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ѧ20044ڣ1-6ҳ
Ҫ ͨ͵ܷʡáԼƶȵձԭƶȵҪԭǿ˵ͱۣίԱͳһоĹбزﲻͬͬʱƶ벻оĹкơڱԺԺ¼Ժоͳһѧල˾оĹԣ˾оĿԤԡϣƶĿǰǿ乫빫˾ĸȻ졣ʵƶȽشٽйķν̡

ؼʣ ƶȣ˵

Ӣı⣺ What is a Precedent? Reflection on the Nature, Role, and Process of the Case Law Method


һ
κηɹ涨עš϶(gap)Ҳ˵ĺضʵ֮Ǵij־룬Ϊ߲ÿһжﵱ˵Ȩֻڼ£ɹ涨Ǿȷ;ģƩܷ涨ֻ18ϵĹѡȨѡȨʸǾģҪڸȷijǷѡȨֻҪǷ18ꡣȻɹ涨ô塣Ʃ硶Ȩ汣39涨ӪٹṩƷ߷ϷȨܵ𺦵ģӪҪ⳥˵ƭϵͨӦܵɵı֪١ǷҲӦ֮ͬܵеġѡǷҲЩΪʵʩɣǹƷ⹺ðαƷΪԴˡȨ汣ûȷ涨ƶɵʱûԤķϸ˵авûоĿ˵Ԥ޵ģҲԤƶֵ϶DZȻڵġ
϶˾ɲȨ˾ɲȨ˾оͳһһºͲĿԣҲ˵ưڲͬ㼶ͬͬһԺòͬоϣɹ淶ļֵѡܷȨٵֻǽձķõضʵȥƩ18ϵĹӦѡȨӦòܼðαӲƷ˺Щֻ߲ļֵѡЩѡԼеķ١Ȼߵļֵѡ񾿾ʲôУؼĴ𰸲ȻˣټȿоȨ汣еġߡˡǡҲо෴оΥ˵ǡϷġȱһͳһЭƣͬķԺͬİͬоͬһԺͬһٶܳϦġɵĿ϶յ·εѡͬһȫͬһŽȻ෴Ľͣȫûзɵ״̬öأͨԤⷨɵҪԼΪ˾оIJͳһȻʹɥʧԤĻܡ[1]
˾ƶȵһҪְͳһɵĽͣƷٸаеɲȨ˾ʵУڵһߵķձᵽƶȵıҪԣǷضҵܷܹƶȡзιұԵʵΪӳ˷εıȻ[2]
ˣƶйٵҪѾǼ򵥵ǻǡҪҪлСֻҪȻǵ׷Ŀ꣬ƶȡķչDZȻͨʲôʽĿʵ֣ǵҪǡôйܷͷķΧЧƶȣʹ֮ڽ˾ʵͬʱܱ⡣Щ⴦õĻôȷʵܱ֤һЩѧǵ⣺֮ĹϵƶȷʵܻᡰʳȨϼ¼֮ĹϵôȷʵܻһطݵġԵ[3] ע⵽ĿǰԡѡȷȻбȽŨɫʣ˾ʵƺȻȽϲڱٶȵĿǣڻ˵ƶڹڵʩвᡰʼδĺ
ͨ͵ܷһ˵ƶȵʡú͹̡һ͵ͨңԺڽٶʷзչ˷ḻܷʱܷ϶Ҳչƶȱص⡣ͨоа̣ǻܶƶȵıʲ̵˽⡣

