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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ԴͳִַǶ
Ⱥ

ǿ԰ѽŷ޳ʱᣬѽǰŷΪǰʱ
ᡣȷʵǰͽԺŷֲ̬ͬǣʹáʱ
塱һֻǴһʾ˽ǰԺŷ̬IJͬ
̬IJͬ棬磬ʽŷ
ũҵִǹҵƿǰ
רƣĽǶȡԣΪ˽Ϊȫظִŷ޵
ԣѧǾΪִᡱġִᡱͲһʷ
ڵĸһ͸
ôʲôǡִᡱϱϵǰټϱҪ̸۵
ǿ˵ִŷֳġִᡱгõġʱ
ġġġGesellschaftġлġлŽġҵġ
ѧ˼άеġԪôһ̬Ȼһ̬ǽִ
ŷ޵רһЩȵʼҲڡִ
ˣӦʵ˵ִᡱȶӦִŷޣҲӦ
ijЩijЩ塣Ѿѡִᡱ
ºȷǾͿȥոʵڵ塣Ǽ
һЩȷǿ˵Ԫ1000ʱȫڡִᡱĹΪ㣻
Ԫ1900ʱڡִᡱĹ20Ԫ2000ʱĹ70

ִ͡ᡱԵĸǡͳᡱͳᡱǣȻõġ
ԹҵġȨġȱḣġGemeinschaftġԵġеŽ
ġũҵġ˼άеġһԪôһ̬Ҳ
ȥոʵڵ壬ݱսǿ˵Ԫ1000ʱȫ
ڡͳᡱĹ120Ԫ1900ʱĹΪ95Ԫ2000ʱ
ĹΪ70
Ȼеڡִᡱ͡ͳᡱĻ塣
ˣִᡱ롰ͳᡱȫǾ֪
оϵоͼ˵ᷢչ׶Σ˵̬ʲô
ԣ֮ʲôδǰһ׶ݻһ׶εġ
ǽ4λѧҶͬһIJͬӦ֪ЩֻǷ
˴ͳִһ棬ֻаۺܻһ
̬Ϊȫ˽⡣

