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    ժҪܷѧΪܷܷıн͵ܷѧǣܷıIJȷԣܷεĿDzɱġܷͬڲͬ£óȫͬĽͽ۶ܷ͵Ӱ죬һѧԷѧ߼ȣмֵġǣѡΪܷ͡淶ۣᵼ½͵⣬𺦷İԼֵԣֲڱʷ淶ܷıȥ֤֡ⲿ֤ܷȷԵ𺦡 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ؼʣĿĽͣȨ壻壻ܷѧй
    
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    ܷоͲֹǷѧģҪǷѧġ
    Ȼ˽ܷȥͺõҪʱΪһְַҵµܷѧչֳһĶԡ[1]ַѧ߼㷢չʱѧڷѧġȡӦ֮塣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ȼ֡ȡϾΪѧܷѧ壬ΪܷͺõʵġѧĶʱܷѧҲҪԼӽȥַѧ֪֮ʶͷʹǽѧľϣҲҪ÷ѧʵΪ޿ɱ粵ķɻŷɣɣ÷ȥ˼ԵĿ쭡 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ڵйѧرѧܷоһҪѧо·ļֵDzܷ񶨡ǣǶܷоԶͣԭIJʵ淶IJ棬ܷ֮ΡĿDzʵֵġӶķѧҲǷѧӽȥ۲۶ܷ͵ĿӰһҪĿ⡣һҲȻһܷѧйḶ́ΪоҪʵйܷıʷ˼뱳ġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    棬ԻȨΪȥۺȨѧӰܷ͵ģԼܷѧӦӰ졣һִӷѧڲӽdzĹ۲죬·ͷǷѧġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    
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    ܷѧΪܷܷıн͵ܷѧܷѧΪѧĻ֮ڡ[2]Ȼܷı֮ķԵIJȷԺ͸Ķԡ[3]ȨϵIJȷԵΪͻ˸ϡסլۡͨŵȻǷȱȷԡЩ涨ĺڿЩĽ޷ֻ壬Ҫػص屳ܷܷۡıܷ͵ij㣬վܷͽȴֻܷݵܷۡͬһܷȨڲͬĻȨ¿ܲȫĽͽͬĽͽҲdzȫͬķ̡֤ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷѧšı롰۵֮ĽŹϵ
    ֵϵIJȻܷͽIJ硣ѧЪ۲쵽ˡܷ͵ķ⡱ڵƶУܷԭͱ֤ãapplicationϡָǶܷͷɵĹ淶ڹͳģ߾ǿڹͶģ壨壩ĽԷ磬Щ淶ڶж¼ʱͻַ硣[4]Ҳ˵ͬһܷĵĽͻͬĽͽķܷͶʵڵģȴDzġַ״̬뷨İԡ淶ȷԼ淶ԵȷĻִֵͬһܷıĽĽͽɵһԺͿԤԾͲˣԵ𺦷εľ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ıIJȷµܷ͵ķѽɴͳ塢ʷϵ͵ķõַ籾ܾDzͬĽͷõĽʱΪάܷ͵һԺͷȷԣֻĿĽ͡Ҳͨ̽ʷϸܷĿĻܷڵ±бΪӦɵĿģȥȷܷ֮塣ӷ֤Ͻνܷ֤ҲԳܷһļֵĿĻȥܷıʹΪһܷĵΪˡ[5] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷеĿĽ൱̶ѾԽ˷ѧ򣬶ҪѧҰڽܷʱܹȷܷıۣͿԱäʽؾڱܷܷԣʹǵ˼ά񣬱ڲͬìܣʹܷܹܵһԹ֮ԣܷѧоܷı֮⣬ҪоΪܷıͱѧȨۡо·ٲȻѳΪܷѧһ[6] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷѧıġ۵򡱵оӦð⣺1۶ܷ͵ĽӰ죻2ܷȷ۵ʱӦѭĹԱĿĽͳΪԵԨ޴ǰһҪ˵ܷѧǷնϵܷ;ҪѧѰ֪ʶ֧֣Ǵ˲Ա֤ܷ͵źܷ֤˵һҪ˵ֶԡ۵򡱵оϾǴѧоڷѧڵġԷİΪĿоԣDzذԼϲõܷĿģDZ˵ƾʲôһȷΪܷı͵ָ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    
    Ӱܷ͵ĨDD͹ȨΪ
    
    һȨ͵崫ͳ͹ĸ
    ϣԵӰۨDD͹DDΪ˵ͬۻܷϻȨĽͲӰ졣Ҫ˵ǣҪ˵ǣѡۣΪǵ緶ΧӰۡҪ̽۶йĻȨ͵Ӱ죬Ҫص˼弰йķչоǽڶй˼Ǩϵġ[7]֮ѡ͹壬ǻµԭ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ǻȨ͵Ҫͳŵ˵ܷġ弴ʹܷͳԵӽǣҲܷԵӽǡ[8]ܷķʷ˵ѧҵ˼ʵʷ彫Ȩεȵλ塢桢εѧҪȨƵԳܷķʽ˵˼ʵΪεȷ[9]ܷҲһ䷶ʹȫĹƶܷڻȨҲ޷ȫ㡱Ӱ¯˵ȨܷϻȨԭʼںˣӷʱġȨԡ˶еġԡ1948ġȨԡȨᴩʷѧ߱Դʱģ߼ӸһȺ͵˼άʽͳܷ۵ʷ[10]˹ҲƵĸһֱ20ǰʮ꣬ķɷʽһַרǹ㷺ıʶӶΪṩһδ֮ڹ׼ɵᄈ[11]ԣ̽۶ԻȨĽ͵Ӱ죬Dzɻرܵġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    򹹳˶崫ͳкͷ˼ĸǵѧӰѧܷۺܷʵڷشӰ졣ڴͳϣǽ嵱ܷ۵ΨһΪΨһʯ1969ߵǡ£Gordon