ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ΡͲм˱Ϸ޸²м˱Ϸ޸ίԱ

𾴵IJм˱Ϸ޸ίԱ쵼

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ǵ¹±ѧѧʿΡں⣬ϢǺͨǰոտм˷޸ĵרҳһоǾϲһ棬˶Ҫںšûǵͬ⣬ҪǵľNothing about us without usȡ޷ȨҹȻвݰȨһҪҵIJȨĽ ʵϷר͹עйȽ״̬¹ϷѧDegenerࡰȨĹʱߣInternational InstrumentһУ̾йھʮ˱ǰУ2003 ߲μŷ޲¹ϷʱйȨʶȾߵӷ֮ʡйʷרңӢleedsѧStone䲩ʿжймӣȻҲ硰Ϸ˵н˿廯֮ӡȨͲϣLaw, Rights and DisabilityCooperУҲᵽйзĹ֮һһ棬Ϊһ˷繤֪ͬѣҲ˽ҵУäУʦǺͲԱļҪ޷ˣ·ѵȨõʵϣϹ߽õӦеϿɣҸеdzο

Ȼڹȥʮд֮࣬רҳϵϸϸؿһ飬ΪһϷоԱ޷״ʼЩǡȻ޷ǹغй6000ͬĴ£⣬˵ǷȻҲ֪⣬˽״ŪһЩͷۣܻ᲻й飬쵼ǵĹ̡˼ǰ󣬻ǾίԱṵͨһ£ҵ»ͷ϶޷һ;ԸΪ޷ౡ֮ҵĹ۵㲻̫ʣҲ쵼ֱԣҵѧˮƽ͸

Ρ

2005-10-17 ڵ¹±

ļһ ޷ϵĽ

ļ ·

ļ һЩ뷨

ļһ ޷ԵһЩ飺

1 ݰӦԲڵķɹߣάȨΪ޷ίԱг٣ȫԿϤģҲͨϷ档ϲǣزĻӦȨʶǿҪĸ󵨵رԼ󡣻ܿеĵط黹ο̨顣˵ǵǷררҵķԡйѧչڣûרŵIJϷоҲûмصרҵġרﶼǰƣǶѧƵѧߣDzרҡܻᷨķDzƾкͳʶģÿһƶȶ߼й飬ҪοʹϷڱĹdzѧơֻǵIJѣķɹ߲רңһо飬ѧƱֻDzõIJݰ

2 оûгֵй޸ģڷѧڿսһˣЭһ£ܾ·ĻܡҲһ£ڿϲûڲм˱Ϸ޷ģѧҲûۡһ漰6000ȨķΪʲôû˹עأжaffirmative action, ί棨mandated benefitsر𹫿 sonderabgabeЩӦйܷѧ㷺۵Ŀ⣬ôûдأίԱܲ֯һֻᣬѧṩһĵĻᣬܾͻ˿дˡܷоʵǿǧṫѧߣȨнʵܷίмĿ̨IJïڣ̨󣩡ޕ񴲩ʿõʿDzϷרңǵкܸߵIJοֵѧҲпõʢٴѧѧIJʿƽϢϰ˷dzϤڡᡱϷ£¹˹ɲ˴ѧĹѧʿ衣ϤϸŮ;˻Ȩ⡣ҪҲϵ¹IJϷרҷûרⱨ档

3 ýûзӦ2005ӦDzܹעһ꣬һΡǧֹʤǧƪƪȨ¡ǧøģôȥȨҲҪӪʲôDzϣϣһЩӰķ̸ĿУɲѽ飬ܹʲ˹Լݰйм˷޸ģ⽫һõĻᡣҪ˶֪ϲרӲ˾ҪеΣÿһȨ

4 Ӧο͸̨ģʽӦִѧ޷רӵĵ¹ضȲϷ 2002ʧЧˣݶᷨھűࡣȫ綼ڳϮADAģʽǾߵоĴǵIJϱģʽȡʵںȦкܺõķ̨ġϰ߷ڱҵĹ涨ͺܼ࣬Ҳdz㷺ֵƼ۵ġмȨϻƿСЧǿ·ĿִкҪIJοֵ

5ҹؽѧͲϷоҹԲоҽƿṤȾ巽棬ȱ۵ĻIJоdisability studiesм˱ϷִȻûз˴ⷽʵ񣻴ѧؿγ̣Ӧо׶οΣϻIJϵѧֻԷںѧϰعҪнγ̡쵼ܷ˴޷֮ȡѧϰоģΪоƶȱϣΪϷƶȵоһ֧󱸾

