ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 


۷ļֵʶԵйνһ۵Ľ





ҪļֵʶǽĿǰν۵һҪڡļֵʶǶԪIJָǶԷһ¡Ե˼룬ͨƽȽԻɡɵƶ뷢չḶ́ʵDzγɷļֵʶĹ̡һϵ۱硢ԴƫĹ̡ʵַļֵʶijܡʹһܾ廯ƶȡƽȡγɡĻļֵ֮ά йĿǰķνдһԽۣһ棬ѧϣɱʥȨһ棬ɼûȨҲһʵˣʹһЩʧȥ˶ԷεġʵˡɡDZˡɡļֵʶʹ֡ɡͳһʹʵһµĹؼҹѧеĹڷļֵоϣʵʳΪŵ㣬աѧϰѧѧѧƵойؽۣѧһоɹԷļֵһֶ෽λĻоڻ֡ߵĻ˼·ǣֵʶǵǰᷢչıȻҪ󣬼ֵʶļֵʶµġԽ͹ϵѧΪÿΪɡƽȵĹͨԻʵ֡
һνеһ

һνеġʮֻա
һλеıˣˣָIJƲһȺաӡϴϣ½̳Ⱥյĵһһ룬϶õķ֮һСӱ֮һҵǣȥʱֻʣʮһֻաϣµȻҪõеֻ⵽ֵǵķԡַˡתȥҿ[1]˵Ұҵһֻսǣּ⣬ػҡڣʮָֻˡϣµõһ룬ֻõķ֮һֻ֮һֻȻʣǽĵʮֻǰιúܺòع黹ϡ[2]

Ŀǰйι跨ιҡ֮ͨ·ƺҲ⡰12ֻա⡣ʱһλѧҺķɱʥȨõһѭҪǿΪĻֵɱиnoblenessļֵ;񣬲ܱء[3]һЩѧҵĹ۲˼ȴྶͥеķѧΪǶԷε鴦һì֮Сһ棬ηΣܴͰһ棬ڡԷγлɣСԼеξǡϰաì鷴ӳʵйԴķȻ޷ȫܣҲӳ˷ʵ֮ŵľ޴IJࡣ[4]޶żλѧҵĿӳȤҹѧ۽ʦѧʱֵȻǵķǡȫ빲ͬ־֡ôΪʲôô񲻶ŷطأ÷ʵУоɲоΥõ磬[5]廨šµ١ҵصı ƺЦ

һڷνеۣһ棬ڽ跨ҪɵġС򡰳ߡԼΪ[6]һ棬ʵвС򡰳ߡΪ[7]ʹϣķֵķɣʹֵķıһ۵ġʮֻա


ߡѰʶӻ¿ֵʶıҪ

ȫշѽʮ֮꣬ôDzŷط֪ж෽ġӵԭһҪԭdzѧνġʧ״ֵ̬ʧศɡõĹ淶Ϊά򡢱ᷢչĻֶΡĿǰΥ߲ӷɣҲӵ¡ʧȥֵ֧ķǺѷʵЧġˣȻԸΥΪʷ˾һټӴȣǸΥΪࡢΧϣΣ̶ϣ˸е䱾֮ơǣЩԾ貢DzӡΪʲôֶԵ¡Էɵ˫أвεģԷ¹Ҫĵ£ָСߵĵ£йġ¡ȻӦٹҹԱѧϰЧ׷ɭйѧϰЧ׷壬Ƕڷνͻ֮ǽֹҹԱɭ׼򣬲Ҫ˵Ρ롰Ρ໥áศɵĻôڻ¶Էɵ֧֡еĵԴ¼֤ ȣвεġѧҸհѵ·ΪԸĵ£morality of aspirationĵ£morality of dutyԸĵָǹҸͳʵ˵Щĵ¡ֵָһ˿ûʵȫ[8]йҾ䡶ѧġĿ⡢ġ֪ҡιƽ£ʵҲһԸĵ¡ĵָһزٵһЩԭ硶ʥ ǡصġʮ롱ɱˡ͵ȵȡΥֵµΪǴ𣬲ΥûץסʵĻᣬڲĻҪ󡣸ν£DZνĻ¡

Σһ־ձԵĵ£ʵšݣʩˡȡձ棺һڵ¹淶ϣˡбڴͳ¡һ־Ӣ¡ѧѧϵλΪ֡е塱ľӢ¡20һתʱȴijЩı죬ҪĶ컯ɶԼתΪˣɶתΪԶߣһαһ޳ܵĺ˾ۡ[9]ڵ¹淶ϾձԡΪ˵ĵ£κ˶һͬʣҪķΧͲܲСϿܲ͡ʵǰijųڵ֮⡣ͬʱֿ֧͹ձԵֱӸҲȥ𣬡ٽһ־СΩһ̬ļֵϵˣָȫʶ̬ϵѹϣõֵֺϵĺ֧֣һֵּϵĶ֧֡ձ廹ִͳִڵϵһԣֵºIJijЩĻɷ֡[10]

ٴΣһֵµ߻򡰵һˣΪһԱԼһлʲôĸ˺룬׷ʲôļֵĿ꣬һЩΪ׼͹淶α빲ͬѭġͿܱ[11]

󣬷ҪӦһ£õߵ֧֡һ棬ǶԻµ⡢ܡͬ⡢ܡͬطɵijֱҪȻأпطɡһ棬ƶɵʱӦעӻ³ΪΪһΪ淶һ֡ӦҪӢѧܿ˺ְڰµĽݿ˷ѧκ򱴸ָڡӦķΧת˵ġӦͱٱΪоԼġӦҪǿԵģֻǿijֿ͹Ǻõģ˵ijֵϵΪʱС[12]ĵڻ¡ΪµơøյĻ˵ǴIJΪ£¼ҿԡһΪɴߵĽɫжϷϲκδĸı䡱ֻڶĺСϣͬԸĵ뷨ûֱӵϵûа취ǿһ̶ܼȡ[13]

