ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 


ſ˽ķҰ

AbstractAfter defining the community of Roman law in broad sense, the article examines it from the background of Roman history, which witnessed the severance of public law from private law. And this severance, in point of view of Author, has the significant meaning. Dividing the history of Roman community into incorporation history and individual history and analyzing the historic situation and legal role of communities such as state, church and autonomic cities, author tries to open out the essential character of Roman Law-- Analysis and Isolation, which was hidden behind the veil of highly developed Roman private law. Further, the author suggests that the character of Roman law, exactly the scientific thinking and method, can enlighten us on our countrys construction of law and legal system.

ѧ֮νǡֿƶѧ˵ѧ˼άżᴬڵҳһۺϼĹѧˡġֻ֪ǰķʡѡг񡱣ֵ֣֮īѲдģǣѧһڷ˼άнű֤ļ尾գǧľ޴Ȼ޷ɲҲΪ⾹ԳΪĻˮһࡣĹ˺ܿ˵Ŀ﷢˷ɱ״ѧ˾Ϊĸתڼط֪ʶ㷺ĻȨþǵĴͳȻδת⡣

˽ĽȻԴڹֶ֮ķѧ˼άɴҵʼ[1]֮DZȽϣȽȻɣ˽ķʹһϵȻʷԵḶ̌˽ijɾҲڴˡ÷ԣȣǷɳʱмֵĹߡڷѧijʱȴΣյġ[2]һʳɶֹҪһƵʳͬģΪһǵľھ˽߷[3]ԭ˵Ŀס˶жԶԶ޷֮ΪѧǣˡɡļжڣˡơļʹжҵԴͷˮơھУǡĽһߵʣʾԭһα֤Dz׼淴ģ[4]֡ơʵ൱ںġƶ÷ǡڷЭĹϵУӳʵӦʻ񡣶ңдĸius͡lex,ǰָṹ÷ԱлϵָЭʽȷIJҾȨԵʵڹ淶ڶ֮䣬ǿԷһִԵĶӦϵ[5]ϵΪʵ˺

عǵĴͳд˵ڵġ֣𴫣ֱָģԳɷ𡱡Ĺ˲Զ壬ҲĽ˹[6]ˣһͯĻۣ򡰴ӼɽɽɽɽĺԣɽֲɽܶòԽǧĻ޷ԭ̤ѧƵĻֻײ٣һ۱ز٣˰˰Ĺգ֪ʶӵƷ񡣹˽ĻʹԼҵ˲գĽ֣˽ŵĻˣעȻ˽شΪʲô˽ܹһֿܣĿĻڽʾ˽ֵԼһֻɳƵǡʵԡĿѧ

һ۲Ƕȵ˵

ѧڷʷơѧֻѧƺ޹غּǷѧеĽ壬ѧѧƵϰںԥ֤Ͼ֤˸ӣҪ÷ѧڲ߼֮⣬˽뵱ѧԼʵȽо֮⣬ѧ˽ѧ߶׷Ѱζϵ֤Ȥ

ǼǴĽǶȿѧԺΪǰҪбҪۡǹɵܳƣӹijķԪǰҶġʮԪͣ۹ʿλʱġʿᷨ䡷ѧ˵롷ѧݡԼ֮ġɡϳΪȫһΪʷԷΪ׶Σǰһ׶Ҫָǵıһ׶Խ۹ġȫ󲿷ֶоڡȫȻȫⲿ˥΢ʱ׫ɣʱǧ꣬ʵʲͬĸʱڵķɵ伮һ𣬷䱳ıǨм洦ɼѷ죬ӸΪѧϰԽϰ[7]

ңһչһ£ǾҪ˼ΪʲôҪоΪʷоܹǶʵԣʵ֤оڶ̶ϳΪܣǰıһʷʵֻһʷıǣмǵáʷһ²漰ȥһ漰Ϊ˽ȥʷҴԶ󡱣ʶʷѧʧܾǺһǡ[8]һʵʱ򣬽ԷıйѧҪܴлʲôأ ݹʷѧʷʷѧûǰΪṩȷеĴ𰸡ͳʷѧʱеķʷѧʱǰĻشûеȻΪʷѧʹ෴ֻΪǰߵˣ20֪ʶеﵽǰδеȣǣвζŷ񶨡縣Ƶ֪ʶѧֻǽͳʷѧԵġʱԡѧķֺϣĿ껹ڶǰıƽ[9] ʷѧʷṩǿԳƵϡ͹ԡĽǶԿ͹ĸá ڴ֪ʶϣѧͲӦǶԿĸг¼롢༭Ȼز٣㲻ѧΪһʷʵ侫ڵҪࡣľҲǹᴩһԡһԼȿԶһִͳijм̣Ҳһιʶڼʶж˵оȥһһΪ˵һˣôһԾԸ

ͬʱһԵĴڲζŽĿʷѧ֮ʷΪǰᡣܣһԷ˶ʷ͹ԵĹУҲͬʷһĿĵǰ˼ʷѧĹ۵㡣һԲڹɣһ̶ʱϵĴڣһжߵ[10]ˣҲᵼƶľۣ෴ȴԸˡ

Ȼ˵IJֹԸ˽ƣһֹƾûķɣȻͬƷŹؼԵϵһͻζϵԹ޷԰ΡһǡǡͬⲢֳԸӰ죬ڶԹɣĵһԲ漰κ۲ۡ ȷе˵һǽԾεĹϵ۾߻ڲζϣϣľͨԹ˽һжۣ²ͶߵĶˣۣǶŵһϵи뿼֤ԴΪѰںеһһԡͨʵ뷨֮䲩ĵĿ죬ϣܹάϵ˽˲Ĺ˽֮ĺơ˵һʷǵʷ˵ԺʵֻһйŸƣôĵʵػҲ޷Ǽڴˡ

ڹŵûһʼָ˽壬ְֻڲʿᷨ׫ߵУչŵ÷ָֻмuniversitasűһȷָ˸񡣶һǧʷУ÷dzƺţsocietas,ordo,sodalitassodalicium,collegiumcorpusȡˣǿԷһʵǷdzģĴ[11]˼ɽһš[12]ղʿʱʱĹұ㱻Ϊһš⣬Ҳţƣ˽ϣάڽǵ֯ɥ塢ԼлᶼţԪ313̳Ϊ۹Ĺٷڽ̵ʱ򡭡ij̶ֳϱʱҪ硭̻޵ԺҲ[13]ˣҡʡУڽ塢ϻﶼһӵķΧ

ңȻģIJͬ壬ЩҲкܶ๲ԣͬķȨԼƵ֯ϵֹͬȨУƲȨ̳ȨȨԼеεȡͬ֯ϵա̿顷ϽͨһԹΪģʽ֯³̾ԱĽɺͳ»ȫȨޡɴ˿ʱڵƶӦѾdzַһԭȷӦáڶԶ۵ǿѧҲûʹһԵイijԱ֮Ĺϵ[14]ѧҲûнһһԵŸ¿ɳɶۡЩĹԺǺ˳ϵҪܽоõҲ޷Ƿ֮Ĺɷѡʹ˶ԣɴͳУɱΪһ壬һΪһϵͳһʵ塯ʵ屻ΪʱϾ͵ķչ[15]ȷһʵǣŵĹƺҲ塣ΪŵIJͬζŲͬʣⲻͬΪûһͳƣҲͲܵijһƶȫûͨ˽Ļ֣ʲͬŷֱ𱻿ڲͬķɵΧ֮ڵԷִֶ֮ڹ˽ˣ໥ӳգȡ̣ĭרơ

ڹˣǰʷףȿĿԳ֮ΪŵĽʷ͹ʱѳָţΪ˽֯ɼȲҲơ³̣ڲ񡣹Ԫǰ64꣬޵ѡִ٣Ϊпֺʹ󷨹ֶı֯һϱбʷơıάΰΪ漯⣬һɱɢ֯˽ֹŷʩ֮ڹԪǰ88꣬ٿ޵˹Clodiusֶ׼ָɢŲ֯һְ䲼ɣֹŸ㲻ѡٻܵƣʱÿֲֶνɢһš𽥻ֱָӰ¹˹ʱ常Ľɢһŵ⣬䲼ŷlex Julia de collgiumŵijԹ涨ֱ۹ʼնƶȵĻԴ˷䲼ŵijؾҵijϻ׼ʼж˸ΪȨ壬ȥˡȻǶųƣҲʧΪԺϷŵһֱ[16]ŵһײһֱѧƳ籸ŵ˸ʷֻuniversitasһʣָڽ塢ʿ塢ɥȣз˸񡣹͹ĩҶѧʼϹҺ͵طж˸Ա롣ڣ̵ܻӰ죬áԺʹҲ˸񡣺̵ķչʹȡ˷˸񣬽һ˸ƶȡ˵ʷͬһʱάȣŵĽ˶幣֣Ȼ𡣶˽˸γȻãҲ˳¡ŵʵʷһ档Ȼй˽ϵķ;ȴûй˽Ľ֣ŵǰ;ʷݼ裬òֹۡ

