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һƪ˵Ϊ޹ءġðģʱӦȷ淶ȻͬĹ淶ȷʽĹ淶ɡУһ֣Ļֹᷢϵ羭úκͻֹϵȻҪȷ淶Ȼ淶ȷʽɵľ巶Χ
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һ֮£иţһЩͻͻìܵŶʹһơʾͺһźܶ塣ͺñһ˵һµطҪһ衱ÿ͵ȴһȣԭط衱ζſȣ˽ԼҪIJǿȶǡ衱ȴһԭط衱ζſȻζDzζŲ衣˶ԡ衱÷ȫͬ
ͼ19͵Ӣ20͵ԼйIJͬ壬˵Ǻ͵ʱݽĹϵ

һŷ͹
йŷᷢչijڣũҵʽռλרͳλСһ齮ڴׯѪԵϵ֮⣬ũΪĹ໥ûʲôϵϵDZɹԼĹɸ˰ʱȻڹٵطһЩҵֹص⵽רƹѹƺ̰ǹ͵ŷ޷⽨ʽ16ŷ޵רңǹŴйĪˡ˼ʹϵԱΪģԴˣȤ߿ԿһоϵСʱŷ޲˽֮ŷʲ׼ڸԭϷչ׳󣬱㿪ʼרƹаˡҪ󣺹ƺ͸Ԥҵ֯ͷչ淶ֹ淶˽вȨԸԼΪϰҲΪгù淶
ǽ˵гãƺָһʽָҵּϢãʵϣ˵һᾭ÷˼ʹ淶ˣĸ↑ǰ͸ĸ↑źйڴչҵ֮ǰüƻù淶ķʽ֮гù淶ķʽҮ䡶漣Ҳ˵áгáʱʹ뵽һͣʵָһ֡򡱣Ү˳֮Ϊ򡱻Է򡱣ӦýСгԾ򡱣Hayek,1976e˵Ĺ淶ԿԽСгԾù淶ǽ˵ġгá׼ȷܵ˵ӦǡгԾù淶
ŷ޽1619ͣӢµʽũҵչɹҵũݻΪҵߣ֮ԽԽس˷ֹϵԼάʹٽϵгԾù淶ԭǿǹԹıͳιϵΪۺгԾù淶֮µĹԽԽࡢԽԽǿֹϵ̬ͺ͹ıͳιϵ̬ԽԽijͻֹϵ̬ԽԽҪԼĶԺʹԡǰȨڹǾһеģûijIJƲ˹ںͬʱƫ̻һijҵ¢ϣùʽ𣬿Ժijǩ˺ֲִͬСԴˣʲ׼Լҵ治ŽԹֿƺΪ˵Ӣ1688ꡰٸʤ󣬷1830ɹȨʲ׼ΪġгԾù淶ǵռλ
ⷽľǵ˹ܵġۡдͼġξѧԭɾ۸ггڣȫĽԶ֮ȻЭڡ֡ĵ£ͳһ׷漫ͬձϵһˡɣҵķչʹľˮƽߣȻߵķȲͬ˵ҵԼӦġгԾù淶ʹ棻ֱϣʲ׼
šгԾù淶ĶԺʹԣ䡶ѧ˵ʷʮ¡塱н֡塱Ϊ塱1973ҲDZоϵ̸ĵһֺ塣˵˵塱Ϊͬʲ׼Ĺ۵ͬмȵĹȤζͶҲͬƻȡҵĹ˽׼۵һ¡ԷľΪĿꡣ˵ġ塱ָûйҸԤгá
˵ũҵУķɢԣȱ໥ĺϵֻȨϵ˹ҵ˺ϵֺϵΪ˹ˮƽϣǿ˵־ϵĺϵԼάٽġгԾù淶ռݿƵλᷢչһ޴ԣ塱ʵҲһ޴ʷ
ʷȡһ̱ʽݽɹ˺ܶµ⡣ϵķֹٳɺƶ˹ĺϵþ淶ֺ֯ϵǣĽһչĺϵԽ˾ϵķ룬չΡĻѡ֡ʽȸĹ㷺ĺϵϵкһ棬Ҳгͻһ棬ǺdzͻҪ淶֯ЭǣԭġгԾù淶ڽԴھھͲӦڹ㷺ĺϵˡϵĺϵȻΪҪѲǹ㷺ϵΨһIJ֣ϵĹ淶ҲȻΪҪѲӦڹ㷺ϵ淶ΨһIJ֣Ȩᷢչ׶Σһܹͳһ֯ϵġȨԵ淶ȻǰȨҲǡгԾù淶ֻơΪʲôܷ80IJ̸ֶƣûô̸гԾù淶Ҳǿ˵гԾù淶ǾûԵ淶ϲ㽨Ե淶
һ˾һϵеľܲãҲиŵIJžִһϵе淶ߵĹ淶ǾƣҲиĹ淶гԾù淶ǾĹ淶ڹ˾Уܲһ㲻ȥֲžǵĹֻǰסķ򣻵ʹԼȨԤžĹͬھУһ㶼ɾù淶֯͹淶ǵľûƲУⲢûзƵԡûһЩгʧ顱Ҫƽе¢ϣ罨СûһЩìܣƶ󣬾ҪöηķʽԽ
˵гԾù淶ֱʲ׼棬ôֱڽлԲĵȫ档
Ƶԣ䡶ѧ˵ʷʮ¡塱н֡塱Ϊ塱1973ҲDZоϵ̸ĵڶֺ塣˵塱㷺屻ͨ׳֮ΪΡĺ塣ζűѡƣѡᡢѡȻͬκ׼ʶ̬Ⱥš˵δͳʽķչ㡣
ڲӢ巢չʱ˵塱1846Ӣﵽ߷壬ʱϳ﷨óΪӢĹߡǣڴ֮ǰԼIJҵƶȣгԾù淶ڹߵ˼жѾǡΪȻҵڷٷչˡֹҵߺ͹ũȻࡣ1930ӢῪʼͨ涨ͶʱȻԼɣͬ棬ȴԽԽ࣬ڳ˹˺͹ҵĶһУоһΪǸг嵥͹Խ֧֡
ΪԲҵƻԵķ;ʩΪڿûнƵĹҵҵڴٵͬʱҲ˶ᰲȫȶһв
1867꣬ʲ׼Ϊıص൱һӢѡȨζһȺͶƱ˵ij֣ǵһĵDZϹʡͶʱ͹ӶڶŹҵʶǵԼɣҲڼ̸С˵Խ壬ʱԭᳫ˵ֻѡ񣺻㹤˵󣬴Ӷ巢չΪ壻߼壬ôһ彫