ǰڵһĻȻͨǹŹءγɵģԱĹʶconsensusɵ¹ʶγɼֵʶΪΪ淶ָֻӦáݣû˵ĸݡΪʲôӦá磬ΪʲôӦʵšݣʩˡйѧָ͡Ӧáһʽܹһ淶ĿɽԵ֤෴ǷӦijҪɵģܿ׷ʡΪʲôӦá[14]ԡӦáĸݵ˵ڼֵжϣѡǷǺõġǷӦΪȣڼֵжϵ⡣γɼֵʶγɻµĻ

ֵʶǶԪIJ

ֵʶijضʷԭġṹƽȶԪԴͳȼȡûĶԪֻͲºͼֵʶ⡣һͬʡĻһͳУͲνֵʶ⡣

ҡйҵķչһִḶִ́ԴԻĽǶ˽⡱[15]ǣ˹ԣʱȫΣΣ򣺾ΣΣϷΣΣ[16]˹˹ͨжۺͶԻԽʱֵΣ

йȻûй˹ʱΣִйǡڽʱȻһЩѧ߻ǸܵԪʶҪйȻѹʵĻʷѧҵĴҰָԪžöԪ𡣡[17]λΪĿǰѾ¶ߵʽͼֵͷֻһ־᲻״һ־ӢȼƵĴͳ̬תһ֡ƽȶԪִ̬ӿµ޶˹˹Թʶ̽ѰһԪѰʶԪձ顱ʣĹϵ⡣[18]

ļֵʶĺ

ֵжֵʶ漰ǵĹ룬˶ж빲ʶĺǻɵġ磬Ƿһֵ֤ڵġֵ֤ݡЧ֤ͬŴڵġ۲֤ݡȷɣڴ˻ϿԴɹʶǧǰġׯӡָ˴ɹʶѣʹӣʤңҲʤҲҹҲʤʤҹҲҲаҲҲаҲҲаȻ˾㲻֪ҲҲа[19]

һʵ֤Ľ·

ʵ֤壨PositivismѧҶԼֵжĽ·еׯӵѧѺͶֻӡеʵ֤ѧҸɴϼֵжϵĿԣӷׯܡ֪֮֡һ[20]ʵ֤ѧҺͷѧҳϼֵĴڣжϽϸµ֤ǿ԰ʵ֤巽۶Դֵ̬¸

һֵڿԽʵġʵķΧڡάҲѧɡĿΪӦȻԵģ淶Ĺ淶ʣһݡݣͨԹ淶ʵĶȷģԡϵơͨ־ɵһָͨձҸ־ͨͬ壬ͨѸֺг֯һ塮ġַʽʹֵжϻһʵġ۵ݡֵжϡͬҲڹ淶ԽķҲԽ߼ķ[21]

ڶֵжǵжϵġǶضʵij̬ȣֵжĿꡣΪijʵмֵǶĿ϶̬ȣǵж磬Ϊ桢ơ塢ɡƽмֵǶĿ϶̬ȣϣж

ֵжϵĺǿܵģֱͬ⡢̬Լһijءֱйؼֵ̬ȣҲǻйؼֵ;ÿһʵʵĺ֤ҪijЩ̬ȵʵʵ۾ݡЩ۵ǰԴֱһ¡ʾԼЭԴеóֵжҪʵԵ֤ijֳмԵʵԤԼһľʵȻƶϳ뾭ʵϵĺּۣԤĽԵб˴˳ͻһоͿԽһڸּΪĿжƻ֮Ļ[22]

ģֵжϵʵЧҪģֻձԣоԡֵжǵжأǵжԵġ˼ֵжϲж߱˵̬ȣҲӶΪ˵Ȱ˵ãʹ˷˵˵̬ȲЭͬжԼֵжҪձЧԡձЧԵĸݡ˵Ȱ˵ֻھʵЧԵʵ뾭顣ʵЧǾģģֵжҲͲǾԵġͬǵֱʷԼڲͬ˺ͲͬļвͬݣҲоԵձԡΪŵľԼֵֻһĻͬгΪԶЩֵԤһЩΪձܵĻ淶ʱܹ۳һЩΪ͹Чļֵжϡ[23]

ʵ֤巨ѧҵķйؼֵʶԼֵе˼кġȲ壨Idealismѧҵķ⼯ڶ롢ֵԭķϣҲʵ壨ΨʵۣRealismѧ롢ֵԭⲻᡣʵ֤巽ȿ԰ǿʵҲǷʵϵԣоļֵʶʱʵ֤ȡġǣܱڡ̬ȡֱͬµijͻ

ֵֵ뷨ļֵ

ֵʶǰǶԼֵĺдͬļⲢ˿ԽжԻ뽻ͬʱֵʶĻں̶ܴǶԼֵʶڴˣҪЩһ˵ ȣ˵ĴǼֵоij㡣мֵⶼйء뿪ˣмֵⶼû塣˵˵ΪӦĸ˵Ĵڡ˵ĴڵڣһִڵĴڡ [24]ˣֵжϵӦͨѧĿеļֵ˵ġ

