʮϰ٣׷ɣ֮ϵdzɰǧУЩӦͨ淶ԱϣЩܳΪ淶Ҫһ塣Ϊ淶ɲɡɣDzɡʤǵϵУЩӦñƽȣЩǿƽȣͬҪϸΪ淶ƽȲƽȡƽȣDzƽȡ
˵㣬һ˵ʮֵIJƽȡĸ涼ƽȡյƽȸеò㣬Ƕͬʮ֮͡Ǿ˵Чʺƽһìܣں̶ܴʵ໥ٽġƽȸеòȱԸ۾һ˾ڲǴһĽǶȿȱƽȵĹ˾ȱЩеƽȸܴԱȱŬ顣ȱƽȵᣬ֮ҲȱŽᣬȱĻԡνƽȸУȻ˵һҪнˮһָƶȵһͬʡͬͬꡢ಻Ǻܴ󣬵ȵȡһ˵ʮֵƽȡ淶ȷڸ涼һġȨᡢˮƽƽȵġһҵƽȸеǶˣŬĻҲûˣԽҲ׷󲻵ˣ÷չᷢչĻʧˣ˵㶼ϣ״ϣģijм״̬˵Ͼֹƽȡһж֮ijƽ⡢С
֡м״̬ƽ¼档
һһתΪԴĿԴ
ִĻᣬһֹᡣֻзֹרҵǿЧܲھáΡĻֵȷķֹȨתΪǮѧˮƽרҵλȵȣͬǮҲתΪȨѧԴһжҪĹٱλᣬֻʹ֮Ṧܷչٻֹ㹻ʱҪ߹٣ֻƾ賤ڵΪľ񣬶Ϊù˹ھߵùѧ󽱡Ҫɹҵңֻƾ辭Ӫܣܿ͹ԱϵȨǮȥչҵҪĽڣֻƾĶ顢У˼ǿѧ־ı༭ԷģͽܲŵԱԳԺȺԻĿ
Ṧܵķֹõ֣ζÿררҵ͵λʽһֳԼкܺõĵλУһܻһԺѧһרҼһλǧ̣ҲʲôԱУ룺ְҵɾ͸УҲҵְҵϣ̸˭˭ͣƽƽദһȻڸڲȻеλ𣬵ڸ֮һƽȵ̬ơDzΪ˸ƽȲȥֹģֹȷʵٽƽȸеļǿ
ڶڸȨϣгԱһƽȡǻƽϵҪ֡ڴͳУνӷͬһջײȨͷɴDzͬġȼƾζIJƽȣ淶ɷϵķIJƽȡ
ԷġȨԡڷǰеĹƽȵġӢֳγɵڡԡƽȣȨȨ׷ҸȨϹ䲼ġȨԡеһǡڶͥгԱĹϼƽȵĺͲƵȨijϣɡƽĻȨԡһȷָɣϺȨһƽȡǽҲڲǿǰƽȡΪʲôƶÿһƱΪʲôǹнײһһƱƲһƱƲһƱΪʲôǸбҵһһƱƱҵһƱʿһƱڲһƱÿһƱǿľƽȸСƽȸе˵ĸ֮һ⵰̣СѧҵǴѧڣˣϣƽȶԴÿ˶βõƽȵأÿ˶Ƚϵ泩
˵ȨƽȰɵλϵƽȣȨϵƽȣÿ˶ѡȨһһƱҵƽȣƸáнְȷ治ҵظԱͬΪijԱŮԻũģ͸Ա͵ı꣬ȻͶԹ˾ĹײԱϵƽȣƷܾܾijЩ˹ķݲܾܾijЩ˵⡣
ҹũһҪ棬dzоũܵDzͬġƽȵģũǵˮƽҲǵƽȸСڻǿĵйռ˿ڴũǵĻò㣬й˵Ҳòȥ⣬⣬ΪũǵˮƽǵӸУҲΪй˵ĸ
ڻϺܽܵƽȵԴɹҴ˰ͳһ֧
ģ𱣳һΧ֮ڡֻʲƸʮѷ£Żᶩ淶ʹÿ˵ˮƽͬǿά±ԭʼ䣬սڼֻڼ䡣ʱҹ˲ʲôܡʲôԽУʲôЧʣƽȸж˲ϣҪάȺ档һתǾͻ׷õ׷Чʡ׷ԽС׷Ĵ졣ʱûĸȥ׼ǿҵˮƽһ¡˺ƽȣᱻΪǻġΪȻԱǵƽȸУȴҪ渶ܴĴۡ
ȻҲףΪӦһЩ˲ƽȵʵһгϰۣǿԽܵġֽһ̶ȺͷΧڶûϵƶֻij̶ȣϵ0˵ȫƽȣ0.2ʾʮƽ0.2-0.3ʾȽƽ0.3-0.4ʾԺ0.4-0.5ʾϴ0.5ϱʾ⡣ѧҸǣһƶֻﵽһ̶ȣͻ᲻ȶͨ˵ǣ04Ϊ䡱һϵ06ùᴦڿܷҵġΣա״̬ƽ0522ĻϵζŸõٹѾ൱ӽ06Σ״̬