WoodġṲ͹ĽһΪˣǿʼʶܷӰ졣ΪעȨDzģһö㹻ǿĹ͹ĴҪεĻ͹¡[12]һʼĻʯ֮һһλʷѧңܷеĹ崫ͳġٷ֡Ӱܷѧ[13]1990ʼ弸ѾΪܷѧǵоעҪ⡣[14]Բ³˹˹ɣ˹̹͸ˡЪΪһܷѧⳡ帴ˡ˼ǶȨ۵ǵ۵ҪɡǶ崫ͳµġȻȨۣΪȨεIJЭ̺ι̵ĽԴ츳ȨߵġȨۡrights foundationalismΪǸûסȨԴ[15]ɣ˹̹ˡȨ塱Ϊĸ˾˵ģһЩΪܷ˽ȨˣһЩΪܷΪ漯˽˽徺ṩһı[16]Ȩһֲͬ崫ͳȫµ֪ʶϵ͹۲ӽǣӶԹΪָܷ;عȨ淶ںDZڿܡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ͹ǵӰϵ߶ܷʵ̵Ӱ죬ԱѡΪ۶ԻȨܷ͵ĿӰ졣[17] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ۶ԻȨ͵IJͬӰ
    ܷ߽߹ȨΪܷĿĽ͵Ŀأ߶ڽн۵֤ʱ۾ͻԻȨĽͽͬӰ졣ҵij˼͹ɣֲͬӰ10档Ϊһоûж10нһĹɷֻ࣬С ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    1ȨĻǻ Ȩ£ܽȨΪȨڹ£ڸǿɵıϣиĿԴӻȨĽǶȽͻȨ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ɹۣǡڡɸĽ綨һɹۡڲֿɾ޸档ɵģ˼Ҳܱ˵ĸ档ܱ˸ķΧеҲ㡣[18]ɺͻעǣʲô޶ڣijһ壨һ˻һȺˣԡӦ£ΪܳΪĽɫܵ˵ĸ桱[19]ֻ˵ܹȡжʵҿƻҲdzΪԼΪ壬DZ־ĹߡҲ˵ֻΪʵɣʵ˵֧˵ΡڲֻֿĺʵģԣɾǡڡɡɾǸ硣ɹ£ԻȨĽҲԵġ⣬ȨζڹҵĿơǿȡƺ͸棬ȨǷԵȨҪĹųҶԸ˵ĸ档 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ȴΪɾ޸棬෴ģǿɺɵıϡΪڷµɣǷ򡣷ɱȻԸγɸ棬ָȴδûɡ෴ģָֻ֮£ɲǿܵġۼ˵ɵĸΪɲ޸棬֧䡣ڲֵɺͻ֮⣬ŵɣҲ֧ɡΪƶõķɴһָ棬ûΣǵɡһùҵķɣһ͹ķɣ˹еɡ[20]ǡϵɷϵɣliberty by the lawsڷɵɣliberty from the lawsDzֵһġҲ˵ǿǶɵķɱϣرõķɵıϡɵġ֧ĸߡõĹ͹Ϊ֧ȻʽǽΪӦһֵּǹҲòܵһԼ[21]ɹ£ԻȨĽ;͸ǻԵġҲ˵ȨʵָҪɹͨιȥƶɣԹһжķʽȥ֤ɵʵ֣֤Dz˵֧䡣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    2ҶڻȨ 彫ɿ޸棬ҿпܵĸߡԣ߲ܷ񶨹ҴڵıҪԣҶڸ˺͸˵ɶֻǡҪĶ񡱡ԣ忴ҲԵģֻҪȥɾ㹻ˡҶӦģʲôʹл壬ҲǷֹ˵֮ijͻȥ䵱ҹˡͨĽɫ[22]ܶ˵ҳظ⣬಻ǸСעĿơ[23]ҲԤȨ֮ijͻ⼸ǹΨһĻڡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    岢Ϊɾ޸棬෴߸Ǵڸ棬û֧䡣Ҳ˵ȥ˵ɣûūˣķǿƵĸ߾һõĹ͹ķɺ[24]ҶɲֻزȥֺҪΪɵʵִҪͨƶɵֶȥֹūۺ֧IJ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ֲͬɹȻԻȨĹIJͬ͡£ҶڻȨͽDzַԵ񡣶ڹ֮£ҵ˲ֺ֮⣬ȻŴٳɻȨʵֵĻ񡣡ȨҪõʵ֣ͨһ˼صصġṩʩġյġͬʱеڡƶͲĹҵķԳɾ͡[25]ܷͶ۵Ķ̥Ϊһۼڣ̥DzһȨʹ϶̥һȨӦĹҲвͬĽ͡ĽǶȳ̥ΪһȨ޷ζŹҲȥֹ̥ȥȨڹ֮£ҲԽֹ̥һԻĴʩȨʵ֣δŮ;ĸŮṩ̥IJ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    3ܷ͵ķ 幹˻Ȩܷ͵ĴͳܣڱķԻȨĽֻҪؼȴձ鷨ͺáעضԻ˼Э̣ӹܷӦעķЪΪٵоձ鷨ý顣Ҫձ鷨ھĸ磬DZͷÿһνͶǶձ鷨ںֵع[26]Ҳ˵ܷͷԴ彩Ĺ򣬸ԶԹĻеãŷھİŬٳɶԻʵ֣ʹܷ͵֮ľ龰 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ЪܷͷţĹͼӦģΪݱΪԹĻ룬ҲΪڹеıء[27]ܷΪȨһַʽҲӦӸйţϹԹIJ롣عڿȨҲ֧ܷ͵ķָۡκ嶼ҪΪ²ȨdiscretionһֹҪ뱣֤ɲȨʹԴ˻߹ͬijһ˵˼вΨһİ취ͨȫпܾΪչ۱硣벻ǻνͬ⣨consentǻΪĿ۱ԣcontestability[28]ĿǽһЭ̵Ĺ͹ζţھߵÿһ򣬲˾ӦʵijȷصĿǣӶʹܹЩܷǡõ⡱[29]ܷҲӦһ۱ijڽܷʱ򣬲Ӧīسɹ棬Ӧÿһ£ٳɹЭ̺ͶԻ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    һλܷѧɣ˹̹ܷеġ˾塱ҲһĹӦɣ˹̹ţԺֻӦĸֻҪΪij봦⣬ؾ㷺õĹ߳ۡ[30]ŰѴ󲿷ֵҪԺҪͼڸн⡣֮ΪΪԺβӦдٽģӦðشľ߽ЭȥǽƿƵػȥӦñɷԺԳеĹжϡ[31]ԣļҪأ˼桢β롢µȶܷͷĸ[32] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    4ȨƵ κεĻȨ۶ΪȨǾԵģϿض¶ԻȨƣڻȨƵԣ֮µ֤ѵġΪ߿һƶаģƵıԣ̸ܶóʱΪijЩ˵óɵΨһԼͬȵóɡҶó׵ƶаġó׵ԼóΪĿĵƳȻǾǾΪǾͱ񡣡[33]ѻƬó׺ͽֹ۶ҩDzɽܵġԣ£ԻȨƵĺ֤ǼΪѵġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ֶ֧ԻȨƵԡ岢ԻȨĸ濴ȱԵġ෴ŹƶķɵĸڴɡΪܷɶǽǿƣǵɣȴڷֹ˸ĸõ˲Dzûַɣһ󽫽вķʽַ[34]ΪֻҪɵķɲרϵģǸߵ־IJƾġܷɱȻDDڱϾǿԵģָ潫רϵģϷȨֻ׷Ĺͬ沢һַȫ幫֮ȶ۵ķʽ׷ЩʱȨи桱[35]ڹ彫ɿǷµɣɷɶԻȨеƾ͸׻úԵжϡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    5ƻȨ һصƻȨɵ⡣ܷѧϣƻȨһά֤ҹܵʵֺ͹ҵ桢ֹֺȨ⼸ܵõ֤ȴDzͬġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ֱֻ֤һɣҲƻȨֻΪ˷ֹȨֺɵ֤ڶһɵ֤ܶΪ˵ΪֻҪ漰˵棬˾Ͳضֻڸ˶кΪʱпܶи档[36]ܶ޶˹ﱻΪһԭֻΪɱܱơ[37]޶˹ΪɲʱǾͻ໥ִһһɡɵѰӵԼڸɽΪһ涨ǵķʽɵƽΪɱΪȷͬһɻͬĻʵܵѵķʽһϵ[38]ţԻȨֻܴƱǷΪ˷ֹֺ˵ĻȨȥѰƵԡʹΪ湹ɶԻȨƣҲ֤ʵǸĻ߸Ȩֻܺ͡СԼֵҲ˵ԹƻȨԹȥĻȨ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ȴֱ֤͹ҹܵʵֶԻȨơΪ岢濴ǹԵģΪ汾ǹ׷Ŀ֮һ巴԰ȨȻȨٱΪһ޷ľʵ塣෴ΪȨΣҲԳڹҵɶϳ[39]ԣܹṩƻȨDzͬġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    6Ȩɵġⲿۡ롰ڲۡ ȨصһǻȨĹ⡣νȨĹɣҲԳȨıϷΧҲЩڻȨıȨĹɺͻȨ֮ĹϵڣijΪܷϻȨĹɣȨıϷΧҶΪĸԤͲɶԻȨơȨǶԻȨϷΧ֮ڵġȨʹĸԤȨĹȨƴ湲ͬ˻ȨձϷΧ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ڻȨĹƣֽȻۣͬⲿۡ롰ڲۡ[40] ⲿۡѡȨ͡ȨơҲ˵ijȨҪǡȨĹɡ⣬ҲȷЩǸȨ塱ЩΪǸȨϵĶ󡱣ʱȨıϷΧǿġûб߽ġ޿ԵġȥǡȨơ⣬Ҳͨ桢ȨҹܵʵֵأⲿȥȷʲôȨŲܵõ֧֡ȨķΧȷڲۡѡȨĹɡ͡ȨơһҲΪȨʼ䡰̶ΧȨıϷΧޱ߽ģ෴ģȨıʣκȨȻȻġ̶ķΧġҲ˵ȷˡȨʲôʱ򣬾ͬʱȷˡȨʲôȨĹɡ͡ȨơǻΪͬһ⡣ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ȻṹɡⲿۡĽݣΪµȨ޷ɢģֻȨײʱƵĿԡȨ֮⣬ȨںȨűȷġܹɡڲۡĽͻΪڹ֮£ȨõķģǾȻķеһȨͬʱľǶȨĸ棬ȻָǷ֧ģȨͬʱı߽ҲDZһġԣȨɵġڲ֮ۡƺȻϵԡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    7 ͹嶼ǿɵıϣΪʲôҪ۵֤ϣȴͬҪǿΪȨٽ˷չļֵܹɱͻٽ֮˼Ľײٽ˲ǵķչԣɵļֵ߸ǡʵ˵ұմٳɸ˵ʵ֡ܶԣһܹ֮н֪һĿȫ棬Ψһ;ֲֻͬǹ˵оֲͬԶĹ۲췽ʽһ֮ôʽ[41] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ķ˹󷨹ٵгۣmarketplace of ideas theory of free speechijϾܷܶϵı̬Abrams v. U.S.һоķΪڴƸͨó׶ﵽüгľܷ񱻽ܡ[42]ǿԴгϵľɸ塣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ɵ֤ȴǿٽ桢ٽβ塣ǿ˼Իɵܴٽڵ˼Իǹ빫ߵĻ;ǹ͹ڡԣ̸ۺҪԣͬҪһ[43]1964ŦԼʱԹ֤ɵҪİ֮һ߷ԺоΪܷɵıΪȷܸŵԡȫڴǨ[44]ɲǸȨǸʵֵ;ǾйȡġܹٽԻ̸Ĺ͹Ҫơ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    8ƽȨ ͹ƽȨ̬ҲвġƽDzͬġǶļֵǿ˳ֵʵ֣֮ʵֵij̶ȱȻвġ֮IJкͼʵƽȵĻ˵ɷչܵ档ڲֿɾĿģΪƽȶģһĶɲɣڵжҪ򲹳ˡΪ˼ٲƽȵij裬ȥɥʧҵɣȴûܽ˾˵ĸɣôɵġɥʧabsolute lossȻ塢ҸƽջǣɥʧȴϾɥʧˡ[45]Ȼ岢ųƽȣֻ޶ϵƽȣڱ֤ÿƽȵ޶ȵ֮ǷչϵIJƽȲҪע⡣ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ȴΪɺƽеļֵڹɸڵذƽȣɾƽȵɡÿ˶ͬɣͲɡӵбȱ˴ɷΧֻζ飺ҪôijӵûеȨȻij˴һΥȴܳͷƵλǣ£֧Եʧ־ŶɵͱϽڡûзݵƽȣijЩˣǵijЩΪҪ˵ͺöİڲ[46]֪֧ɣǵɷչᵼʵϵIJֲ֧࣬䣬շɡԣɲζֹܹ֧䣬ζܹͬЧطֹ֧䡣ƽܹٽɡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ڶƽȨܷϣɸ֤ɹҴٽƽȵĻʩΪȨԴϵIJƽȽɱص֧ٽϵƽڹʵɡԣȨϵȨܽȨͶȨȶ״ӹҵ֤ܷϣڶȺġ϶жaffirmative