ΣֵһֵĸǷdzġڡе߰ٿȫ顷УֵΪ߼ֵ͹мֵ˵ΪƺΪĿĵơ[25]νƣ˵ֵּǷԡֶԡԵġνĿĵƣ˵ֵּĿԣ׷Ŀġ߼ֵǷƣмֵĿĵơҸ֪ʶǻ۶Ǽֵ֮£֪ʶڹ߼ֵҸǻĿļֵֵ͡Ϊͣ1ϵ͡ڹϵijһмֵģҽijԼ淶2͡УijһмֵģҽܹʵĿġ[26]ǰļֵӦϵͼֵǹ߼ֵͼֵǹмֵԵļֵͼֵмֵʵֵǺܶġ绷ļֵһֹмֵͼֵӷչĽǶΪ˿ɳչǶԻֵ⡣ΪĿ͹ۺǼΪġ

ٴΣֵһʽǣXXζŵ飬to be meant to beζǣΪù淶ȥԼΪĿΪ˱ǵģмֵֻе淶мֵʱžмֵ˵һĿ⣬ԼֵѧֻĿʽָ͡ζŵXĴĿĻ˵ڵʹʵĿĻʹôXĴھġ磺һַƶȱά岢ձЧַɾġ[27]ͬʱڶһXоʱӦĿ۳ŵ۳ŵκһX϶ֳŵ۳ŵĿ۳ŵ۳ŵ̬ѧϵĴǣXXĴһĴ̬Ŀ۳ŵһڵĿ壬˵ǣXXĴڱXζŵĴڷʽֵʽһĿ۳ŵijĿľڵĹܵ;[28]

һֵʶӦڷļֵоУDzͬ⣺ΪIJļֵּŪ巨ĴĿĻʹ˷ļֵڹмֵͼֵζʲôֻеܹʵЩĿʱмֵģͬʱļֵһĿ۳ŵǷڵĹܺ;ϣ˵塢ɡƽȡ桢ȫЧáǷļֵΪDZ˷ĴĿĻʹЩд˵䡢ݣݶǾġʷġǶʵڵģǣͲķɣ̸۷ļֵĻ뷨ɴڵĿ۳ŵӦǷɵĴ۳ŵɵĹ淶ԡȨԡǿԵǷɴڵĴ۳ŵ ЩйѧΪļֵĺ廹ָٽЩֵ˵ǣٽάĿĺĿ꣬繫ʵܹٽЩĿʵ֣ΪЩֵûа취ʵЩĿꡣ ԡ빲ʶ

Ȼȷ˼ֵĺԼļֵںӣȻʵУΪʲôǶԼֵĿǼʼǣǷǶĿûзǹʶΪʵ⣬Ҫԡ빲ʶһķ綨

1ԵĶλ

ֵһԡǴԵIJλ߱ûֹͣЩȻֱʶʹ֮Уȴͬʵ۵¡е֮ͯ˲ܳš嶨ΪչʶǰᡣȣԲǶġѧѧӢ˵ʷѧһ˵ѧǼȰԣְ˵־ʶܵȵڣԲڸǾסʷʵʽԳԼʷУԾȻǿޱȣԣԵء[29]ΣԲǵģҲȫǽġ˼ʷѧҸо֪ʶʷʱһѧߵĻijֹʷǣҲȫƵʷԼĺԲӡij󻯽ʷĶֶĹɺЧɷֵʷݱΪʹùɵʷ[30]ٴΣԲȫ͹۵ġִѧ˹̹˼Ȼɺ౾ԵʱָǴijһطģǴӹҵʽţӵɵԣӷɵıбֳ岢ڶԵ̽ڶԵļ衯[31]ѧҲ϶˼룬ҲԿǴԵIJ̶İգѧоѧȨı֧λԼѧоʣѧܱġѵĺԶܴȻѧе֡޿顯ĵλһ֤ݾڣѧDzϵٸʽĵƺͼලڲľⲿģвҪʳԡ[32]϶ԼǰѧǶԵķҲƫ֮ٿDZԡţǽԵɡ

2Խ͹ϵµ

һ֡ѧת򡱣DZڼֵоȷѡӢָ԰ͼԺĴͳѧҪǽѧһΪԭ򣬰͹ϵ˼άģʽʶձ鱾ΪѧԡԵѧ۵ʵԿѧ̬Ⱥͷѧоѧڸѧļߡῴһ־Եͳһ壬νġ͹۾񡱡͹۾ձʵ廯ΪȺԱ֮ϵʥַĶӶѹ˸塣ѧתǽ˳Խ͹ϵڸߵĻϻظںϵ壬༴ڲ鵽һң˺ͼľ磬ߵͼֵڣкȻҲһ֡롯µĸ־ѧѧʵֵ֮־ͲDZ˴ڵ֣֮ǶΨһʵȡ͹ϵİշʽͳԽ͹ϵﵽһľ磨շʽ֣֮ת֮໥ѧӶҲתͬ໥ѧ[33]

Խ͹ϵĸݣڶµʶ¸˵һģζţʹ߱ʾߡڴߵıʾ״̬˵ߡչʾߡġڡ뱻ΪʾŵĴڡ[34]ijԣ֪ʶ룬Ǵ۵ķ롣[35]ʶʶǽġÿһÿһˡÿһ֣һ仰ÿһ㶼һȫ棬ָԣΪԱ˲ͬ໥á໥Ӱķʽ˵ԲͬķʽӳΨһȫ档[36]йϻ˵һҶ֪ תѧǿоıη棬ͨڳľĶ벻ڳȻͬĶΪһ޾壬ʵСʵеĻ硣[37]ͬʱÿһ嶼ŶĽʾں¸֮ǰһλ¹ѧҺ԰ѵʵ廯Ϊڸ֮ϵĿ͹۾áԡ intersubjektivitaat桰͹۾񡱡ּڱȺ֮໥á໥ϵ֮ûʲô֮ϵij׸塣ȺԱΪȨ͹ȺԱԼڸ߾ȺԱ֮ϵס[38]