й˶ڲƸһЩ˵ҪڣƸĻòϷΪЩƸкܴ󲿷̰۶ģǹϷֹʲģ͵˰©˰ģ߿ӶģͨȨǮ׶ģͨ¢϶ġǣһλϰ壬ƸԴװסôµгĴǣڳÿõͱ¸ڹǣۡסȢģءƣʲôоأǮȫǺϷ׬ġЩ߻᲻ʲôҲ̫ᡣǵ̬ìܵģһ֪Щϰھ÷չȱ٣ǽ˰Ĵ󻧣صľ÷չḣ벻ǣһ棬Ŀ޴ˮƽIJ࣬ػкˣҲ˲鵽ʧܸСɥܴ졣Dzϰ壬г̬ǣҲϲǣͬǡ۲ȷʵԵխɶҲȷʵԼͱ˶ɴҶǷӣ۲ͼɶĵȷ˵ṹһ֡Ϊһλϰ壬ܱ۳ƹȻˬЩԼͰٱǧ˶Լij֮顢֮⣬dzˬǣı۳гij֮Уdzһǧ˰Ԫ߳Ƶ꣬·߾һԪз񹤣ЩҲܵ˶Լĺ۲ͼɶģܵ϶Լų⣬ܵ˫ϵľ롣ּɶʡų;УһͨijЩʽֳЩڲͬЩ˴һϵеIJͺԣȫУоܳ⡣
һָ˺ƽIJģгìܡ˫ìܹϵ໥Ҫ໥ͻԼǼ󲢴棬⼸֮ìܡβܾ⴦ЩìܣΪͨһӦͼԼĺ۲ֻҪ˵ǮȷʵͨԼԲܡͨĹ׶õģӦóӵвƸǺģʹ̲סԼĺ۲ϣͼø˶ཻһЩ˰۽˰˰ҲҪ̫ߡΪһӦöͨߵ̬һЩǮҵҪԼ۽ƽ˰ʱҪеִ
ˣ׬˴ƸӶʹƶdzʱʹǾȫϷ;׬ģҲӦͨ۽Ƶ˰գͨҵֲһ˫ĺгӶ˫ĸ

ģƽȵЧӦ
⣬ڵһЩΪΪӣһЩ̽֡
ǰ˵κӰֵţƽΪһҪԪأ˵Щֵţƽġǣ塰ƽ塱ȻǴӹĽǶ˵ġϰ̸ġƽ塱ָƽȣҲǾ롢ˮƽûһʹвҲ˵ǡƽ塱ǡƽ塱ڱĵУŵ㡰𱣳һΧ֮ڡ
κһ֡塱һֵţdzŵΪġӦΡƽ߿ʵ̫֮󣬾ͻ˵DzӦõģӦòȡʩı״СƶࡣˣӵдƸȫƾ˵ڷܺͽڼƾ̡߲ܣ׬ȡģᡢȻԣڵϿԣóСIJƸᣬԼƶࡣ
ƽʵȫŵĸõģǾǻһ̶ϴǵԡͶʻԡо߹ĻԣǵЩԵļͻǵԱ룬˰գGDP½˭޺ôƽǸŵĺôȺ洦洦ʲƷķϣҲƽȸеϡ
ǣϸϵ߽жԻ̸Դ淶ʱƽ߲ܾ˵ΪŶԵҪʵС̸жԻ˫Ĺͬۡˣƽ߱óݡ
һǹġһ֧־ƽ塣ţҪҪȷһ淶ؼǿĸһһˣÿ˶һ̶ȵ״׹淶ʵʩ󣬸ÿ˶һض̶ȣÿ˵Ȩһģһһ̶ȫֵܵҹ淶ʵʩҲһֵб淶淶ӦѡֵĹ淶ΪһɹŮҵңס󷿡󳵡͡ŮѧʱÿһǧʵѾûʲôˡһҲ˯һŴٷٶ࣬ҲûʲôȤˡ̫ٶһٸˣȴеûʲôθڣ̫ӢϵԵʲôأ˵Ҿͷԭ˹ʱĶӣȻм϶û¶٣ʱ˸ͷ㡣ھѧϣ߼ЧӦݼɡŮҵٶһǧ̶ȲûʲôߣѾܵľˣĽѾûоˡǣһǧָһǧ¸ڹ˻ƶũ񣬾Ϳѩ̿ӹı׼Ȼַ䷽ʽḣֵҪԣӦý淶һֲƸóҪˡ
ֹ۵һǰᣬǰеԱͬһ壻ڣжٸ˾жٸ壬һǰDzʵģǻ˵ֻҪҵǮǺϷ׬ģܵľҲҪܣЩ˾ֻܾܲԷʲô£ˣȱ˵ġ
һݿԳΪֵʽϵݡǸڡƽȡ˵ƽǣԱ֮ӪһܰгķΧֵܰѰ໥ġNagel,1977һǴÿ໥ϵȥġһijԱǵ乲ͬԺϵʮǿ໥ϢdzʱÿԱӴ˽⵽ԱЩ˻ûúܺáõʲô̶ȣЩ˻úܲʲô̶ȣҶ֪ʱڵ˳˿Լú֮⣨ÿ˵ǵһλģҲԾԾءٵؿDZ˵ÿ˶ٵؿDZ˵ʱͻγһֹͬĸܣ廥Ժǿ໥ס໥໥䲻ȱ٣ôֿDZĹͬĸܾͻԽǿǰǸ˵ģһֵܰѰ໥ġҶһͬܳ⣬湦Ǹ㹫ʽͿܱҹͬܡһʮֵܽõļͥdzdzʹƾǮ˼ְǵ¸УԸⷢȱͰԸⷢȱ˭Ҳָʲôһֵߵ£ĻֵܽǶָûͬġûġûԡַΧ֮£һǹ˼ԱĿָܵ𣬶ԼҲͬġĺԣԻȥˡˡе˺͸˶ͬ⣺ӦðˡǵһͥԱֵ֮ܽãҵĹϵŽᡢгÿ˲ǶеãҪһۡһױһһأҪŽѰг˼ʹϵ