һ˹GemeinschaftGesellschaft

кҵ׼ȷĴʺרʶӦһһ
壻ʵǷIJҪͨĽȻǵ
壬ӦӦڴͳִռҪλϵ͡
˹Gemainschaft und Gesellschaftһ۵ġ򵥵
˵ʽ϶ĵطGemeinschaftͷdzǿʢ
ڳĻʢеĵطGesellschaftռҪλ1
һУGemeinschaft˼ʹϵռơҪָѪԵϵ
͵Եϵ
ѪԵϵӵйͬIJƲСͬϰԼڴ˻ϵĻΪ
ŦҪǸӹϵΪκϵһȨǼͥ
еȨŮϵָָӵΡ
ԵϵɾסģмҼһĹϵǾסڡ
ԼصʹDZһЩϵҸҸ֮꾡
⡣ΪǿֹϵһЩرȷʥĴׯϰס
GemeinschaftĹϵУ֮ʮ˽ʶ˵ͬԣ
ͬʽȨߣס峤ȣͷߵĹϵǣһȫָһ
ȫӣȨ߾иɺҫߵɺҫԽ٣
˴Ųƽȡ⣬ϵȻγɵģֹϵУ˵ĵλȨ
ѻϱDzɵģ˹˵ֹϵԽԶ
ԽΪ໥ľ־໥ϵá2Тͨڡ
۵˼ʹϵֻͣ˵Ͳйר
ŷޡȫڴڵһձԵ״̬
ڶڳԼƷУGesellschaft˼ʹϵռơ
ֹϵУÿ˶Ϊһҹĸ˴ڣκƷƷҲ
ΪǸߵģҲǻġ˹˵Ϊ˽
ijƷͶһDzΪһһƷ߰ԼIJƷˣҲ
ΪһṩͶֻеȽԼIJƷͶԼõ뽻
صIJƷͶʱֽſܷ3
ʱһضϵˡһķɹζǸ
ƷΪһƷһֵڽ˵ԸΪԽ
һˣԸһԵԸܹ֮Ϊ
ڽܹһֹһԵԸжʹñֶҲΪ
ԼԸܹȡжڴ̵˻Ⱥ֮䣬Dz
һԸжģڣ֮ͨ𽥷һֹһ˸
־ÿֻзֹһ˸־ʹԼҪõ㡣
˵ͶֻͬͨҪҪͶ뽻Ͷ
ǵµġҲdzŵԺġͶԺƷҲԺһ˵Ͷ
ɳŵ໥Ͷ˿һ˾һšһᡣ
ִһλһλ๤һͶĹϵһλӢ
ĹϵһλũūͲͶĹϵ
Ϊһʼ˾ǶҹģֻΪԼԸ໥
ˣԸģڽнܾζŸ裬˵ƽȵġ⣬
ϵֻڽУһϵҲţҪʹ
ϵռҪλҪʹ˽оĽʷʵѾ֤
˶ԾнҪĹһԸԲƷֵĹͬһԵ
жϣˣϵΪһձGesellschaft
ϵУÿ˶ΪԼ汼æͬʱΪ汼
æ֮ڸֹϵֿԱ໥ͻϤ״̬
йչгãгĹϵ
GesellschaftʽĹϵ
˹ϵ˶Աȡ
ǰģdzеģǰǷ⽨ģǹҵģǰʽ
ʽġ˽˹ϵģǰǼ򵥵ͶֹǸӵͶֹ
ǰȨָҪ֮һԸ϶ƽȣǰ
ȨĿģֶΣǻΪֶΣǰиܶԷӵĿռ
Сռϴ󣬸˿ϸѡ񡢼ƻǺ˵Ľ
˾Լѡijһij˽Ӵ
ǰߵĹϵdzõġ̶ġյģ˵ȨһϵڵĹȷ
ߵĹϵԶݵġġŵģ˵Ȩһϵ˫Լĺ
ͬȷ
ǰߵĹϵһԵģ縸֮ĹϵȨָ
ߵĹϵ˹ϵзһԱһֵּȻ־
жΪ˴־Ҫͬʱֶһ̬ȵı
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治ġߵĹϵǾģ˵Ĺϵͨijֺͬγɣֻȷ
ijһĹϵֹϵеȨֻһӵ
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ǰлԾŵһȫˣһ٣ÿһ
˶ϤںлԾŵһˣˣһ
ܶ࣬д˶Ϥ
ǰߵĹϵȶġȻγɵģ˴һʼͽһʮֶ
ģ˿ڶҲӦþDZ˵棬ʵϣȻҪΪԼ
ϣܻø͸ߵλʱҪֻͨƷ
ỷ£ǽԡǫ̬ȡij˵ķ
ͷСȣڸЩ֮ǰǻƺЩܷԼٲ
ǵļֵʽĺͬʵϾȻʱᱻ߻ǿΥ4
ߵĹϵǺġѡġԸγɵģ֮ʮֶ˿
ڶҲӦÿԼ棬Ʒͽʮַỷ£ֻ
Ʒ񣬶ΪֻƷмֵģˣǸ
ʽĹϵΪЩԡ̬ȡкĹϵDzʵġ 5
ǰУѪԵ͵ԵϵرѪԵϵռλֹϵ˼ʽ
Ǻٵģ˼ʽķΧҲǺСģͷй˼ʹϵĹҲֻ
ֹϵijЩֹϵ֮⽨µ˼ʹϵȻֹֻ
ϵرѪԵϵΪģʽΪʲô˹ΤΪȨǴͳ
Ҫ֯ԭȨģʽ֮һһʿͣ6 ҲΪʲô
ϵ൱ڸӹϵͬСŹϵ൱ֵܹϵںУϵռ
λֹϵΪ˼ʽķΧԺܴΪǵͷֹ
ϵĹѹ㷺ռλˣǿֹͨϵںܴķΧѰҺ
顢֯ǻѡĹõû