βģ
1 ̥ɵ˾
ӵڶս񣬺а1973ġݽֹ̥Ӱ[4] Ϊһ̹ңԭձֹŮ̥Υ߽ܵݵ³ͷϸ𲽷ſȡ˶Զ̥ƣȻŽ̷ֹ̥¿˹ݾеһݵݷֹκ¶̥иܵвڵݻеһλŮսݷַܷΪϵĸȨܷȫûᵽֱ̥1973֮ǰԺҲûоܷ踾Ůѡ̥ɣŮƵȨֻڽܷ֮ϵ˾ơ
˾ƵȻƾն׫ܷȻûᵽ̥ȨһʮܷϺüҪȨеھ涨ܷоٵȨӦΪȡȨҪǣʮ涨ݲò(Due Process of Law)˵ɺͲƲȥȫǡԵģԺǰͶоʵ庬壺ijЩɹ涨ԸɵأԺоΥͺ͡Ȩ汣ûϸ綨ߡһʮҲûо˵򡱾ָʲô跨ԺɲȨԽĺ塣1965ġݽа[5] ߷ԺѾЩȨ˽ȨĸоݲýֹʹñþߣֻǵʱûнȨչ̥Ϊѡ۲ȡʲôͣԺֻǡƾŸоߡϵо˽ȨǷѡ̥ȨDZΪоṩɡ
Ȼܷûȷ涨ξ̥DzܷϵȨأԺҪȨⲻͬţƽIJͬ档ڡֹ̥Ϊֹ̥ķб绤ɡһб̥Ȩ񣬲Ϊ̥Ѿܷܵʮġˡ߷ԺĶûȫ۵㣬Ϊֻ̥һʱ֮žܷ߱ȨӶΪֹ̥ṩɡڶ̥ʷע⵽19ͳڵͨûвһɽֹ̥̥ĿʼΪֱ׼̥֮ǰĶ̥ԸĴΪ̥־̥ѾһΪӦܵijͷˣֻ̥̥֮󣨴Լеǰ󣩲ЧڶΪ̥ԸŮҲһвֹ̥ķʵΪ˱Ů߷ԺΪڹȥеģִҽƼѾ׸ı״ڻгڡҲǰ3ڣ̥иûκΣգֻڵһ֮Ч
һ棬ϡ˽ȨŮѡ̥ɣΪкԸŮǾ޴;񸺵ǾԵġԻʵɣΪ˱̥и˵ȫƶ̥չġڡܣڻеĵһ3ڣŮںҽѡ̥ȫɣڵڶ3ڣΪ˱иĽȡƴʩ̥֮󵽷֮ǰ׶ΣΪ˱ֹ̥̥иͽҪ⡣

2 ֮
һʵġˡ1973֮ǰԺܷѡ̥Ȩ1973֮зԺضظŮڻкһ׶ѡȨѿӡ򡱵˽Ȩѡ̥Ȩÿһ廯ֵɵĵطΪ߼ϡ򡱲Ȼš˽Ȩ˼˽ȨҲδζŸŮѡ̥һζȨӦðջڵĿܶܵơˣֵǣڡݽֹ̥о֮󣬶ÿһܵս
߷ԺовͬΪ̥ȨܷıҲݣ˶ʷ1868ɵʮ֮ʱݶԶ̥ƣԱܷɲ̥ڸIJϣͶһϵķ˲ͬ˾ѧΪܷǡģܷʱķչ仯Ժܷƿӡװ롰¾ơѭܷġԭʼͼ(original intent)Ϊܷƶ֮ʲô˼ڻʲô˼ֻҪıûб仯ԺӦʹԽȨ޵Ȩڷ˵ŮһΪûиݵģִҽƼķչʹ̥ڴǰˣ̥ж̥ǷĴͳִûеġ󣬷Ҳͬƽ⣬ΪЧϹиΪԼѪ̥Ӷ̥ıˣо˵˵ʮͼ˵Ƿӳ˶Լ־˾־ڱǿڸ֮ϣʹ֮Ч̥
ԺԼķҲ᲻ͬķݽֹ̥λо֮ûȫȷܴҲʵʩȥܻı䷨ԺһĿҪǣо֮һ˰ˣԲͬʽ֡ڸݲֹܽŮڻǰ3ѡ̥ôǷԲȡͬʽȨƩҪŮڶ̥ǰɷѵͬ⣬δŮھ̥ǰüҳͬ⣿1992ġƶ̥[6] ߷Ժ̽Щ⣬ٴԷաǿѭҪ壬϶1973о˼룬ϸڻ֡ݸƽ׼оżͬҪַ˸ŮȨά˼ҳͬһЩƸСĹ涨ˣйѡ̥Ȩ㳾䶨1973оܵ϶ĺIJҲΪȷ