Үǡƽ塱ļߣڡ¡ʽƽȣFomal Legal EqualityһԼĿҪ㡣
һҪǣŵ߼ֵɡ⵱Ȼ״ϵɣǹ淶ϵɣȨǿ÷ɣɡͶɡɡȷԱнʵɣҲгù淶ϵһϵȨһ̶ϲȡƽƶһЩɷȥСʱͻЩȨͻʱҮ˼վȨһΪƽʵķɷ棬Dzġ
˵ǰƽȣɵΨһƽȣҲΨһɵƽȡɲƽûйϵںܶ෽עƽȡûʹijЩ˵˸ΪɹɵļֵͻΪѷɫ˵ҲһҵľϽΪƽȵᣬһƶ಻ᣬʵǻӭᡣǣǾǿȥʵΪǾɵ֮侭״ƽȣһõʵDzǿƵķʽȥıһʵЩҪ۽˰ȷɵķʽȥıһʵţǺЭģHayek,1960
չҮ˵۵㣬ǰȨһ淶߼ֵȨȣǴҪġƽûзɣôԽܣÿȨƽȵģǣƽȷȨǾͲʵƽȡȻҲƶ̫Dzõģǣƶһ࣬ͻַǵȨDzɽܵġ˵ÿĸƶ淶ij㣬߱׼Үȴѹ淶еһ֣ҲȨΪ㣬Ϊ߱׼Ӧףǹ淶˶෴淶ֻΪ˵Ҫ塣ΪԼţΪ˹淶ţΪ˹淶ϵеһɲֻš֪֮侭״ƽȣһõ飬ȴΪıһ״ҪȨͻɲģDz̫ƫִȨȻΪҪǣִһϵеĹ淶һϵеֵȨֻ֮һҲλ
ڶҪ㣬Ү˵ƽȣȻԴΪݣŲȡʩDZƽȣ֤ȻDzʵġʵϣÿ˵ص㡢ԸͬǴȻ߶ġ˼ֵֶԪ
ֳǿ˵ƽȣ˵Ķԣͱ˸˼ֵǵҲɥʧ壨Hayek,1960
ƽΪ֤ԼļֵۣȷʵʹˡƽȡݡǶԡƽȡ仰ʱ԰ΪһֶʵȻ״̬IJ⣬ô仰Dzʵġһ˵ʹ仰ʵҲܽ˵ΪʱʵƽȵģǾӦԺļʮﶼƽȡһʵġȻ״̬ƲֵġӦȻĹ淶ġҲǿ԰ѡƽȡ仰ΪһֵּһԺҮ˲ͬƽ壬֤ķʽҲһʵȻ״̬۳ֵӦȻĹ淶һ֤ͬʽ˵Ϊÿʵ϶ǸԵġԪģƽ÷ԾӦġ֪ʲô͡ϣʲô¡һССϲĸҪѧԣǾǸĸIJԣҪӵĸһСũ壬ڵ￴еĻʮ룺СΪʲôܾѩ⣬ҾͲܣDz˵СѩǸԣũСһ³һҲǸԡũСɲҪĸԣֻƽȣֻҲܾѩ⡣ûĸԣǵ塣ˣڿӦȷʲôĹ淶ʱֻܴǵϣǵܴʵϵ״̬
ƽҲãƽҲգνֻҪÿ˶õƽȶԴ֮ģǾҪȥһϵƽʵ淶

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1 Michael Walzer, <Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality>, Copyright 1983 Basic Books, Inc.1984.
2 Thomas Nagel, <Eqality>, delivered as the Tanner Lecture on Human Values at Stanford University,1977.
3 F.A.Hayek, <The Constitution of Liberty> ,Copyright ? 1960 the University of Chicago Press .

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