ϷǾ̬ģǶֱַشŵϵ͵ʷ
չʵʹ˵ѪԵ͵Եϵһǿʼ˽ϴΧĽ
ʱͿܽ𽻻ϵ֮佨ȶĹϵһ
GesellschaftϵռλᲢͶֹƷֺϳ֣
ϵ뾭һϳʱȡѪԵԵ֯
ıϵΪԱձеԸԣһַɢ
һЩ˵ԺеҪԽһо롢Ȼ
ЯнϵУЩԭġȻĹϵ뱻
7ϵõķΧ޵ģ޶˿ֹϵ֯
ϵشж谭

ͿɣеŽᵽлŽ

˵ǣ˹ΪͳŽлŽᣬΪ֮Ĺϵ
ȻγɵģʮϤͿɿͳǻеŽᣬΪ
ȱÿ໥ŦֻŽִлŽᣬ
ΪֹͨЭŽֵ̽Ϳɵ˼룬
ġֹۡ
һڻеŽᣬŽлŽᣬԷֹ
Ž
еŽڽ׶ΣԽԭʼĸ֮Խ
ԡ8ҡڵͼµŽǶһ޶ġ9һ棬
ԭʼ˵ΪʽǺγɴͳģǿͳֱǷ
ޱߡȻȵϰܵ˾أôΥΪܲܵʹ10
ռһ㶼ѪԵϵռᣬһһܴļ
ԱѶԷԼʵǴѪԵϵѪ
Եв׺άϵ໥ϵҪּϵΪ帴
𡢼εȡ 岻Ѫ׹ϵΪԼڵĻͬһ
еIJͬҲ໥Ϊ˾͸ݲͬ龳ѶԷֵܻ
ܣ̫ˡÿȶDz䴴ʼ˵ĺᡣ纺
˶ΪԼ׻ƵһDDߣ֯˾ͨ
Ž⣬ΪֻƵĻڹɵġ11
ˣڻеŽУгԱĹͬʽϰߡͬ
͹ͬγɵģʽũҵΪͶֹԼЭdzٶ
Ҽ򵥡Ҳйͳдա
лŽԹҵΪͶֹԼЭdzҸӣ
һЩرְֲͬͨ໥ȷϵ϶ɵġ
ֹIJʹеĸܸԷչԼרͨ
Ӷ棬ǿԿǵÿˡÿἯţ
ÿ嶼˷ֹУһµ򡢺гŽᡣ
ҵԵ֮һһԷԾŽᣬֱһ໥Э
Ĺ淶Щ淶ǴӷֹȻȻزģֹǸֹܣ
ضй̶ظŵĸȷΪʽDzȷķʽ
ãڲظĹбϰߡЩϰ߱ʮǿʱͻת
ΪΪ淶ȷ˸Ȩεķ䷽ʽԺͱǿԵˡ
֯Լ磬õȷлŽᡣ12
ڻеŽϵ£ ͬļʶȫǵʶ
涼ϢϢͨʱǵĸɥʧлŽԸ˵IJΪǰ
ģÿ˸ԵķչΪķչ˹ף˷Ϊķ
չͻ˸ԵķչҲΪʲôڴͳйǿһ
ڽйᳫԡ
ڶеŽηչлŽᡣ
ڽ׶ֻǻеŽᣬֻ֮ķֹЭ淢չп
ʹлŽΪϵԹϵͿΪֹԴ
׷ҸԸԽǷֻƷԽࡣΪƺֻ
ռиƸʱ򣬲žøҸˣǵȻᾡ
ķΧŬȥ档13ǣǰŽ᷽ʽã
ԺʹͳΪڿǣǣDzپǵĹ
ԶʱǣŮDzǵĹ͸ĸ
˷׷ѰԼȥˡԲչ 14
ǽĵˣֹЭʽѸ͵طչھ
˥䣬ҵ岻Ϸٵʱ򣬹ҵȨΧӦСˣԼϵ
˺ձĹϵȫҵ̬лŽĹϵջ
ձԡ15
ͨ룺սپŹ֮Ĺϵ֮Ĺ
ϵӦһ֮ڵĹһõƽĹ涨˶ܹͬЭͬ۹õ
ڵϣҪ빹һģᣬͱԷֹķչΪǰᡣ
ṦûڸĹģϲֻйΪԵķװ
ΪԵĵӰĨDDߣάֲԼƽ״̬
Ͷֹûеõչ಩Ͳܵõʵ֡16