йʾ
ƶȷ̶йƶȵĶλж෽ʾ¡

1 ƶ
ȣΪһʷǰġŮѡ̥ܷȨͨ߷ԺóϡԺκ˾ƵȨκΡ¡ܷȨӦþ߷ԺȷϣԱ֤ͳһԺȨԡȻⲢ¼ԺĽΪʵϣϰУԺѾ߷Ժ֮ǰݵھоݽֹ̥ķΥܣǵݲû֤ʩʵҪĹDZҪģõĶֿע㷨ԺоͬûѭҲһдԵоȻҪܷȨȷӦͨ߷Ժֻ߷ԺȨƶϸϵġ߷ԺȷܾضȨ¼Ժ߷Ժ߻ϼԺû¼Ժش¡¼ԺĴһ㲻Ϊ[7]
¼ԺĴԾǷЧȻϼԺ顣ҿһӱֺ󣬲ͬ¼ԺȫͬоͻЩĸŮѡ̥ܷȨЩġܡȨ汣ı෴һͳһĹң״ȻDzܽܵġʱϼԺ߷ԺͨͳһԺľʵϣǹ߷ԺҪְܡҲöƶȣ߷Ժֻͨ(writ of certiorari)С߰ͬѲ߷Ժijо˷磬ôԤ߷Ժ϶йߡйķԺ㼶࣬ͬоֲĿԸΪ˱֤ͳһ߷Ժ͸ظ߼ԺҲӦòȡͬܰԭͨͳһȫ˾͡

2 ͨͳһܷͷɽ
ƶ̥һ߷Ժͨоdz˾ͳһɵ塣Ϊͺͳͬйһ©֮ݣұùоҪ͡оͳһ޼¡Ʃڡݽֹ̥о֮󣬸ȷʵڻǰ3¼򵥵ؽֹŮѡ̥Ⲣܽȫ⣬ΪʹڵһڣݻǿԶԸŮѡ񸽼Ӹ績Ůھǰżͼҳͬ⡢йظҽѯṩṤԱѯЩǺܵģЩǣδṩɲо׼ˣЩؼƽ߷Ժͨоͺһ߷ԺҲԤػ̨ʲôĹ涨ͨһ˾;ͽЩȫнȥ[8] ͷطԺ˾͵ʱǿֲܻ졣ˣƶȵĽڴٳ߷Ժְת䣬ʹ֮ʱо尸ӶΪһĹ߷Ժ

3 ȷĹ
Ҫǣͨϵָģڳֵıۺ˵ȷȨ̹ܵͬɣȻʵļ顣ڲͬǹģֻǼ򵥵ƾԼΪȨǿоDZ˵ܷΪʲôԱΪ踾Ů޵ҾȨУѭܵձϵķɽͷܷɽߵһضԭʼ壬ͨƶ߷ļ¼ڰۻʱձʵ˵ĵԭʼͼʲôȻDzģΪܷɵ廹ʱķչݻˣԺйĵĿ֣ܷҪĻ档1973оܵҵͼƶ̥ʷԼЩƱ֣ƽ⸾Ů̥Ȳͬ档
ԡȨ汣Ƿ񺭸֪ΪԺ߳Ĭ֮ᷨɵ˼ܣӦоߵʱۺ˵лҵĴ𰸡ȻҪй̽ӦƶȣʹԺڽ͹аɻĿǰ·߲ͨôӦֱַ̽ɵĿڡĿĵ̽һȽϿ跨һɲȨ硰ݽֹ̥ʾɾĿռҲ޵ġԺоб˵Ȩ汣Ϊ˱ʲô棬Щ潫ܵͬ͵Ӱ졣ߡˡôַɽ͵ʵʩʲôܻӰ쵽Щ˵ĺϷ棿Щ˵ӰǷϡȨ汣طɵĿģǷڱͬʱʹӰСǷ񡰵ݽֹ̥ͬijЩ¡ǡܵȨ汣ıܣ֮۷Ժξ󶼱뽫йؾʵķʽڷϣһоɸΪҪľԴҪģΪо۽ضİоȴԾһƵȫͬİ

4 ζԴڲͬ
˵У˶һɽڵķȻģڸǷαģҵľ粢DzоȲˣⶼӦǿͨһϵظǹ۶ͬijֱʷʱȷʵУһȷҲδزõ[9] Ժڲ˲ӦñṫȨ
ʵϣʹǴģĴڼ乫Ҳʩһ־ѹʹо۾о˵ȡ̶ʹںͷѧ⡣ڡݽֹ̥йУΪоĺϷԣԺ˴רҹʣҽѧѧʷѧĽǶȷ˴[10] ЩԺõضȥԼ漰רҵ֪ʶʹͬ۽ڱȽϸߵ֪ʶƽ̨ϡҲΪʲôо˵ȽϳֵĹҡӢ͵¹󶼲ƶȡ