¹ѧҿԵ˼ΪʵѧƤ˹Charles S.Peirce﷢չ֤֤Ⱥķһָԡ⣨KonsensʶϵʶǸ塢۱ƽȲμ߶һ¡ڶЧʵijʶʶͳϴһֻΪֵ״̬ĿǴԡΪһֳϣǶһйɼԿǶܹʶһЩɾͻͬ⡣˵Բɷġ[39]ֿ뺣¸Ĺ۵һµģԽ͹ϵ˼άܡһָÿһʶнҪԡ

3ͬһԵ

԰ͼڸѧͳУͬһԽϵһ𡣵ǣ֡ͬһԡ𣿷˼ҸڶʹõĻϵͳоΪӸ˵ͬһԲһֱ׼˵ͬһǾֲģҲÿζͬϱʹãͬͨͬĴʱġ[40]Ӣ˵ָʵв޾ͬһĶͬһdzҪͨʶʵб䶯ӵĶԾֹʵǧ֮ĶͬȻĽĹ۵㣬ijҪ֮ԣڲԶͬһͬͬ[41]оļֵԼļֵʶʱҲӦִֵͬע⡣̸ʷоʱָʷʵϾ˵ʷʱС׷Ѱ˵Ĵڵ壬Լľ硣[42]ΪǶԷļֵʶ̽ͬˡ˵̽ѯijʵڣ˵ڽһֹļ崴졣

ģļֵʶĺ

ļֵʶǶԷһ¡Ƕ塢ɡƽȡ桢ȫЧáȼֵĿľݵһ¡ļֵʶǿܵġΪ֮໥á໥ϵ֮һĶ壬ԣǿԸԵ˼룬ͨƽȽԻɷļֵʶɵƶ뷢չḶ́ʵDzγɷļֵʶĹ̡ ļֵʶһ־ŷԡȻԺðзյľֻΪֵжϵʵԺԵһҪָꣻΪֵжǷȷݡΪһ־ͻᵼһֽһǿǰѺĶҲΪϷĶԳϵΪ[43]Ϊ֤ʶĿԣҪʽҪйʶʮҪݵİǵľ顣[44]ֻǴʽԱ֤һоо߾ͻdzֱգΪԼһij򡣴ӶԹʶ˹Ĺ۵һģǣĹʶ˹Ĺʶͬ˹Ĺʶһֻʽݵ뵱Ȼԡ[45]


ͨʵַļֵʶ

һΪʲôҪͨʵַļֵʶ

ȣʵַļֵʶʵв෴ķһвǻңһвǰȨʵַļֵʶҪڱˡһԪУȨȲҲܣҸȡ·мIJѡ񡣸ǰԼֵԡֵļֵʶȵķǿͬ⣬ijּȶʵ廯ķļֵʶļֵʶȲڵģҲյģǾԵġκζij־ġʵʽ׷նҪô°ȨҪô»ҡˣֵʶĹ̸һֳԵѡ̡һ仰˵ֵʶҵʲôҡֵʶķһֳԵƶȻ

ΣɷļֵʶĹۺ֤ʶȱԭIJϷĹָ̡Եֲ̽һɵ֤壬ڴȺУ۵㶼ǿɳԡģÿ۱IJ߱ʱ׼һֵֿܳ۵㡮͡۱Уֺ֧ͷһıۡ淶ȵɡûκκյĶۣ෴ÿÿۡÿ۵ԭ϶ȱݵģ仰˵ǿġһ⣺ԭûκδɵĺյĶȴȱݣȻһǺԭպ⵹ܹڡ[46]ļֵʶзԡǾԵһҪԭǼ˵ڷɿѧҪáͬconvergence빲ʶϵھķʶУɶ䱾ĶڶԱڵʶγɵʵͬжϡͬ빲ʶ֮ͬڣΪǵͬжϻһ㡣ڴϿ˵ͬǻþʶֶΣһı׼һֱʵԻԵı׼ֻʵʵȱſЭָ֤ͬ͹ʵʵҪֶǺ⡣ʵԣԣݲǣķʽõģ⣬Ϊʵԣԣ׼ͬ׼ǿͬ觿˵IJԴȪǺĽޡ[47]

ٴΣƷɵḶ́ʵҲʵַļֵʶĹ̡ΪɷʵϱΪһֻĸӽṹֽṹŴԵġ֤ģжԵأκ¶ֻʽ߼أٴǡݷɡУʼһȷ֮ɴͳ龳ȷijɼγжϡɹ淶ЧһʽȷĺΪݣΪij̶ֳƶֺϵԣǰ۱IJñҪʵʾ飩֮ûи塣[48]ʵҲȷʵˡйתʱڣϵṹļ䶯ͻڸ¼γɵ˲ҵµķ⣬磺Ȩ׵СѡжϡƷΰеľ⳥ҽ¹ʵж⳥ߡɷáȨ׵ȵȡй˾һγɼֵʶﵽͬḶ́иĻۣγʽ˾ͣΪϵͳʵмơ޸ġ

Ŷ֮ʵַļֵʶһϵ۱硢ԴƫḶ́һԵһݽġԴ˹̵ĸϾǾһҪijʽܡ

ʵַļֵʶijҪ

ΪʲôطɣΪʲôӷǷɵĺϷԵ⡣˵֮⻹غͷӷɺͷĻǾһйءĺϷԷΪʽϷ ( legality )ʵʺϷԣ legitimacy ʽϷָɾȨĹƶ֤ʵʩҪ뱣ִ֤Чʵʩɽ߱ʽϷDzġҪһʵʺϷԣĽܡϿɻ߽빫ĵ֪ϡǶԷļֵʶǷʵʺϷԵĹؼڴ˽˹ġ巶ʽproceduralist paradigm[49]ΪʵַļֵʶijҪҪĻǰǣһԸĵ֪ΪͨɡƽȵĽԻɡҪ£