׵£ѧġµᵽʵ֤ѧġҵ

ڿ׵¿Ҫֳͨչ׶Σɴͳѧ˼ά
չִʵ֤ѧ˼άɴͳǾʹñֶ
ԼҪչִҪʹùҵֶԼ
Ҫֵ̽Ŀ׵ⷽ˼룬ġʵ֤ѧ
һѧ˼άʵ֤ѧ˼ά
׵Ϊڽ׶Σֻ˽Լֻ֪Լԣ֪Լ
Ըжģȴ֪٣Ҫͺ˵DZΪ
ﶼǺԼƣǾԼȥѧ
˼άɴ˿ʼ˼άʽΪﱾһһ꣨
ۣΪȻﱾû꣬һߵԼԸ첢
һۣȻһƣǾͿͨӰԸ
ϣͿԻϾͿԵõġңԶĽ
õĺôϣԼϵԼ
ѧ˼ά֤ģΪһʼIJһ
ѧϵ֮Թͨͳһģ޷γһѧȫͳ
һϵӶͳĸԾвͬڽ̡
˼άʽṦܣڵʱŽijһȺ塣׵˵
ѧ˼άҪ֯ᡣڴͳҸ
ϵǴģûһԵ棬ʱû˼άϵһ£ķѾDz
ɱˡʱͱҪһȻĹͬ
һϣŽᣩı裬رʱڡȻǽ
ϴڸָѾϰΪǰУͬȴͻ
ιܡ1730ǰйʮǿ˼ͳһԱŽ᣻˽
죬Ȼǵ˼廨ţȻŽᡣ
һϣͿɵĹ۵֮ͿΪͳŽڽ
ϱֵΪͻ˵ʱڽһеġһеġ
ڽ̳˰ڽ֮⣬ɡ֯ԭѧDD
˵ǿѧƷ˵ڽ̶˽ϸ֦ĩڶ˹涨ˣ
ʱڣһˣڽʶͬһġ18
ʱķΪάͬʶѹԷɣԵľǶԸڽ̵ΥͿ
˵ֻ迴һʥ͡Ħū䡷дĹŰ䣬ͻᷢ
Щй¸ʥΥڽ̷ʽ涨ΪѹƷ
̫гʹ޵ľǶڽ̵ķѡ
Ŵն˵٢Ϊַֻ봦̣һDZڽ̣
ڽ̡߼DZڽ19ҲΪʲôŷ
ͳǧδССսУ¼Ŵ󶼻һԼڽΪ
١ŽԷź̶֤ʮ־ǵ֤
ǣǶʶԽԽ࣬ԽԽ֪
͹ɵģȫͬ˵Եġʵ֤ѧѧʼչ
ʵ֤ѧУǰչ۲;鵽ʵȻȥ
ǣȻɸ硢ƷΪǴԽԽIJƸ
ǣ˼άʽԽԽͻʵ֤ѧõ֤Լ˴ʵʳɹ
ͲƸԽԽ࣬ԽԽռƵλѧ˼άԽԽʧȥ
̡ͬʱԭѧ˼άеŽṦɹҵķֹЭ