actionǷܵ飬ʵϾ͹ڶƽȨϵIJ졣ЩʷΪų⡢ӶγɵȺ壬ϵûģΪǵļȴƵλʹ޷չɾϸŻݵĻǵɱȻᱻƵȺѹ֡ߵʵֵģΪûзֹ֧㹻϶жҪ״̬ʹƽȵʵɡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    9Ȩ˽˹ϵϵЧ ߿ɾڹҵĿơǿȡƺ͸档ͳΪĻȨܷͣҲȨں޶ڡ˨DDҡĻڡʶȨȫǡȡ򡱵ģֻԹȨԼܷУʹҪûȨȥԼ˽˵ΪҲȽ˽ΪΪij֡Ϊstate actionֻܹΪǵض˽ΪſǻȨԼĶ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ϊ֧䣬֧䡱ܿԹ֮˽ˡбҪ뵽˽˹ϵȥʹ֧䡣ţҵĸԴٽ֧䣬ԱЩܶʹרȨ˵ԴȨ[47]Ϊ֧ȻʽǽΪӦһֵּǹҲòܵһԼ[48]չɹۣ˽˶Ը˵ĻȨʵԵ֧ϵʱȥ˶Կ֧䣬ʱȨͿԾɹҵĽ˽˹ϵЧ[49] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    10ѡȨ ѡȨƶȵĻǶѡȨıϺƣ͹ȴвͬжϡΪɾȻԣԷԶξκʽƣͬʱҲԶضȺѡȨʵֽκεķѡӦȫɵ½УȨӦöѡٻиԤĶԻЭ̣Ϊȫɵξֻᵼ½ǮΣԼȺȨʵϱѹơԹпȥϿƽǮκͶѡٵ׽𣬶ŶضȺλвϵIJֹϵIJ죬Ȼᵼ¶ѡȨĺԵIJͬжϡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    
    ġȡֻáDD֤ĿΣ
    
    Ҫ˵ǣͬĻȨڲͬ»в֤̻߲ͬͬĽͽΪˣܷѧоͱ˷Դͳ֪ʶͷɼţĿͶıͱۡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷͱΪܷıͱۡ˵ֻǷڷѧ֪ʶϵڵһ˵ڷѧרҵо߿ⲻһ֡ѧڷѧȡ[50]ͳķѧһֶԷɵĹ淶ϵͳǿ߼Ӻ㣬ѷϵͳԿطʽԼϵͳ[51]ѧ·룬ǶԷͳĹ淶ƻǶԷ֪ʶͷɼŵƳһȵĹ̡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ѧо·ᱳ֮УΪɲι̵һɲ֣Էɽ͵ĹŪ飬ΪӦѧġⲿ֤ȥƷϵͳڲ֤ĿأӶóһЧоֽܷⲿ֤ʵǴڵġֽ˺ܶ˵ͨۡߺ͵ԭѰ[52]ɣ˹̹ҲΪʲôپܷı֮ġ淶ԴΪܷı͵ⲿ绤[53] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ȼ֡ȡȴ̺һ˵ΣգǾǰܷıһ˴СӶƻ˷İԼֵǰڲָͬ£ͬܵóȫͬĽͽǶô޷ܵⰡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ѧȣƳ˷ɹţҲҡ˷Ļ
    ѧȴЩܷ۵˼˵ܷѧ˵һ޶˵򣬲Ϊܷı޶Ϊձܵı͵Ļ޶ijЩܷܸڵԣûĸԱƻij̶ȡ[54]ܷһЩǿöϵԣ෴ģ˱ܷܵıԼκֵۡԭûܷıṹĻӦܷĹ淶ܷ͵ܷıתDZܷ͵ıġ[55] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ȴǿԴıṹǶ԰ʵ֤ܷ͵СڡУáʱ̡ΪܷǨṩԣDzҪͶġΪֱǨDZΪģ߽ܷıоܹԡַdzɵָۣĸ߼ۣܷоֻܷ͵Ļҡ[56]ȴһȷ֡۵á˵ܷйڲԱְĹ涨õ֡30֡thirtyĻĽߡ˵24ͷ׼Ϊʮе30հ˽ȥ͵24 ֤dzģ˭but who would listen[57] ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷıǸڵԵģ۱ܷ֤ҲܷܷıԣǿòͬȥָԼܷĽͣ۱ܷıܹݵġDZ뾯֤Σԡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    
    塢صʷ淶ܷıDDΪ֤Ѱȷ
    
    ڱĵĵڶ֣Ѿ˵оıͱ۵dzڷİԺͷ͵һԵĿǡܷе֤ΪǿȷԺͷȷԡζţ֤ӦһָƯġ˵ܷͷܹܷ͸ŷڽܡңΪܷı͡淶ܷ۱ȷģܷѡģܹʹܷ͵Ľнϸ̶߳ȵһԺͿԤԡڷѧҪܷ͵Ĺ淶DZֵġԣѡȷ۵Ƶġֻܷ֤ǶԷİԵڲǿԼķѧԶѧе֡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ˶Դɵֲͬ۵㣺ڹ۵㡱͡ڹ۵㡱[58]νڹ۵㡱ָڱܷɹԼǰ¶Էɹ˵ڹ۵㡱ڷɹ֮⣬ڲܷɹԼ£ⲿ۲취ɵĹԡ۳ܷһⲿ֤ձصѧڲ۵㣬Ϊܷ͵ȷԺһԷ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ӶDZΪ֤ѰȷԡDzһȥܷDZ˵۴ӺζԼ޶ȺڡձߵĴdz˼֤ȷӦȥѰң ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    һصʷ