˽

˽ĻڹԪ͵ѧڶȰġо˽йȶķ˽漰ķʵϣе츣ڹ棬е츣˽ˡ֮ڽڽ̻͹ҹ֮С˽Ϊ֣Ȼ񷨻񷨵ܺ͡[17]ʿᡶѧݡٴζ֮Կ϶дѧϰΪ֣˽漰۹壬˽漰档̸˽֣Ȼ񷨺񷨵Ļԭɡ ֻ֣ӹָȨ⣬˽ʵָķ˸⣬ʵйݣûǰߣ˸Ȩȫһ

ڶԷѧҪķԺѧƺоص˽ʵϣַڹϻҪһЩԪ͸˹ġѧݡΪģѧ֣̿Ӱ˴˺͡ġѧݡȫΪͷѧݡ˵רо˽Ľ̿顣ʿᡶ񷨴ȫǰ䡷ѧ˵롷͡ѧݡΪͳһ塣СѧݡϮ˹Ĺ۵㣬ֻͬ˽ѧ˵롷Ҳˣֻڣеĵһһв漰䡷󣳾ǹݡɴ˿ɼѧķءϵͳо˽ص˽Dzʵ Ȼ˵ѧķ˽˵Ĺҹɼй̿һΪιǹҪͲ˻ɣһطĹң˽ȫ˽Ĺң˼ά㷺Ϊѧߡ˾ߵожϷĹңѵʱ˾벻Ҫڹ÷һڹֺܵѵ벻÷ȨˣǿɼʷȱݣӦóΪֻ˽ɡ£ӦֿܣһǹȷʵϧֻҲʷϵݰˡһֿǣ󡣶ɣʹӹ˽ĻֽǶӦòѧлֵıҪһʵľϵļȨ˷ɵĿռ䣬ѧһֹ˽ʵΪ˽˽֣ͬ˽˽ԶΣͿʹεӶһϹĿռɷչ[18]硰ڹ͹һ͵ԪƵĵڶĩڣҪƺǿⴥܷ[19]ǰŵĽʷŵһвǡǡڹϱ⣬ѧǰѴȫ˽ϡ

ˣҿ˹˽ֵ壬Ҳƺ˹ʻ鶯ľԴȪΪҪǣڹ˽֮ڹ˽ڷͬһڣ˽ķеһϵйƺûй֧֡˽ĸݵĽɫ֤ͬһ㡣ͬʱҲ˽ķҵ[20]

дڡ񷨴ȫҳϵģǸÿӦȨ׼ǣʵˣÿΪԼһоΪϷġ[21]ڴġϵͳ˽ϵ˽˽֮󣬵춨Լ֮ƷĻƷ񴫳ڹϣ͹ʱڿʼۣڹҵĹǼܣ۹ʱDZ˽źó׵󣬸˼ߵıʶˣʵһϵܷƶϵУճΪܷ񷨵Ļ

ġԹϣĹϵŹ

͹ϣĻĺۼ洦ɼ繫Ԫǰ451ƶʷϵһķ䡶ʮͭʱDzλʹר̸ϣŵ俼ʷȷصȰϣĻͻʵ۲ͬŵĹҲԴڹϣһţijԱȫ幫ĹͬƲҵĴڿ԰໥͹ṩԱ[22]޵Ĺҹ⣬ϣǰϵιƺѽ˵ȻķȴǴ۹ʼʵͬҲڴ˻ϳΪܡ