ڸѧƵķչУȻѧʵ֤˼άѧýϳ٣Ϊ
оȺʱоߺװԼдоУӶ
ٵоĿ͹ԡ
ڶʱҵʱ
籾鿪ʼԣͳԵ֮һǾʮƵй
۹ռͥ۹˹۹ȵȣǶͨ
ɵġҲǰĿ׵µĻԵĶεо֤һ
ԭʼԵĶԾ򡣡 20 »Ϊṩͷչ
ֶΡֶγ־õء㷺رͳʹã˵ڵʱһ
淢չŲɻȱĹá21Ϊʱǰѱ;Ϊ
ͷչһֶΣͻСս϶ࡣ
һ棬ͨγɵĹңȡʤľ¼ŵĸԱΪ
ȨײĸԱűΪϵǿƿԼţΪǾ
ʤߡ͵ŷ޸Աũ񡢵ũũūֹҵ
֮ĹϵȷGemainschaftGesellschaftĹϵҲǻеŽлŽĹ
ϵһֽڱǿƻϵѹѹեϵ÷ТͨڡйĻ˵
ǿϵȻָйŷ޵ר
ʷûһũҵȱƽƽ
ȡɺһֻһڹҵҲп
Ҳס
ͶֹƷķչҵһŽ᷽ʽDDΪֹЭ
ũҵ᲻֣ΪũҵǷɢеģ֮
ȫԡڹҵУDZ뻥
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ڸҪάֹҵάԼƽȵĽΪ
Ȩռ׵˵ȻʷϣDZȻģҲʱ
ԵġҵΪ˺͹еõȵչͬʱû
֮ʱͳһơ½׶νΪҵ׶εγӪ
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ʧȥĿϣ˥ˡ22
ڱǰ˵ŷͣͨγɵĹͳμţԼ
ƵĵĹҵѹƣִٽŷ޹ҵһδ·
չӢĹҵŷޡʱǻ
ġǿҵ𺳣ʹʶҵܸʲƸӢ
ʾЧӦ£ӴԺ󣬷չҵֻҵҵߵǿԸ
ҳͳҵιײǿԸЩιײϣԼ
еȨλǰ£ԴδйĻȥչҵҵķչӴ
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ʱŷ޴½ҲǡձIJҺ͵
Ըȷչҵ23
ڣͳҵιײڷչҵͬʱҲڸıԼԭĻڴͳ
֯ԭ֮ϵιʹԼιӦµĹҵ
ϵģʽգιײιת䣬Ӷڽ˹
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ȫ׵ؽ˿׵νġҵʱֻʱſܼʵֺ
ƽʵַ٣Լƽȡɺ
Ҳ˵йϷչŵгãԼϵ羭ϵ֮У
ἫΪشٽйķ١ƽȡɺ

ġάһԪᵽԪ

Ṧܵķ̶ֻȣάΪķչǣɹһԪġ
򵥵ᣬչܶԪġṹӵִᡣ
ǣϵȨײ͵ȼƶȡмϵҪģ
ǵĹϵΪСΪһͥԱζſԷּڵȨͬʱҲҪ
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ûлзչͬʱĵѹ桢Ϊʽ
˼ȷķֻԴάŽᡣΡáڽ̺Ļ
ܶijһ֯ƺʹġ⣬ÿ˵λʮֹ
Ҳᡱ򡰻ᡱ24Ŵӡȵġơ
ĵʹŷͣ塢ɮ¡ֹҵߡũūȵȣ
ϮġˣǶԼѡغСΪ˱ִֵ
ȶ־ãҲǵѡڷϲȨ
Ǿ˵йĴͳǿᡢᡢһƸѡ
ɵᡣʵЩйר弸Ҫ
Ľ׶Ρ
ά˵еִǴһᷢչġм侭
ţֲƸͽ׼ķֻʽ
ֵ˼ŵϰ׺ijͻֿѧ֪ʶԳɹһж
ִʷչҪ25
ڽһԪĹУԹҡ̻Ϊľɵͳһ巴ݻ
ͼʹڷֻȥ֯ԼĹϽԼͳһԡ
Ͼdz򣬡ֻ²ͬĶԪ֣ЩѰϰ׻
ƶȻЩµ漰ƫԭһ»ᣬ⵽ӡӻ
ѹ֡һٳ֣õİϣͿ𲽱Ĭ
ʽϣھԽһơһḶ́
𲽷ֱֻŽᡣ26
άΪijԣһ֮ͻԡԺ
¼ԺӦԣˣǿŽǿ
һԺͼԡңԭһЩԪ̶Ȳߵᣬ
һһЩ̶ֹȲߡֻʱ䲻Ĺȡó
ģЩɹҵɵԪ̶ȲߣĶԪǿ27ˣ
ά˼·ѱһԪԪݻġһ
ɡҲӦ𽥱öԪ
һԪִᣬṹԽԽӣṦԽԽֻҡ
áͥڽ̡ĻṦܣɲͬ֯еġңÿһ
Ҳɺܶ಻ͬ֯еÿ֮䡢ÿ֮֯䣬һַֹЭ
ͶɾĹϵҲΪԼᡱϵλã
ҪְҵϵijɾѪԵϵҲΪ
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ķֹµԪѾﵽ൱̶ȡ28
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Ƕֻijһijһ֯ÿһ϶γӦ
֯ǽѡغܴΪ棬Ҳǽѡ
ڷϳ˾ѡȨ
йڳѾʼ˶Ԫ̣һԽԽԪ