һϹ˽εĻȨǰѹöʵ乫εƶȻн顣ڹĵ֪ôɾӦԹΪ[50]ݹ˹ĸΣڵζŸ֮Σڷ˽빫εĹͬչҲ˵ֻʹȨʱԼΪصķɵƶߣDzſεġΪζΣȣȨǡ self-legislation ķƶȻ ( legal institutionalisation )ҪΣڷϡƶϸȷеᶨλǹҪʱѭݵġ[51]

ڶ򡣹ĺϷдϿɣϿӦĺϡΪֻЩӰˣǵĻͬΪԼ߶֮򣬲ЧġǵĻӦǹġгģһİԣμƽȽȨܾ˳۱֮һѹֽṹΪй۴һ˼ռ䡣˹ΪڷɹǽܲڣҪIJǵĵ¿ǣ֮ƽ߳򡣱ϾЭεĺġձѧѧԺϴԶսձ÷չľΪָΪƶеľ÷չòҪͺͷӣҲͲòͨķʽȥȡ½֧֡[52]

򡣹˹û/ѡȨͳijеߡֿáĽɡ( communicative freedom of citizens ) ûȨǰ߱ΪǶԵĹáҪߣһгεĹļǣһǼжdzаԵĹ߶ԱתΪ⣬Ҿ磬γɡۡӰ졣ͨɹʽġΪأΪ˾Ĵ͵ġ֯ġʽġ-־γɹ̵Ļ֡ۡӰͻתɡȨ[53]ֻйͶΡ־γɹ̡ڹǡֵʹȨΪ˽ϵĵλȡƽҲ˵вμϷƶ򣬶ǽƶ򡪡롰ɽտIJ԰ӡ졣

йǷν塣dzĴڶġԼ֮صṫ񲢲еĹǡͶν;뷽ʽġ-־γɹ̺ͷʽġ-־γɹ̡ڵĸýԳΪжdzаԵĹ򡱡ͨý顪㲥̨ġ˵Ŀ㷺Ĺͨ/֯֯ҵίԱᡢЭNGO빫γɡۡǷʽġ-־γɹ[54]ἰ䳣ί˾ʹְȨʽġ-־γɹֹ̡֤֤֤˾֤Լڷɻ񾭼úᷢչƻƶеĹࡰ-־γɹ̵ĻֻͨʹۡӰתɡȨʵַʵʺϷԣɷļֵʶ

ģԪʵַļֵʶƶȿ

̵ֹЧҪһֻƶȿܣinstitutional frameworkƶȿܷĪйѧ߷ΪܷĹ涨Ĭʾ涨˽ȨעĻȨֵܷǷšʶ̬ܡ֮ijͻ˽ȨɣȨͻܷǰѻֶԪֵijͻ˵ܷȨijͻӶҪܷС[55]ΪھİɰֻȡڵĽԼ/һʱڴ˹עڽͻɹʶеƶԹܡԴ˿Դ˵

ȣһܷƶȡȻܷһй1908䷢նܷ١ѽꡣܷĸйιconstitutionΪһֽ飬ǩָ¶ׯղߣconstitution츳֮ܡָǣconstitutionΪĽṹӰ쵽顢ƷжΧߡӵʱйΡᡢáĻṹʱһֽܷûҪܷ涨֧ӹܵṹܷûзӳṹҲ޴Ӱ顢ƷжΧ[56]constitutionalismΪһƶȣζһܷƶȣζŴһȷʵӳĻṹȷϲĻȨ涨ȨʵϾȨɲܷ[57]

Σƶ£ܷ涨ĹĻȨԼһƣΪڶԪСùɷļֵʶȶЧƶȿܺͻ¹˼ʷѧҸ񲩹½¹ܷʱָܷܣߵĹܣţĹܡ[58]ܷĹ߹ָܷ涨˷ʵʺϷԣΪṩһ͸漯ʹõȨϷĹܷķţָܷΪһַţṩһҰpolitical visionһϵļֵתɸκļֵ򡣵[59]γ˶˵ϵļԾʱҪһַţܷ淶ַ[60]ΪṩһҳᣨάϵڣָйѧŴӥƪרҲ̸ܷġá[61]ܣƶڹ淶棬Эֵͻɼֵʶо;һֲĻá

ġƽɡļֵ֮ά

ǴɷļֵʶƶȿܺͻʲôΪǹȨǹĿǰΪֹ߶ʵַļֵʶķڳ򡣵ⲢζЩͳǡֵġʵϣЩijֻļֵΪģЧҲֻļֵΪڷij̶ֳϣȻšֵethische Minimumһб֤ļֵ[62]ֻļֵƶȵγɡĻļֵ֮ά±çԸⳢԶԡļֵ֮άľݽн͡綨֤ש֮ȻйԼֵʶȱԭȻнѡ һ ƽ

壬ƹǰйҲйΪйͳֳɵʣǸdzҪķ룻ҲΪҪŷdzӣǼʼǣִһˣһͳһĽ綨

У֪塢dzֱ׵ĺ壺벻аԣ˽ԣ루˽ԣ֮ˡ[63]

УͨݿԷΪ棺ǸÿӦõĶԸһ漰֮ϵ¡ϣ˼ʿָ屾ǡ˵桯ΪΪǡ˵顱ҪǴЩΨһֻԼij嶯нųѧڶȰһĶ壺ʹÿ˻ӦõĶ㲻־[64]ָΪṩԷǵDZܲʹǻΪʺϵְҵ͵λ[65]