    й۵þΪ۵ãǰоҲ׵һ񽣬ΪѡķȨѧϵ͹壩ǣоĽһһȥ̽йܷ͵˼뱳оҪصйʷġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    棬йܷѧкǿԾġ½ڵġл񹲺͹ܷʷ[59]Ԫڵġ1954ܷй[60]ִʷѰйܷԾ˲ڶ1954ܷоУҲֳķʶΪйй˵ģҲйԵģҲʹһѧı⡱[61]о۲ָ֣ܷĸԡԲԴܷҪΪȷϺ̶͡ݩܶתɵġ͡ԭ򡱩ҪԶΪ߷ġغظ󷨵Ļ֤ҲͲҪһΥܵԤƣijߵºƷʣܷļ顢ԼǶԵҡȰ顣[62]оǶйܷıܷͬı۱̷˵ȥܷͱһõĻòԴ˼ȥܷ;Ǹá ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ԣѰܷı͵۱Ҫصܵʷ[63]
    ص淶
    Ѱܷ͵۱ص͵Ĺ淶֮Ĺ淶Ǩ[64]ֱǨЩܷеģȻܺӡ磬2004Ȩ˽вƲᱣƶ֮󣬶ܷڶ¹ȨĽͣͲ1982ܷƶʱͬ[65]ڡغͱȨдܷܷ;ͲܲаġȻȨߡȨΪȨĹܵʱûеģȴǵµĻȨܲǵġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    淶ıǨᷴӳΪܷı޸ġǻȥɺʵݱ䡣о·Ƿѧģѧĵۿ԰ȥȷձеιҵȷܷ͵۱ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ⷽ棬ҹѧҲ̵ϡ磬½ڽʮȨ˼ܽᶨΪйȨѧԳơּйĻ᳡Ȩۣһ棬йȨͷһ棬йĻ;ӽǴеȨۣԱҪս[66]ִ徫ᱳзֺȷйȨѧŬǼġǶԻȨ淶ںġĿĽܹ͡ġйȨѧǵܷ;͸ϣߵʵܷİԺȨԡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    صܷı
    ۵֤⹹ıŵģȴصܷıܷ͵۱ܹΪܷıݵġٴ󵨵ĽҲܷܰıȻ㣵Ĺܷƺһۣ۵뱾ΪɹšȡģȴҪǿɹ淶ϵͷıȨⲻì ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ڱ߿⵱ȻìܵģϾһǡⲿ֤һڲӽǡǣӷļֵԷıȨĴ³ϣȴǷɽصߣǶԷεĸԷ񶨡ԣܷı֤ĽڣȫܱܷıݵDzԽܷ͵ġ֤ȷԵ֤ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ǣȻһյۣڶйʷʵ˳ֵؿõһΪձϿɵιιȴ޷ΪܷıݣʱӦδأҲ˵άܷıȨִܷԣȥ׷Σȥ׷壿 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ҿĩʽ׷Ѿ˷˵浽ǸʱʸѡģǷˣȨ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    * еĽ׽(2006)ѧѧоĿȨĹ淶IJݡ
    
    [1] 磬¹ѧܷѧ1871˹ܷ֮ʼγɲ죬£Paul LabandԴ񷨽ѧķܷоǷֲġַΡᡢʷѧشӷѧųķΪѧоΪзǷɵضʵעͶûġϣͨųСⲿأֵͨĺ߼ӵķȥܷɹ淶ͷɵʵںĿǰЩ޳ƫȱרҵԵҵоűʽͨ׻ӷɿѧųȥSee, Peter C. Caldwell, Popular Sovereignty and the Crisis of German Constitutional Law: The Theory & Practice of Wiemar Constitutionalism, Duke University Press,1997, p15-16.־ʵ֤ڽ쿴޷ģûܹо·ڷʵĹԺͼԼֵں̶ܴϣıͺ͹淶ΣһŷѧǷҪ־ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    йܷѧҲչʾַ²ϵĶԺԣҪı־ǺԪܷѧԼĹ淶ܷѧĽ𲽳졣ڱ߿ֻͬʵѡǰйѧܷѧо2006ҲΪڹ淶ϵĴӴֲڵϸйܷѧķչơ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ӹ̵ıܷΪָܷѧչйʵܷѧҪֲġ2001߰2006Ȩݰܷص¼ҪܷѧϺϸ߼ݺ͹淶֤ڳжȱ˵ġֽܷʵ󣬾ܲΥƶܷѧôֱӵƶ͹ҲڴŻйܷıķʵ֤ϵйܷѧ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [2] ܷѧķѧƷijоμ裺ܷѧΪʲôҪܷıΪģڿ¡㽭ѧ20063ڡйѧժ20064ȫתء ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [3] ܷԵôʽ֮ͨŸǿģԺ͸ԣģ߹ΪڲͬҵܷıʷУǶԹ۲쵽һʵ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷΪܷؼʻ㶼ģģ磺һ㸣general welfareɵdue process of lawҪʵnecessary and properȨ⣨privileges and immunitiesƽȱequal protectionֱ˰direct taxesݼóףcommerce among the statesȵȡѧΪǵܻĴǼΪڷܶעϸڣѡʻϼɣǿԿôʵģǵѡ񡣣see, Encyclopedia of the American Constitution / edited by Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. KarstMacmillan Reference USA,2000p26812682.