ҵĹڳǰȴʼڵǰƶȼϣĴͳϣ˼벻Υij[23]ϣǰƶȣ͹ʱ֡Ȼǰң׼ڻشǰܷչΪ۹ʱָϣʷĻشģĴʷġ۹dzǰڴϽģʷҲͬŷ֤ˣǰƶ˵вٳôЩɵ۹ʱ򣬼ȫתɷĶΪ񲻿Ķ[24]Ȼڹ׼۹ĺû̶ȵĸߵΪ׼ģ۹ʷλ˵İ޹أֵעdzǰ۹IJѵǰ۹ľȫ˳񲻿Ϊδء濴۹ʱȨֵļڻʵУרȨһղ빲͹ƹභҪǣǰľԻϣǷϣֻǡС񡱵ȷʵ˳ɾijΣһĸӣֹij֣ǰĹģֽڳǰϵĹҹͲˡ

ɳǰΪ۹ĸӻڵʱڶԷһϵӰ죬񷨵ķ볼ķϳַѧɵȣڹҹϴ˵ij֡ھȨ֮ʱƵĵλҪγһص֯֯ԴǵһģΪԾȨΪģȨŸָʽΪˣҪֺṩַԱЩ˾ӾȡְܡȨ޺ȨԾίпչ[25]ŹţȨһļУӺ͸ӻĹΪˣȨڹʹͳĻϣ಻ͬĻأͨЩصĴʵֶԹҵĹڿ˹Claudiusͳʱڣĸ鴦ӴΪĸš[26]ԪԺҲԭɾˣƵʷ𽥸ıЩΪΪ˷ְʹ֮ΪĹҹԱְЩҹԱִͬٵ֮ڣǵDzȷģȡñꣻǵȨݣΪ˺ʹ͹ʱڵĹְ߱ȡ߳Ϊƿװ¾ơ[27]ɴˣȨעάȨȶȨĹΪ˵ĹһأҲͬڳǰʱڣԶΣرǵľսʵķḻ֮תͶ˽硣[28]ںϵĹУ뷨ɷֵ𣬻ȨԶȨȻγɡ[29]

һֶڹҵġ˽򡱣ֱܹӸԤ[30]Ϊιң֮Է룬Ϊ˷ƵĹȨԹҵӪ˽ַ[31]ˣιҵĹϵȨҵȨ֮ĹϵҲǹ˽Ľ⡣

ɼķʵϾDZΪڹ˽ϵķҰ۹ԳǰεͻƣΡª[32]ңΪһֹϵţ˽ϵԲգ˹ġʡʾイģЩźȡŻЭʽʹԼƣһӵйͬƲԼĹͬ⣬ͬĴˣһͨҪͬȥ飬߻߱ߡ[33]ڡ̿顷Уϵеķ˸ֻǴӵ۹ʱŷչ𽥵Թҵ˸ΪģʽͨһԹΪģʽ֯[34]ɼһ̥ڳǰţڹ˽ϼΪ˽ϵ˸䷶

塢̻˽е

˽͹ķչУ̻ĵλо塣[35]Ԫ313ġʾȷ˶ڽ̺ձ̵ƶȣ̳Ϊ۹Ĺٷڽ̣̻ȡ˺ϷŵλͳΪ̵ijɳ׳ӶȨġа˻̱ʴٳɹ֮⣬3ʱѽһ֯õɮµȼơⱻΪҲǻȡʤҪԭ֮һ[36]̵õɮµȼηչ׳أʷĽʹɲꡣ⣬ѭŹ˽ֵ˼·ƺԷһЩµ

˼ǵʱ˽һҵȷĻԭ򡣻̻ڳʱڵܵϵĶԴ˳ΪŽʷ˶ⶵĵ͡Ƶ˽涨ҵʹԼ׳ȱڡ

ŴͽУΪ̻֮һ飬Ӧǻ׽編ԺӦڽ̻ڽ֮ԴΪ֮⣬ΪҲˣǺһŽһٲ֮ƣڴٲã֮أԹᳫ˫ѡٲߣ֮Ƿֱ֮жϼ֮Ϊ϶վ顣֮Գϻ֮ٲоΪվоߣΪ֮ʣΪѡ֮ٲʸҲ[37]˽˼εʵϳΪϲ²һʶ̻ᾡܱŲ⵽Ⱥ˽Ӫοռ䣬ʹ̻Լĸݵء˵˽ǻ̻սʤȨȺҪء