ָӢǣûͣտʼʱΪʲ׼ҵ˵ĽɫǷչΪȫԵ˶Ӣʱ߶ȹҵĹңĹҵһõȨij̶DZĵطκͬĽ׼еġҲһ֣ŽͥҪķչΪģεߺϷԣгԭǾеҪ淶עƽȺ͸൱塣
ˣŷʷгԾù淶ĸԤһרƹģƵġԤרƹʱгԾù淶ǽģԤʱDZضʱ˵ġ˽вȨΪгԾù淶ĺĸרȨ׼ĽϮʱǽģԴȫƵĹԼʱƫġ ִĺ
ʷݽ˳򿴣巢ȣǿгĴԡչ壬ǿƵԣƿһЩɣɷɺ͹ʽгõԼһݽǷˣҿ˵ѾˡУҮ˵˷ַչŹ壬гҲΪ塣Ȼʴѭؾɡ̲Է⡢Ӧǰᾳ˼ԹҮ˲ԸƺţרдһƪΪʲôһߡ£ԼǸߡǡͳϵߡȻ˻ǰߣҲ˳ƹҮΪŵ塣
Ҫ˵ǣȻڵѾû壬ߵδͣϢӶʹʱҪʱʱע⵽гЧãѶгĸԤһʿɶֹˮƽϡˣڵȻҮ˵˵Ĺ۵ѾӦᾳԾʮҪṦáҮϣҶгĸԤ0ȻˣԿ԰ָԤֻܽͣ12ˮƽûйҮɵĺָԤܻﵽ45ĿܻõЧӦˣڵ۵ģǸԤ0101267һҶгĸԤΪ0ǾDzʱ˵ģǣָԤֻ12ˮ׼ϣǾȻмֵʵ壬ж˵ߡߡǵ߳Ϊ岢׼ȷΪDzŹȫгԤŵǾָԤԿԽΪ塣
ڵ˵¾ǹ壬˵ı壬ɹ͵ڡιеġʶ̬֣Դ˲ͣRanny, 1993
ı壬ھԹ˾гĸԤСҪģDZ֤ͬõִС˲Ʋ֤ɾӦپþʤߵ桢ʧߵʧþӪгֵľӪɣǻIJƷӶӮͬʱΪ˴ҵᡢΪᴴƸǵľӪܵԤǵܵڣԾͻήͣͶʾͻήͻ½ҵͻ١
ºڽĸԤܴԾִͳºڽΪְڡŵһԹϵȶĻͼͥŸĸԺӵȨûбɫݵĸɾı־͵ӽĿŶϽáΡȨȥʵЩֵӦҪѧӦýֹֹֹ̥ͬȾɫݵĽĿ
壬ھŶԹ˾гһ̶ȵĸԤʹø˹ʽĻߣִŻԵIJߡŸߣͨ۽Ƶ˰սжη䣬ÿĻ˹ڡڼ˵ûǮ򡢲ûǮΡѧҲûǮϣ⣩Ǿ˴ʲôأⷽǮҪɸ˳нǿƽ˼룬ڹӺˡŮԡʱҪԤԼӡ
ºڽĸԤСӦκڽ̷Ӧ֧κһɣҲۺƫ̻һ֧Ůж̥ɣΪڱ־ӵӰӦٸ桢ƣԼźԼΪֻͬǸӦͬӦͬء
֮Ǵ¿Զŷʷϵ壺
壽г򣽹ŵı壨г
壽Ρг򡢸ߣ

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ѧڡѧ˵й1999꣩һУ壺ھҪгƣƻԶҪΣȷԸ˻רƣҲԶԡ⡱ʵȺר
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й塱ڵйźܴӰ죬һֿ͹۴ڵ󡣵ǰһʷݽգ쵽ʲôأҿ쵽ǹԡ
йũҵҵת͵Ľ׶Σŷޣһͬʷ̷1718͡Ȼʱٶ꣬Ƶġйٵǡǰִ⣬ǰŷٵҲǡǰִ⡣ŷ޵һתôģǽҲͿԼԽ
й塱塢塱һţʵУЩŻֻDZһйܣˣЩᳫһġߡǣҪϸۡ׶λĹֻһṤߣһ߾ܷ񱻹ձܣдĽһչǣߡǵĹֿԴٽķ

οף
1F.A.Hayek, <The Mirage of Social Justice>, from Law,Legislation and Liberty, Volume.2. Copyright ? 1976 the University of Chicago Press and Routledge & Kegan Paul.
2򣬡ѧ˵ʷɽ룬ӡݣ19866µһ档772822ҳ
3Austin Ranny, <Governing: An Introduction to Political Science>, Copyright ? 1993,1990 by Prentice Hall,Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company .

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