ңʱǵĹУܷӦǸԵģϸڵľȷܷӦ׷ĿꡣЪ󷨹McCulloch v. Marylandһд˵һܷϸžȷϸڣҿԱֱãܷķ߳£ٱԶ޷⡣ӶܷҪֻдĸҪŻᱻ¼ҪŻᱻƣЩЩҪϸڿԴЩݵıƵ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    йܷƶУͬԹ۲쵽ܷ߹ѡģԵ磬ʦФεƽڡҹܷĵѧ1986棩һУʵ1982ܷ޸еҪۣǿԿܷѡģ磬ڡרίԱᡱձΪӦ裬٣ۣΪ̫٣Ҳ̫ࡣ̫پʧȥ壬̫޾顣塢ɡáѧĻ¡ȵίԱ͡ҪרίԱᡯרίԱᣬֹ涨ҪίԱᣬԡ磬ͶߵϢȨıϣDzдøһЩǻӦҹʵʳܹ涨̫塣ҹھûֻܱȽԭع涨ְݼƶȺ͹ʱ䣬̫涨ÿܹ죬Ŀǰʵ涨Ժʵܵ١ֻܷдϡҷչͶϢʩ涨ְĹʱݼƶȡӲʤö١ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ôΪʲôܷ߻ȥѡģԺǿĴʻأѧĽǶȽģضʵϵľȷԡ޷þȷ߾ȷ޷ﵽԤЧʱģԷЧֲԱȱݣǿɰյĿռ䡣ܷҪΪӣϣܷܳõطãʶ߻һͨ෴ѡ񡪡ʹģԴʻ㡣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    ܷԵô뷨Եôʻһ൱Ҫ𡣷д嵥ԣһӦһضķɸ京ǹ̶ġȻͨожغ壬ڽ뷨ϵͳ֮ȴֻܱһܷ֡ôȴδֵԣ෴ģͨʻڽܷܻ֮߱ԭĴ塣磬߷Ժ󷨹ٵİᡤ˹ǣAntonin ScaliaڷܷıΪܷʹһֽżsynecdocheҲ޴ַܷһΪ涨ۺͳɣthe freedom of speech, or of the pressûоٳеıサʽżζżDZֹġԣۺͳʵϴһıΪAntonin Scalia, A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, Princeton University Press, 1997, p37-38.ܷıκķı߿ԣ֮һܷôôߵԡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [4] ˡЪܷ͵ķ⣺̸в𡷣ļ¡Ӧ桢ѵࣺ񹲺塷ļ2006棬237ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [5] Richard H. Fallon, A Constructive Coherence Theory of Constitutional Interpretation, 100 Har. L. Rev. 1200-01(1987). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [6] Ϊʵַɵԣֽһгܺĵķ٨DD˹Hercules֪ͨһУðԼжϽж֮ϣͨⲿƪС˵ؼдȥμֽ𣺡ɵ۹ר룬йٿȫ1996棬213ҳŷһķٿǷ˵Ĺͬ롣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ъȴ̫ˣҲ̫¶ˡ̫Ӣˡһͨ鱾κ˽̸ʲôҲûκˡûܹ˷ܡûκζԻȥľҰȻеԡķ˼άȱԻġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    see, Frank I. Michelman, The Supreme Court, 1985 TermForeword: Traces of Self CGovernment, 100 HARV.L.REV. 76 (1986). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    Ϊȷָ֮Ӧȡһ֡ȫ塱ӽǣͳķְҵΪҪע߷ԺܷĽͣҪעͳ͹ܷĽͣעԺͳ֮ĶԻ뻥⣬οѧҡʷѧҡѧҺͷ֮佨Աöܷȫ⡣μ컪ܷDD³˹ĶԪۡڿ¡̳20056ڡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [7] Դ⣬йijԣΪ˼ĹңϵΪͱȨ˽Чйܷı¾ͽһα⡣裺Ȩ˽ЧչDDԵйΪڿ¡ⷨѧ20035ڡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [8] Constitutional Theory: Arguments and Perspective, Review and Edited by Michael J. Gerhardt, Thomas D. Rowe, Jr. Rebecca L. Brown, Girardeau A. Spann, Matthew Bender & Company Inc. (2000), pp245; see, Stephen Garbaum, Liberalism, Autonomy, and Moral Conflict, 48 STAN.L. REV. 385(1996). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [9] Ϊ˶ԡȻ״̬ͱȻؿ˼һ԰ʽĹңŷʽķ⽨ѹȲû˶Ի淶Ƕʵ״ԣĸ˵˼ΪָȥҺʹܷġμ·˹ģ崫ͳרǫ룬йѧ2003棬32,51-52ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [10] .Jefferson Powell, The Moral tradition of American Constitutionalism 6 n.16(1993).
    [11]¡˹ʵ淶֮䡷רͯ룬顤֪2003棬312ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [12] Dordon S. Wood, The Creation of the American Republic (1969), pp65-66.
    [13] ڹܷӰ죬μԪ۹ѧܷ˼ʵӰ졷ڿ¡ʱڶʮڣ8997ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [14] Scott D. Gerber, The Republican Revival in American Constitutional theory, Political Research Quarterly, Vol.47,1994, pp985-997. Symposium, The Republican Civic Tradition, 97 Yale L.J.1493(1988). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [15] Bruce A. Ackerman, We the People: Foundation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,1991, Pp10,15. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [16] Cass R. Sunstein, The Partial Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. Pp21. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [17] ϵǣߴ۳ܷ͵̽൱ģǽ׻ģһȱԲͬѧ΢ͬ⡣κοѧоı׶ˡо漰оߵרҵ֮⣬һרҵʿд丽ë룬ΪһִͨѧƵŬֲƵ״Ӧѧо»п̵ģҲӦڸопԸƵġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [18] Ӣ֣ɸļ¡ȱ࣬г߼ҹļ 顤֪1995棬202ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [19] ͬϣ200ҳ
    [20] ġաأDDһֹۡרѵ룬Ͼ2006棬4647ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [21] ͬϣ357ҳ
    [22] Ӣ֣ɸļ¡ȱ࣬г߼ҹļ 顤֪1995棬206ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [23] Ӣܶɡר̳绪룬ӡ1959棬114ҳ
    [24] ġաأDDһֹۡרѵ룬Ͼ2006棬41ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [25] ¡˹ʵ淶֮䡷רͯ룬顤֪2003棬305ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [26] Frank I. Michelman, The Supreme Court, 1985 TermForeword: Traces of Self CGovernment, 100 HARV.L.REV. 38 (1986). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [27] See, Frank Michelman, Laws republic, Yale Law Journal, Vol. 97,1988.