5 Ч
ݽֹ̥ʹңЧҲǾԵġʵϣijЩӰϴһֱܵ㷺飬Ժܵȫ̷񶨡ڡƶ̥ȷָѭķ򲢷һɲԺУԺܻе׷оĽۣ벻оɡݺԭо֮ʵɡݺԭ˴ôԺʵĵȻԺ뿼ȶԵأûʱӦԭ򣬱ûɵƫѭĹˣЧȫȡĺԡΪ˾һ壬һҪԺѭҪƫоԺṩΪֵɣ¼ԺѭϼԺʹԼͬоĽۻԭ
ֶЧԱ⣬һǷԺǷԻӦááΪĿǰ˾ùģΪоܹõķɹ淶ڷԺõķɡݡӶ˾оʽ͡˹ɡ硣ڳķ߼ƵۣйбָкҪľǷԺǰΪ˾ѭһԭǰһ¡ûɵ£ԺӦѭԼϼԺǰѭоṩɡΣҪоܹǰ۾޴ӽСЩԺͽЩΪаݣκʽܵľԼ
ʵϣҵһʵǷԺ벻ܽͲǰڡݽֹ̥֮ǰԺûд̥⣬ʹˣ߷Ժˡݽаһϵȸµİ˵ʲôʵоԭǰԺ⣬硰ߡǷôоӦ˵ǰĴʽɣǰдڲһ֮оӦýΪʲôµİӦѭһֶһо

ġ
͵ԭ򣬱߷ΪķʽָijЩоΪǿͳһоаٶ֮⣬𲻵ƶӦеãпܲһЩҪ⡣ƶȵǣÿһ˾оһҪԴҪֵ˵ͱۡӦ˾ʵвγɺͷչһЩǰδеĴоƫشоͳΪνġйУκоӦúͱԺϼԺһ£ЩдڲһµĵطԺоӦ˵ЩܵɣЩڽ󲻱ɡͬ㼶ķԺҪֶͨοÿٶԾ尸оΪзṩһ걸ϼͬԺݿ⣬ָǺЩеϢԵ˾о
ȻйĿǰ˾ƺ״£ίԱԺڲרҵίԱȻƶȵγɹзӸҪáЩίԱָȷӦѭƶȵձԭʵа𲽽Ժϵͨϻ۵йƶȺϵܽ᱾ĵۣƶȵҪԭǿ˵ͱۣίԱͳһоĹбزﲻͬͬʱƶ벻оĹкơڱԺԺ¼Ժоͳһѧල˾оĹԣ˾оĿԤԡϣƶĿǰǿ乫빫˾ĸȻ졣ʵƶȽشٽйķν̡


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* ѧʿѧѧԺڡĵдܵʡѧѧ֧֣ش˸л
[1] ڷεĻǰΪߡԤ⡱Υ۵㣬μķ˹Oliver Wendle Holmesɵĵ·Ͼѧۡ2000^ţ6-19ҳȫתڡйѧ͡Էͱ༭ίԱ࣬еҵ2002꣬71-88ҳ
[2] ڱȹƶȱҪԵţμǧԡΪй˾ƶȱ绤ձ20021031ա
[3] μоƶȵ̽ʵࣺ˾塪ȵ̽Ժ2003棬90-103ҳ
[4] Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113ļ˹صȣܷߵḶ́ϡйѧ2002棬1153-1166ҳ
[5] Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479ļܷߵĹ̡1115-1125ҳ
[6] Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833ļܷߵĹ̡1183-1220ҳ
[7] ԭ򣬱߲߼ԺáʡҲΪƶȡѾйѧ飬еķԺΪ˱һͬĴʡǡ(precedents)ʵȡ򡰰(cases)ˡʹңҲֻ߷ԺƶijЩҪΪԺԽֵصڡ͡(case law)ֻҪȷϸϵķԼƶȺйķϵ봫ͳìܡ
[8] ʵϣ߷Ժ͵ȨȷʵпԽصȨܷȡֹ۵㣬ȷ涨Ժֻܲþ顱й2000ʵʩġ42-43ƺҲͬĿǣܲΪƶδγɣ߷ԺԺ˷֮ûͳһõЧ;涨δܻЧʵʩ
[9] ߷ԺĶսǰɵоԼʱڶԾɵооƷμǧϵϲᡤܷйѧ2000棬塢¡
[10] ˾ƶרҡѧߡΪ֮ͥѡ(amicus curiae)ͥij漰ķṩЩͷԺоԼ˵ı绤һ𹫿