ȻһӾҪ֤ڽڱǿֹ£ܲϵ׳Ӧ˵Dzġ[38]һǿȷģڷΪһȨȨ֮£ȴԼ˽ԭ᳹ףһһڽ̾пҵԼԴڵĿռ䣬Ϊһ֯淶֮©֮Ŀ϶ֻεŻ©˵־ָȨìͷˣѡ񷨶зΣôֹ˽˽ԼĿռ䣬Զ빫εľ壬˽ԷIJԭҲڴˡһЩڹ˽֮ɫشҲͻƬмشѿ̵γɼǷƹȻ죬̵Խֶչ׳ͬڷҵԼijɳ˽ķΣΪ̵ķչ˵·

һ˽ֵ

ҲţͬԳΪʾ֮ߵıˣΪǿ⣬ȻǿʵռкȡʱЧ[39]˵ʱڣʵڽϴ̶ϱ˳ǰνṹеط̶֮ĸߡ[40]ά³ʱšУcivitasһӵͬʱҹƶȵıԼִ١ίԱίԱᡢ١ִ٣ԼԼĿǣ֯ռ[41]ǣκܿûڵ۹ļȨܵϵļȨĿơԱҪе֤˰񣬶ԽԽأ⻹Ҫееĸ˰͹Ҹ˰ǣԱǵĺǧټƵҪܵθְ񡣵ǣһְѳϮһг˹ʹܸߵĹ涨ˣеλΪУܵΡҲ޷ʵ֡ ͬڵʱ˰ijЩ˽֯ΪΪҷ֯ơֵǴЭЭᣬǶԹҳеһͬʱһЩȨͬʱҲҪҵְҵ˱֯ҾϮԡǣ˽ε֯ڹĹգΪһ̵ķյ֯ѧҲûаˣû䡣ˣӴӷ֤ˣ˽ŷչԴͷˮָԤ˽أȻ뽩ͣ״̬У5ն֮󣬼жѸ˥һҲɴ˷ֱˡ

ߡ̼̹֮Ϊ˽ṩ¹

Ԫ3͵ѧڶȰΪȻжͨķɡַɲеģ½ػежҲڿзࡣˣͳdz֮ΪŮϣҲ˳˷ܺ⡣ʹ˶ԣǿ˵еĶҰޣͨ෨ɡΪ˺ͶﹲͬɵķɹͬȻڲǺĬ岻ر󣬶ҡ޺˹ѧǰδŵġ[42]ȷǴڵʱķѧҵУָʵֹűΪȻĶ󣬳Ϊķ塣

͹ĩҶѧҰŬ˹Ŭ˹˸Ա˸IJͬ˷ĴԱʱȫԱˣȻڡѧ֮һڶŬ˹Ҳ˵һУԱıӰĴڣΪծ񲢲ԱծȨҲԱȨ[43]ǷǷģվѵʾԪԺ齫ɢǣųԱӵйͬǮƣŽɢʱǼԷָʲôӦ壬ӦĸˣҲӦǷծ[44]ɼŵķ˸˵ȨΪһеԱȫų⡣ŵ˸˳֮Ϊˡ

ʵŵ˸ԣѧҲûʹһԱ֮ĹϵҲټۺͷй˸ԭ12ŷһαϵͳʱ˼б[45]֮ͺѲŹıӹ϶Դԭ򡣶һϵ˸ԭֻܴӵ۹Ѱ⣬ƺҲȵİ ̴˽棬ƹֳΪ̣ʵŽʷͻơ֮󣬽̻ıңʼеʾΡ̻֯ι̵ȷԼĵλڵطУҵȨԽǴңԶ̺ͽʿԽΪڵĵȻˣ²˵̻͹쵼ʩԽǿĸԤ[46]̻ἰṹһϵй淶Ʋúͷ֯[47]ңȡù̵λܵ۹Ĵֲб֮һǹ涨̻ᰴʡƻֽȻ̼̹֮Ϊϵ˸γɡƣṩµ塣