ļ ·ƵĽ

飺λڲģͣ޸Ϊ˷WHOIJ϶塢༰ȼ׼˼£

1 ηDisabilityмDzϣ

ζһǿһ˵һ£ǾͿָ£Լĸ֤֮ǶһĹ۲ǶȲͬȫò˵Ǿ޷ˣ߶ҲȨϾһô˵󡣣ʱһȽʵõǿܲǺ߼ķ԰ʱ⣺ͨһֻֽΪͨõĿѧжһĶ壬ѰнΪʵĶ塣ôǿӢйڲϵĴǡ

оϼĹؼimpairmentdisability and handicap.

a. handicap. Brian Doyle 95桰ϡӺƽȻᣨDisabilityDiscrimination and Equal Opportunitiesһ4ҳרhandicapĺ仯ôԴڶhand in the cap, ʮ͵һϷ˶еһǴñȡƷһʮͱʹõУʮʮҳΪϰָΪʵǿһһĹ涨ǿĶԿԣΧӣhandicap ָʹڳɹϰ ǣhandicap һйؾdisability impairment ˾ҵʹõʱ򣬾Ͳ˸ζصIJܵĺ塣൱ġзϡһʡ

b. impairment ĺһû: ϵȱܱ, impairment ȷҪҽһ׼

c. Disability ָɫܵƵ״̬״̬impairment Ҳimpairment޹أȫỷɡ

DisabilityӦѡķΪں޷ֱΪϰϰ޷ίԱĸ뱸ѡģмϡϰϺ мʾȱͼ( Impairment and Illness), ΥˡмDzһʶϱʾȱϰImpairment and Disabilityϰ˵Disabilityڷ뼼ϲһʡϺ˵Դձ֣ϰ޲ûʹϰߡֵһǣгƲˡϺߡ˵

ΪϺϰDisabilityȽϺʵ뷨ǰڷ뷽ϲimpairment߲ˡ߶˵塢ϰ֮Ĺϵص㶼ˡϡϣͻԸ˻谭Ӱ졣ֻǼڣϰһ̨ɵı׼ ڴ½õĽ϶Dzϣ˴޷ͳһȻǺ£ûֿܣһҲһѧ뷨

2 ʶϣҽģͻģͣ

ģͣModelѧĹߡ һ߼߼ǵ⣬ǿͨһģ͵ѡȷǵĹ۲Ƕȣ⣬Ԥ⡣

1 ҽģ the medical model

ҽģԲ˵ƫԹ֮Դڣͨ£

a. һ֡ˡĴڣͨѧҽƼΪϡıǩȷ֢һԶ޷IJ

b. ˿ɡˡڡͨˡѧУʵиΪߺԶͼͥĿܻԱ桱

c. 鹹ȫˡŮԱ죬ӤͯꡢIJͬչ׶ΣӲͳ̶ȵIJ죬ͻΪIJȼõĿ塣

d. Dz˸˵ˡ

См˱ϷжԲϵĶ͵ҽģ͡

2 ģ the social model

ģʮкӢ˶ҺͲоDisability Studies۹߹ͬչҪģ͡ȨIJоڿᣨDisability and SocietyDzʶģƹ֤Ҫء

ģ͵Ҫ۵£

a. Ǹϵ桢ỷ໥öһָӵ

b. ϲӦ򵥵Գ˵ܵļ

c. ϲһҪôҪôûеĶԪ󣬲ͳ̶ȵIJ𣬷DzϵضȲϸǹ״DZ仯ij־õ; һ˵̬һֺձ顣 d. ڲһ˵ľġĻʣ£޷жһǷϡ

ģ͹۲죬ȡڳ뻷context- or environment-dependentϴ̶Ҫһ˵ɫͻǷڶ̶ܵƣǼ򵥵ع۲״̬Ρͬһȱ̶ͬǷһͶг[1]Ƿ֧֣ǷӵиʩȷһܲϣһܾͲǡ

ϣ֯Ʒ1980 ƶҽģµġȱ𡢲ϺͲзϷࣨInternational Classification of Impairment, Disability and HandicapҽģͣԡʹܡϺͽ׼International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Healthģͣȡ֮