ʿڡѧайΪĹͲֵĹֵĹַΪĹĹĹָÿ˵ĹֵƸְĹƽ壬ָκ˶һ˫𺦵ƽȡ乫Ĺ淶ΥʱĹ㿪ʼá[66]Щ˼ԺоҪ塣

ʽ壨ƽȣʵйһԸʽ壬ϾƽȣͬĶӦͬĶԴձԵĹԼIJƫеãʽĻҪ[67]һֱ塣壺ȣйġСĸһ㡢ǹͬϿɵ壬ԱеʷԡԪԺ͸Զʱء˶죻ΣΪйʲôʵ˼ȷһʽϵĿܣٴΣִᣬƽѾҪɷ֣ȡƽȣDZƽȣִѧ뷨ѧһҪá

ʽȻûָΪͬΪͬԴ֣ˣDzɱҪйʵжϡΪǽʵۣⷽƽʶҲġ 1ǵеĴڣһѧϵʵȺȻҪ[68]˵˲Ӱ졣κ򱴸ָԭDzֵѧΪͲֵĻΪľжء[69]

2ѧϿıҪڣһҸһ𣬱ǿһֺмֵΪ˵ҸһģԸҸȻĹϵСĹԡԡԣܻΪ׷˵ƻ˵ҸʧȥԼҸDZ֤ÿ˻ҸıҪʩÿ˴ҸĻӶÿˣνʤߣIJȫʵϱΪʵͷ䡣[70]

3ӦΪΪľоͬʱڵ¡ɺε⡣Щ漰ǵIJͬΪͬǵΪԼ֮˼ʹϵϵд-˹ϵζԴ˵⡣ڷɷΧڵע˼ʹϵǶƶȡΪͼΪԼǵ໥ϵжϣӹ淶Թ涨ڹĿĴٶáⱻΪdzű֤һĺõķǰ[71]

4ЧԵļֵǵΪϸĵؿͷǿԷ֣ڴijΪʱȴӼֵԡǷĽǶȥǣҲЧáЧ桢µľĿģԣĽǶȥǡڽѡʱԡĿͬʱֶʱͥսʤģǶԡЧáĿǡ߹ϵ׵ǣȣȣĹǿЧõı׼޶ȣɿܵѡм䣬ԽܵĶǵϻĶΣӺϽֻбȽϺõʵֹܱȽϺõЧãٴΣע빦ı֤໥ãúЧ[72]ʧΪһСеĵ̬ȣӵһ۵ӳȤߣԲţвعΩڡ[73]

5岻ijԭ򣬶ǹ룬ÿһкÿһϣÿһ˶жֱκ򱴸ָ۵ʱνȻԭƵãͬĵطǣЩֻΪ֣ЩܹӦܵ͵õƵġҲܹ͹۵غȷ֪ʲôǹҲ޷õ֤ǣпܱʲôDzģпܺر⡣[74]ҲνйһϻӦ֤ᰲŸõطǶֱκ򱴸ֱָ˻óɹñȲΪ߹úãǹƽġ⣺صºĽǻʹܵΪʽͷЩڷϺ͵ǿԽܵĶܻܿʹֱ˴ڱа˲ĵλˣΪһ涨ֱijΪص¶IJIJǣΪܣͬκͻݵĹϵһõɺΪ[75]ǶȿйءΪ𡱵ʵڱʹӢۡѪᡱҪǽһ˵صġάϵڲٵġơͬԡʵ˳Կһſ϶пܻʴĻ 6ĺԭ򡣹ķ˵һֻصĺ䷽ʽķ˵һֱӦʽijͷʽӷ䷽潲Ϊԭ򣺣1Ȩԭ򣺹̺Ȩ棬ҹٱڶȨ档ζţҪijֺõĶͱ빱ijֺõĶĻʵǶԵȵĽԭʼʽǺĻͨޡ2ŵԭɫ̺񣬲ңһɫܻõȨеζţܹijֺõĶͱͬ⹱ijֺõĶ[76]ڶԹжϵʱ򣬶ԵԭԭҲʮֱҪġʽϾһֶԵԣreciprocityһǡ֡ĸζŸֵԭζԵȵ⣬ΪĵλӶﵽһϵĶԵȡ[77]ҲǿԣˣˡһЩνġӵġȾףȾȾֻйصķɡ治ȫڱھ֡׼ʹһЩĴ뽩֡һЩרҶ˽ֵԭ֮̾ΪѧIJȷԡʵⲢҪȵijָ߾ԺܽλûԭλϣθܡͬijЩձѧھϾɱߵľֶʹdzҾ徵ʵΪӰʱʾԶԵȡķʽڡһһ¡һһμСԼֱشǷԵļ 7֤ġԵķ⡣ȣ岻һʵһ񣺸ǵͷԺǵ涨һҪ׷ΣĿǰ״Ҫı䲢չ룬Ŀתڸ֮໥½롣ʵͻ֮֯Ĺϵ⣬ӦȿǵǷһֺгƶȣǹڷͷѹĹ[78]

ʲôɣӳԽ͹ϵ˵Ĵ״̬ɼԡ[79]ںΪһģһһСЭһ¡ú¸Ļ˵ǣʹ˵һΪЭڴ塱µġɡܱΪ˵ԣ෴صǣʹ˳Ϊˡ[80]ʵУΪһЩȨһǷȨ˵ܾȨһܹⲻij£п飻ѡȨһܹܾij鲢ѡȥ飻ǴȨȻѡȥij飬Ͳѡ޴Ե飬ɱͶڴԵвܳΪʵ[81]