̻DZŵģڽ̻ΪԼǡ塱ǴӹϽҲ̻̻ᷨᷨȴ̻ͬᷨӽ̻λóĻϣµķϵʵϵѾ֮ˡ

̻ᷨҪΪṩµIJա̻Ϊһ壬ǽ̻ʻ̣ȨҪܵۺʵԼ[48]̻Ȩڲ֮ѰԼŹȨ֮£̻ҲҪطɣȨҪԽ̻Ȩƣͬʱ̻ڲرǽ̻ġŻͽ̻ĽҲԽ̻ȨƣԼ˼ʵתΪϰߣڻΪ̻ŷƣӶijֳϵΡķȨԼӦ˵ǷȨƺԴͷڣ˽ĹףĹס

ʲôľܽᣩ

ѧңеҲΪֻ˹ѧɵĴߣȱٸԵĴˣܹ˻̣Ϊ˸ܹķƶȣ˽Ϊһƺ޷ֲ˼治ʷλϸĵĶԱȣû˼ʵĽŹϵͻ֣ᷢΪϣ壬ʾһжش塣

ڴʷѧУƶʷ˼ʷ֮乵ִʴͳһֱ߷ֱۡ߶֮ȴҲź˿ϴ⣬һЩϰϼĻһΪĻһʣͬ¼ĸͷ˵֪ʶɻءйȻִ[49]էҲһƵĴʣǰе໯ȷʵˡӹܽǶΪִʵ˺ܶʵ⡣ǣһʲû˶ӹ׻෴ٽŽһѧΪʲôأ

ڹʷһֵ֮һҸȨڹУͬѡ٣Ϊٿ丸˽һйϵУӱһͥר¡˺ܶˣ˻ο[50]ʹǰȥ涨ľݣʽֵǺѱִ߼ġǵִһֱƵͥݶͥϵ뵽ʱǸ޷һֵֻ塣ǣˣ⵹Ϊʱ߼۲ԡ֡ԭ˱Ҫء[51]ܼͥͳǰŵķ룬Ȼڶ֮仮ϸޡ˽ĻּȷһԭҲһӦ뷨ɳͻķҲΩˣ籾ǰ˽Ļֶάϵͨڲʽ֮Ķźͳͻž޴á ʹDzñȽϵӽǣԹкܶƵ߼ۣɲҹǰҲۡ䷨뷨ƵijͻǴ߼޷ͻƳĸѡҼdz϶֮䰵ʱʱں˳ԾʵԵıҪڹõʱֵĻ˵ʵѧ˼תڡѧĶʱѲҪΪΰĹϣ߼˸ֿܣҪĺչָǺ˵ǡǰĵ²ϵġ[52]

ѡ˷ѧ˽ΪʵʵУ֣˽Ϊ˽أٿԱؾᡣǹڷֵ˼άָԼĶƷƷƶֵһԣֻԣȴͷչһ׷ķɹ򡣼ʹ˵ָݵʵڣôӦþľʹ˵Ĵ־ܸйѧʲôĻһԵģڹ˽ںϵĹ£ҹȻӦһֻ֣䱳̺Ŀѧķ˼ά

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[1] ѧоʽɷΪ˼ѧͷѧʹõġǰѧΧ˼ʷǨָڹʱڵԴʿ֮ۡμ·߽ѧ顤֪꣬1999꣬ҳ300-303

[2] [Ӣ] ÷򣺡Ŵһ룬ӡݣ1997꣬ҳ13

[3] ͬϣҳ14

[4] ͬϣҳ15

[5] [] 塤ʷƷ룬йѧ磬1994꣬ҳ397

[6] ʱڣ˹ԪۺԵ˼룬ijҲͱͳΪԼѰҺϷԵһֹߡ

[7] μBarry Nicholas, An introduction to Roman law, Oxford University Press, 1962, pp1-2 ; Peter Stein, Roman Law in European History, Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp1-2.

[8] Ͻǿʷѧ㽭磬1997꣬ҳ261

[9] μǣ֮ڡйѧۣ1995^ҳ93-96

[10] ӵΪУΪǹϵҪɫľDZ֤ʹΪ˵ԸһжΪ˵Ը۶μ˹ơӵ£ͨľǰ룬ɳ磬2001꣬ҳ14

[11] ԡκʷĶܱ綨κζŵĽ綨ʹʷʧ˱Ϊ㣬ģ֣ȵķŸһȣùʱķ˵ʱʷȵķʶҲЧķɽ䡶ȻۡͬΪַԤǰᣬ֮ٷŽ⣬ԽȻģ࣬վȱ߼ϵ˵Ȼ۵ˣ֮ͬ˵ȴšȵΪһԣΪʷ֤Ϊһ֪ʶϵĹʶ