    [28] ġաأDDһֹۡרѵ룬Ͼ2006棬361-362ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [29] ͬϣ246ҳ
    [30] ֻо尸ܷͣ˾һ򣬶һijоμ裺ʵԭܷģʽѡDDֹѯԭʼڿ¡ѧϰ̽20071ڡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [31] Cass R. Sunstein, One Case at a Time: Judicial Minimalism on the Supreme Court, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. p4-5. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [32] ܷ͵ĸ׷ݵ߷Ժһϯ󷨹ԼԼ1793дʢͳܾͳṩѯadvisory opinionsΪܷĽֻھİϣcases and controversiesнСһж߷ԺڡǰЪPre-MarshallʱγɵҪ˾һRussel WheelerΪԼڡ̵γΪõĹɡSee, Russell Wheeler, Extrajudicial Activities of the Early Supreme Court, The Supreme Review, Vol.1973. 124 (1973). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [33] Ӣܶɡר̳绪룬ӡ1959棬103ҳ
    [34] ġաأDDһֹۡרѵ룬Ͼ2006棬46-47ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [35] ͬϣ48ҳ
    [36] Ӣܶɡר̳绪룬ӡ1959棬102ҳ෴Ƕȵıǣ˵ɱԼһϣDZ벻ʹԼΪ˵ķ59ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [37] Լ޶˹ۡרλ룬йѧ1988棬234ҳ
    [38] ͬϣ193194ҳ
    [39] أɹ۶ɹۡhttp://www.zisi.net/htm/wwzh/2005-05-24-28771.shtml4ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [40] Robert Alexy, A Theory of Constitutional rights, translated by Julian Rivers, Oxford University press (2002), p178179. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [41] Ӣܶɡר̳绪룬ӡ1959棬21ҳ
    [42] 250 U.S. 616 (1919).
    [43] Milkwagon Drivers Union v. Meadonmoor Dairies, 312 U.S. 287 (1941).
    [44] New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 255 (1964).
    [45] Ӣ֣ɸļ¡ȱ࣬г߼ҹļ 顤֪1995棬204205ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [46] أɹ۶ɹۡhttp://www.zisi.net/htm/wwzh/2005-05-24-28771.shtml3ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [47] ġաأDDһֹۡרѵ룬Ͼ2006棬47ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [48] ͬϣ357ҳ
    [49] Ȼܹ͹ҵָԤԲһ֧䡣򣬸ų˵֧䣬ǡⷽ棬彫ָרԼϣѡƶȡơȨƵȡϣȨΪ롢Э̺ͷȨƺγרϡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [50]¡˹ʵ淶֮䡷רͯ룬顤֪2003棬54ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [51] ͬϣ69ҳ
    [52] ֽ𣺡ԴȨרŴӥ룬йٿȫ1998棬117ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [53] ɣ˹̹Ϊıdz㣬ֻΪݵᄈͱ淶űÿ⡣ͨᄈDzģ淶֮ͬûij̶ȣʹıԵڹ͵ijֻ£ıͬЩ淶ģɡ̫̫խЩ£ԺָᄈԿǨDDʷĿģԼֹֻ۵ʵϺij̶ȨDDЩ龳¿ṩ൱İʷҲǺģĨDDһߴԵġ˽ƷһԱĿĽп̻⣬½ģȱڡ̫̫խЩϤ⡣Щ£ԺԵĻı淶C.R.Sunstein,: After the Rights Revolution, Cambridge, Mass.1990,p157.תԡ¡˹ʵ淶֮䡷רͯ룬顤֪2003棬312ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [54] Laurence H. Tribe, Taking Text and Structure Seriously: Reflections on Free-Form Method in Constitutional Interpretation,108 Harv.L.Rev. 1224 (1995). ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [55] id,at1301-1302.
    [56] Id, at 1302.
    [57] Id, at1224.
    [58] ӢأɵĸרԵ룬йٿȫ1996棬90ҳ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [59] £л񹲺͹ܷʷרݣ2003档
    [60] Ԫ1954ܷйרɳ2004档
    [61] ˲йԨDDܷƶıԴ˼http://www.law-thinker.com/show.asp?id=3067½ʱ2006122ա ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [62]˲йԨDDܷƶıԴ˼http://www.law-thinker.com/show.asp?id=3067½ʱ2006122ա ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [63] ʿºͺԪλоϣ׫дˡ񹲺͹͡͵һδйܷʷƪ¡йˡ4ڣ200412£µԪ˲ٵƺԿо˼·ĴУ֮δֱӵʦйϵ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [64] ¡ȣѧۡר°룬ӡ2003棬225ҳ
    [65] СʿȨܳһŶŵơ⡣μСľϡ2004ܷ޸ġڿ¡̨µ̷־200612ڡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
    [66] £йȨѧר顤֪2004棬
 
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