3 ·ȡһģʽ˷DZϷ

ǿһ²Ƚϵĸſ

1ϷЧſɷ

a. ô[2]ȹձܷϵƽȨϡ

b. ڴҶڵģԷӷΪĸо巨[3]

c. ձ[4]йΪ޾ִеIJӽֹԡ

2Ȩ淶࣬κһIJ淶ͬϣ

a. Թ淶ҽƿְҵ῵

b. ӹ淶

c. Ŵ

3Ҫַɵλ

a. Ԥ뿵ҽ

b. ҵǹ c. 룬ض

d. ƽȵλȨˣǹң

e. ǹ

ɴ˿֪˱ϹϵֻDzϷеһϵʵҹɵIJм˱Ϸ·޸Ľ˲˵ȫַɵλȫȨ淶ֻƱϷǼʵġǵ·ֻطӣ˽ʵķԲӷؾҵƽȾҵٽֻ涨ģǹʵƽȵλȫϵIJֻһֽз--˷

⣬Ȩ汣Ϸֱ﷽ʽй۷չѽڡģȨ棬ַܵͿѰȼáҲӦСϷȨ桰ֱϷľͲȨֻڷûȨ£Ϊ涨ŻӵеȨǷ⡣Ϸ趨񣬳Ϊɹ⣬ͬʱڴɸ֮棬֮йȨڴɹ棬֮ӻ棬ֻǷ棨Reflekwirkung des objektiven Recht, guenstiger Rechtsreflex񲻵ֺȼá

鱾޷ȷȨλԭ򣬷ӳѧչ³ɹΪȨ汣Ϸ޸ʾãһΪķ--л񹲺͹˷6000ͬӸȨģʽĹҸȼõĶתȫƽȶʵȨ塣

4ϷıΧӦöȫ渲ǻǿضȲȨı

˷Americans with Disabilities Actڶ϶ΪһΪϵȱһҪܵƣ״̬Ϊϡйȱ¼ĺͱΪȱ״̬ҲDz[5]ڵ510͵511 ֱ涨ǷʹöƷĺͬ˫ʿ÷IJ[6]ڡҪ͡ơĸȷԣ˷ıΧܵ˼ƣԺҽģо˭Dzϣʮֻкıõ˷Ժ֧֡ԴˣADAǺڲ֯ϡ

ӢӷΧҲխֻȱճܵʵʺͳڵIJӰ˲ܱPeople with impairments that have substantial and long-term adverse effects on normal day-to-day activities.

УΧǰĴǵġӷDisability Discrimination Act֫α physical malformation or disfigurementҲĹ涨ΪϡԭǣDDA ΪDzDz˲ҪҪΪǷƫ̬Դܶ²⣬߲ʵ״̬ʲôйϾڲٲϺͱϵӦܲϷֹ֮ӡӺҽƼľϳ̶ȼƷΧûֱӹϵ[7]

Χ̫խΥԣڿҲԴԼȺƽҪ·ڸ߷棬ɵ¹ʽĽݱ༰̶ȹ滮ƾ֤ȡӦԭ򡣷ӷ潨ȡĴǵӷΪģģʽ

ļ ίԱⶨĸ뷨ļ򵥽

1 Բм˷ԭо˼ϰߺͷɹ涨ϵӣ ֹӸϷԴӣۺԲ˵ķļԴϵ

2˵ԭڷмֵо

й涨ڿͽܷʱ֪ȨԸȨѡȨ

ǿϸŮͯر𱣻

ɵ¹ᷨĸԭ

3äĵķɵλƹо

ҿʼϿʽԵλͼƹĻ¹ƽȵλ涨رΪṩ﷭롣ҹûľʵΪ飺Ϊ˽ר𣨻רԤ㣩ᳫӯ﷭빫˾ʽ﷭硣ػԺ£ԴϿɵ﷭빫˾ķ룬Ҳڰǰպ͹Լ̸ʱ䲢ɹָԱ󣬹غ˫ǩԱÿƾרȡСʱꡣ 4ҵ

Ϊ涨˽󰴱ɲ˾ҵʱδ죬Ҳ⹫Σsonderabgabeڹغ͹ҵƹ㣬ǹزԴķʽ

5Ȩȼ ˻ƽίԱᡣ

ʡרЭмЭЭȨ

Ϲ涨֤εá

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[1] ڵ¹һͶгָ־Ŀггָӻ

[2] The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Section 15 (1):

Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

[3]Ӣ Disability Discrimination Act1995 Human Rights Act1993 No.82ӡ Disabled Persons Act, 1998; ɫ Disabled Persons Act, 1998

[4] ˻

[5] ADA Sec3 2Disability. C The term disability means, with respect to an individual a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual:

(A) a record of such an impairmentor

(B) being regarded as having such an impairment.

[6] ԷǷʹöƷ߻ڵ͸Ȩȡ̬ȣ μTraynor v. Turnage, 485 U.S. 535ڼôŷ޴󲿷ֹңȡԭ򣬶λȡ˵ʵ󡣲μ Entrop v. Imperial Oil Ltd. (1995) 95 C.L.L.C. 230-022 (Ont. Bd. of Inquiry)

[7] Bickenbach, Jerome E. The ADA v. the Canadian Charter of Rights, in: Francis, Leslie Pickering/Silvers, Anita (edt.) Americans with Disabilities, Routledge, 2000, P. 349