ΪʲôǶֵ

ȣ˴ڵijֱҪ˵ԵһҪɲ֡Ҳׯѧġ[82]ָ͡˲һȻڣһɴڣDzɷֵġζijɣɼɾںijɡ⾭Ҳ˵־ǵ£־һе£һ˸ؼͱر[83]ңֵɻķչչ

ΣΪĹʶǰᡣձѧҴ˽ΪʶĻԵʶ[84]ʶݰһԼ˸ԾһDzκ˵ĶڣڶǻΪͬж˸ˣءӷ֤ɵҪ壺˵ȨģȨɱᣬʹû˰ڵʶ[85]³ѸġɳбͬĹ۵㡣[86]ΪʶҲǵĻΪҪʹеܷΪʵϵġܷлܷȨΪܷܶĹһɵ˲ŻθС

ٴΣ˵һΪƽıҪձѧҾϴΪǸȨԷֹȨԼȺڵרƵΣա[87]

ɵĸĸڶࡢذĸ߲εʵ֣һ˱黳ٶϣǿ˵еķѧǡѧ¹ѧҿѽΪۡΪ뷨Ȩصз飬ָÿһϵķѧֻ˵ĹȨʵΨҲֻΪѧҲ벻ϵ⣬ڶ̶Ϸࡣ[88]

ҪġΪʲôҪͨأеĺԺڣΪ˱֤ǡɵƶһЩɵĹ淶Ա޶ȵάɡ[89]ΪȻΪһǰ᱾ìܣǣɵĻȴìܡǰͨ׷ֵ棩ĻʵֳʱЩ׷ֵĻ൱һǻͻġͬʱɾб޼ɵĸ˺ȺõĿܡɲƣôκ˶ΪɵDZܺߡɱܵijЩơʵϣԶԸʹǵܵijЩơ[90]ɾɵĹ淶֮һɲɵĸݡƶɵĸǹѧҰնԴбȽ׼ȷɡƽ֮УֻƵĺ¡һˣƽҪĹ࣬ʹԼͬºܺദҲԽӵеɺƽȵȨޡȻûһܳƵǹڹģҲûһ˵Ϊ˵ǣڹֹԼͬ²õġƽȵ׷֧ʱƽȾ޶ķΧںгչ޶ȡ[91]ɡ뷨֮Ĺϵǣɸݹɽơ

ļֵ塢ɺƽ⣬Чá桢򡢰ȫ͹ͬȡκһϣ˵ǶҪġǣЧá桢򡢰ȫ͹ֻͬάϵܷıҪ塢ɺƽdzֱҪֵ

ˣΪļֵʶǶԷɼֵһ¡γɷļֵʶǰǶԾ͹۾ķ񶨣ԸԼԪĻijأԼֳضĹѰʶѰʲôĹʶʹǵѰ󷨵ļֵʶijƶȿܡʵַļֵʶķij׷ǰȻijֵֻ塢ƽȡɡǸĻʽϵġϵãΪġ

ⷨνġ12ֻաһġʵ廯ġ鷽ǵᡢǵǵܷǵжУҪڶԼ˵أ塢ɡƽȵȰ׷󣬸ܷждʺġרŸܷȨ[92]ƣγµķļֵʶһ̬ġ㣡̡ļֵʶһ㣡еҪڡ

ԭڡᷢչ20015ڣڴһʾл

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* ߸л¶˺顢ӢλڱѧԺ2001ꡰ塢ġѧۻı

** 룬Уѧʿ19821¼ִѧϵƱҵΪѧѧԺڡ

[1] ˹ڽ̷Ժķ١μƹ˹̷ԡйѧ磬1993꣬189-193ҳ

[2] Gunther TeubnerAlienating Justice: On the surplus value of the twelfth camel in: David Nelken and Jiri Pribam (eds.) Consequences of Legal Autopoiesis. Ashgate 2000.