ѾDZоϵнĵطˣʱҷ֣ϵеĿʱδ
ŷ޲⡣ҵıִ֣̽ŷδӹŴ͵ŷ
ɡɱģǣáʱ塱ܺܺøִŷ޵
ԡ
ʱ塱䱾˵ָʱȷߣָӵʱ
ʱͷзʮҪãָ˾׷ΪĿľ
̬ǣǰԣִŷһɶϳɵĸ壬ν
塱ֻһ棬ҪΪȫһ˵ִŷ޵ԣ
ӦǣƷõġʱġġġGesellschaftġл
ġлŽġҵġѧ˼άеġԪôһ̬һ
̬ԱΪִᡱУʱ塱ȻǸʮҪķ
棬Ͼֻһ棬һܵ桢֯ԭԼ
ھתϣҪܵڲͻϵĵڣڲƸϣҪܵ˰
ߺ͸ߵĵڣȨϣҪܵƶȵĿơˣáʱ
ȥִԣDzеƫȫDzáִ
ŷδӴͳŷɡĿһЩ
йʵϾЩԣӦþЩԣ
ֿ͹֪ѧߣʹõһʷԲͬҸ˵Ŀǣ
йִijڽ׶Ρ
ֵּѧߣԵļֵţйӦΡӦ
ýšӦȷȨӦüִͳĻӦ÷徫ӦЧʺ岢
أӦ÷Թʱȵȡ
йǴִijڣôܲԤǵΪһ
ֵ֮ĵ͵ִ᣿ҵĻشǿ϶ġôӦӦóΪ
һ͵ִ᣿ҵĻشҲǿ϶ġ

ע
17 ԡGemainschaft und GesellschaftתԡThe Theories of
SocietyFoundations of Modern Sociological Theory The Free Press of
Glencoe,Inc 1961192ҳ196ҳ197ҳ201ҳ201ҳ1400ҳ200ҳ
816Ϳɣֹۡ꣬200093ҳ109ҳ98ҳ137
ҳ325326ҳ56ҳ69ҳ189190ҳ249ҳ 160ҳ 364ҳ
17Կ׵¡ʵ֤ѧThe Positive PhilosophyתԡThe
Theories of SocietyFoundations of Modern Sociological Theory The Free
Press of Glencoe,Inc 1961 1335ҳ
1819Ϳɣֹۡ꣬200095ҳ5556ҳ
2022Կ׵¡ʵ֤ѧThe Positive PhilosophyתԡThe
Theories of SocietyFoundations of Modern Sociological Theory The Free
Press of Glencoe,Inc 19611339ҳ1339ҳ1340ҳ
23The Theories of SocietyFoundations of Modern Sociological Theory
The Free Press of Glencoe,Inc1961256ҳ
24ᡱָͥѪԵϵɵ壬ɵԵϵ
壬ʵϮƵְҵȺ塣֮ԳΪij֡ᡱijԱ
ڵġ͹۵ԭɵģЩԱѡĽ
2528άᡷתԡThe Theories of SocietyFoundations
of Modern Sociological Theory The Free Press of Glencoe,Inc 1961
1368ҳ1369ҳ1369ҳ1369ҳ

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