[12] 񷨴ȫѡ롷D501685

[13] [] ޵áJ룬йٿȫ磬1993꣬ҳ260

[14] ͬעҳ261

[15] ͬעҳ10

[16] 죺Ͽѧ磬1988꣬ҳ

[17] 񷨴ȫѡ롷D.1,1,1,2 35

[18] Peter SteinΪڶȰ֮Իֹ˽ĿĿΪ˴ͳܾĸ棬ңֲֻشáμPeter Steinǰע7飬p21

[19] SchulzPrinciples of Roman LawOxford University Press1936p.28.

[20] һǰᣬܹΪ˽ṩƶϵ֧֣˹˽ķҪ֤ǰᣬӦ˵̨һӣ˽ڷչһ׶κǿҪ󹫷֧֡ҹ½Ȩ۵ݱȻصȫĹ۵֧֡Ȼֽ֤Ŵȷе˵ǶԹʱӳֹ֤Žһԣǡ˵ֵ˼άԷѧĹס [21] []ʿ᣺ѧݡ̩룬ӡݣ1989꣬ҳ12

[22] []򣺡ѧ˵ʷʢ룬ӡݣ1986꣬ҳ207

[23] ׼׼ļ磬1994꣬ҳ67

[24] ͬע21ҳ81

[25] ͬע5ҳ329

[26] Olga Tellegen-Couperus, A Short History of Roman Law, Routledge , 1993 , P.80.

[27] μע飬pp81ǰע5飬ҳ330

[28] սʵķḻʹ˵ע˽ļϵ˹𯽫˹Ϊ˸ԭִʿ¡¡ϵжϣǡά֮¡ᾭʷϷҰ֮ɴ˴ӳǰת䡣μϵ˹汎ʢ˥ԭۡ룬ӡݣ1997꣬ҳ54

[29] ǴƶȱǨǶȵĹ۲죬˼ʷϴͬڳǰĹҸ׷ݵάԼĻ˹

[30] ۴ʷΪŵۺִۡʹõĶִϵִϽӹаǺڸҸ˼Ĺϵμڸѧԭӡݣ1995ꣻJ.L.Cohen & A.AratoCivilSociety and Political TheoryThe MIT Press1992

[31] μ񷨵Ȩơɽࣺй񷨷仯йѧ磬1992꣬ҳ72

[32] ڹʷУй͹Ԫƺ;ʱԴڵĹ̬Ԫǽ֮һ̬̬Ĵڳ˵˹͹ƷԺ۹شá [33] []ɣޡ˹ѡࣺ񷨴ȫѡ롷Ʒ룬йѧ磬1995꣬ҳ107

[34] []ɣޡ˹᣺̿顷Ʒ룬йѧ磬1992꣬ҳ52-53

[35] ͬע6ҳ392

[36] μ[]˹ȣʷϣԷ룬ӡݣ1998꣬ҳ375

[37] [] ޡ˹ܣŷ½ɷʷҦ÷룬йѧ磬1999꣬ҳ179

[38] 绹˼ɵãJ.B.BuryΪڹ˼һɣμJ.B.Bury˼ʷι룬磬1999꣬ڶ¡

[39] ڶȰ۸ʾ24ࡣ

[40] ͬע32ҳ213

[41] ͬע29ҳ387

[42] []ǺĬѧѧ뷨ɷ룬йѧ磬1999꣬ҳ16

[43] μ骣ԭۡӡݣ1996꣬ҳ269

[44] ͬע31ҳ107

[45] ͬע13ҳ261

[46] ͬע5ҳ391

[47] ͬע41ҳ427

[48] ͬע13ҳ258

[49] ƣνǰйӦƽѩһʡҹʮĸٵѺϰᵽơϣƺˣһⶼˡһμķʱһЩѧãûнҲˣݺƣsystemԿѧĴʡ

[50] μǰע3飬ҳ79

[51] SchulzƣIsolationΪһԭָ˼άǷһſѧ߱Ҫʵһ֣ҲѧŵĻμǰע19飬p19

[52] μа¡ʩ˹ѧ˵ʷ£Ȼ룬ӱ磬1998꣬ҳ799-801