[3] ̶۷Ʒʡ̸ڽ̡뷨ɵĹϵѧϰ̽19985ڣ7783ҳ

[4] С죺εʷ˼ѧо19992ڣ28ҳ

[5] 㲥̨һ׽Ŀ200113ߵ㡶ݺᡷ

[6] ͬעԼ׿Ԩ۷ļֵйѧ20006ڣ2627ҳ

[7] Ҳ̸һЩѧΪ롰СԯޣʵΪԶƶ֮ߡڲܡС֮֮ʱ֡ʩеġȻҲȷȷʵʵΪɡάӢۡļеʱѪᡣ

[8] μִѧѧ磬1992꣬54-55ҳ

[9] λ磬1998꣬7ҳ

[10] ͬϣ3ҳ7ҳ

[11] ͬϣ6ҳ

[12] ܿˡκ򱴸Ҷǫ룺ƶȷۡйѧ磬1994꣬3ҳ

[13] йظ۷µۼִѧ54-56ҳ

[14] ͡ ۿ꣬1994꣬26-27ҳ

[15] ά ִҴͳ꣬1997꣬228ҳ

[16] μȶ˹ ϡ 룺ϷΣϺ磬2000꣬63-120ҳ

[17] йʷ꣬1997꣬303ҳ

[18] λ98ҳ213-214ҳ

[19] ¹Ӧ ע룬ׯӽע롷ϣл֣1983꣬88ҳ

[20] μͬϣ443ҳ

[21] [] άҲѧɡӡݣ1998꣬163ҳ

[22] ͬע12188ҳ

[23] ͬע21164ҳ۵ӵ˼һСμ[Ӣ] ۡ²ᣩӡݣ1980 573-574ҳ

[24] μͬע1468ҳ

[25] е߰ٿȫ顷4йٿȫ磬1985꣬306ҳ

[26] ͬע1419ҳ

[27] ͬϣ71-73ҳ

[28] ͬϣ7374ҳ81ҳ

[29] Ӣ ֮ѧ·򡷣ӡݣ1999꣬184185ҳ

[30] Ълǿ룺֪ʶѧ꣬1998꣬3ҳ

[31] תԣŴӥִѧΪ̽δйѧ20005ڣ66ҳ

[32] [] Ƥ϶[] ʵ뷴˼˼ѧ磬1998꣬53-54ҳ

[33] μͬע2948-49ҳ

[34] ¸ ¼ӳ 룺ʱ䡷꣬199912°棬251254ҳ

[35] μͬע2978-79ҳ

[36] ͬϣ41ҳ

[37] ͬϣ1-21246ҳ

[38] ͬע29170-171ҳʵҲׯѧҪһҪ˼롣

[39] μ[] ͼ ׽ 룺ִѧݽɳ磬2000꣬42ҳ

[40] Ълǿ룺֪ʶѧ182ҳ

[41] ͬע29190-191

[42] ͬע29185ҳ

[43] μͬע3928ҳ39ҳ

[44] ־鲻dzһ˽ƫ飬Ϊ˱徭顣

[45] μͬע3945ҳ27-28ҳʵ˹ʵвֻʽݣΪ׵ıԼը֮ƲʽҪ˵------μФǿ˹ԡءл鱨200038գ22档

[46] ͬע3929414442ҳ

[47] ͬϣ464748ҳ

[48] ͬϣ21-2246ҳ

[49] μ[] ڶ˹ĺϷԡʵҪ塷 룬ءѧ뷨ѧ۴ԡ֣࣬йѧ磬2000꣬1-10ҳлʽǰԡȶΪ족

[50] ûκεǺʲô֪ġμ-ߣ ɽ룺ִ״̬֪ʶı桷130-142ҳ

[51] ɽʡij㲥̨һרĿĿںš˵Ϊǡһֶλܹ桱˵ʵܿɹ

[52] ϴ򣺡޼ֵʮһ͡19998ºţ54ڣ8ҳ

[53] йμ[] ڶ˹ĺϷԡʵҪ塷 룬ءѧ뷨ѧ۴ԡ֣࣬йѧ磬2000꣬1-10ҳ

[54] ӡ˵Ϊ˵ͬǡΪǡ [55] 󣺡ΪʲôѰ졪ʼǡ顷200011ڣ73-74ҳ

[56] ͬע17269-270ҳ

[57] μŴӥѰƽ⡷뾭ɣ۴ԡ꣬19976£249ҳ

[58] ݸ񲩹½ڣProf. Dr. Jurgen Gebhardt University of Erlangen20001026ڱѧѧԺһν¹ܷҰ

[59] ΪойʵҪǿ԰ѡᡱĸλɡԪᡱĸΪԡᡱĸоࡢӵ⣬DZƪ [60] ¹ܷ11涨˵ϲַغͱ˵һйȨ񡣡¹ܷ1й˵ϵĹ涨͵20йĵֿȨĹ涨ǡɸıġeternal clause unchangeable

[61] μͬע57250-252ҳ

[62] μͬע3926ҳ

[63] μйѧʷѧ磬1985꣬52-53ҳ

[64] μDennis Lloyd ï룺ɵҵ˾ӡУ1984꣬111ҳ[] EǺĬ 룺ѧѧ䷽ij磬1987꣬253ҳ񷨴ȫѡ I.1ͷ[]ɣޣ˹ѡ࣬Ʒ룬йѧ磬1992꣬39ҳ

[65] μ[] EǺĬ 룺ѧѧ䷽ij磬1987꣬255ҳ˵ã˹̹Լƽ룺ķɼֵй񹫰ѧ磬1989꣬84-86ҳ

[66] μ[ϣ] ʿ 룺ѧйѧ磬1999꣬99-101ҳ

[67] μDennis Lloyd ï룺ɵҵ˾ӡУ1984꣬110ҳ

[68] ӢѧҹȻ޶ȵݡʱ򣬽棺˵Ĵԣϵƽȣ޵壬޵Դ޵־Ƕеѧԭ˵μ[Ӣ] ɵĸйٿȫ磬1996꣬189-194ҳ

[69] μͬע12254ҳ

[70] μͬע14102103104130128-129ҳ

[71] μͬע12194256203ҳ

[72] μͬϣ192256193ҳ

[73]  עעϣл֣1960꣬189ҳ

[74] μͬע12261251ҳ

[75] ͬϣ200201ҳ

[76] μͬע14139140ҳ

[77] ͬϣ140141143ҳ

[78] μͬע12202-204267ҳ

[79] ΰ¸ɡлࣺѧĻȽ ѧݽ¼磬1995꣬127ҳ

[80] μͬע298281ҳ

[81] μͬע1498-99ҳ

[82] μ¹Ӧ ע룬ׯӽע롷У441-442ҳ

[83] ⾭ ѧоϺѧ棬1933꣬68ҳ

[84] μˣִ뷨йѧ磬1994꣬53ҳ

[85] μѡ࣬ļɽ磬1997꣬180ҳ

[86] ³Ѹָй˵һɢɳDZͳߡΡɹģͳߵġμ³Ѹѡѧ磬1985꣬188ҳ

[87] ϴ򣺡޼ֵʮһ͡19998ºţ54ڣ12ҳΪеĸһʱѧҵıʴͬ˼룺йϣδֻҪǰԼġһ¡Զģ˼ϵ˹˵ġ޷ɣ޹ɵһ˰һ־뷴޳쵼һСʷǰĹ²Ųݣ¬ Խ ࣺɢġУй㲥ӳ磬1996꣬542ҳ

[88] ͬע3953-54ҳ

[89] μͬע14100ҳ

[90] μ[] EǺĬ 룺ѧѧ䷽276ҳ

[91] [] ۭ컪 룺꣬1998꣬167170ҳ

[92] ͬע57

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