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ɷɳ룬ܷ֡ۡ־ĵı롣
ķչʷϣ֮ۡҪɣڸΪֵ÷жľסܷѧֺγˡڵġ۵ԨԴ뷶Χһֱܷѧضľ䣬ʹ˾ӵҲرܲƶȵĽɡ˹սڵġܷԭڷѧһֱеһ˻ķ˹1897ľ䡰ɵĵ·ڷѧϴ󡱵й˵Ҳһ˼顣

롶ۡľģ԰йܷҲԶ׼ģ׸ԡʵϣⱾļҪĿڣҲѡ׵Ҫ׼ϾйߣҪΪй߷񣬰йԨԴʷ״ѡⱾļҪࡣһʷλɶҡġܷչ־ӰľƩƪԼзƽڶɵۣһǻԾڵ̨֪ѧ߶ܷѧչ൱ĸеȻܽӳһ֮ԣȻܴ˽⵽ܷij¸ſܵ˵ǰߵı׼һЩʱ˵ļ˵ɳʴ˼Ӱ졣һģԽԶӰԽ΢ֻľһ̳Ͼʱ䷢ӳԽԽŨĴ㡣Ʒһ࣬Ҫǵ컯ˡڿǴ׶ܷѧ˵̱ԺҲᱻߵķᱮڸǡ

Э1967һܷļӣռ˵ʱȽдԵʮƪġDzƪľijĽ׶ܽᣬƺԽѾôˣΪµۺ(synthesis)ҪLexis-NexisܷҪģΪDZΪģϾҪʱ飩ŵڵⱾļĿǰİƪ¡


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⼸ƪ¶˾йϵǵһ̽Ĺңʷٴ1803ѷʼ̱УЪ(C.J. Marshall)쵼߷ԺûܷȷȨΪԼ˾Ȩ˼Сˡۣⳡо90󷢱ġ۵ԨԴ뷶ΧȻǵһƪɺͽ綨ȨģȨԺʹԵһƪʵϣΪ˾ѾΪȳʵȨܷݣǿڵĻȨķΧҲִȡ˼·ϾƶѾ֮ãijЩ˷ӡ֮⣬Ѻ˻Ȼ˾ԡ۵ĽһֱǷӦβʲôΧʹͬѰȨƪϵͳܷϸ壬ʹ֮Ϊ˾ѧһҪɡȻЩоδȷ£Ǵо˼·ȻԿƪļ޴ڵӰӡ

˹սվһߣٿȥˡһʼ֤˾ʵݵġҲʹ˵ͬ˶񺺵·(J. Hand)Ϊ˾ܷûй涨άܷȨ˵ȷʵDZҪȨ˹ȴ൱ŷ֤Ȼܷûȷᵽ˾飬Ǵܷ涨Ľṹ߼ضȨô˵˾ĻӵˡʵȻűʷһתת˾ij֡ԭ򡱡ܷȨԺ˾飬ⲢԺʹȨ㽫ԼļֵŲϵܷıȥپ͡Խ硱ˣ˹վٳоСԽ硱ʵУ밸(Brown v. Board of Education)Ӱ޴Ϊ̵Բŵ˵һƪΪֹ߽ԵģҲԽ̱һѧ۱֮ܽᣬһָһµ㡢µķµ˼·˺Ƕ˾˾ְܵѧֶ̽ཨƪĵĻϣôߣҲͲΪˡ

˾˶ĺϯ󷨹Ъ򿪵ģûһƪ½Dz׵ġ˸ش󷨹ٵרΪ˼Ъ200ҲDZΩһһƪ˾ʵ¡й˵˸زһôϤ֡˵Ъķ˹˻˹˶Ϊô˸һλϽӹƵĴ󷨹٣ϸ񱣳һλӦе͵͵ϣЩλܴٹͬ壬ͬЪҲ˶ΪʡĻ֮£˾һ綼Ҫֵƶȣ˵ЪͨıܷʷӦò֮ʡȻﰸֻһ㣻ͨڹһϵܷʷϵ̱˸طٽһ̽˾ְܵıʣٴζ˾Խ޵ĿԷ棬־ǰƪĵ൱гġ



ƪרŹ˾ģǴӸӽ̽ͬ⡣ڵҪԽ1938ĿղƷ׼ȷ˵еһעġĽע(Footnote 4)ɱСֻһעܷӰʵǷͬСɡʹܷ˼ҲԲ֪ijЩôҪģȴԲ֪עѧԺѧ֪עζʲôôԿ϶ܷͨѧĩԡΪʲôΪעУϯ󷨹˹ͨ(C.J. Stone)˷ԺʲôʱԻӦöӴȡʲôʱͷΡʧ顱ʱ˹ͨڡĽעо˼һǡɢ͹Ⱥ ܵϵӡ֪ڳϾζŶУôеĶѡܴԼ۵ĺѡѡ᣻еĶͨɣʹ֮Чطӳ˵͹۵㡣˵ijЩ۵㲢ô޹ַ˵Ļ棬ָأͷιңܻ˵ֻ֧ͬ飬ûϣģƩֻͬռʮ֮һֶܻܿᷢѹͷϣǽӣʥġɡ壡ʷϣԷɵʽǿں˵ɫϣЩɶͨƶġ

£ȻﲻæֻпԺˣҲϣɷԺַΥܷʮ˵ƽȱȻһɫӣԺҲð㣬һûл˹ͨ󷨹ָľ˼ѰķβܿɿصõܷҪĽʱԺӦҲԷصáӦãΪӵ߲ܺͳͨѡٲλԺܷǰԴԣΪѡЧְܷܣԺְԽλ֮ӡע⵽ղƷ1938ֵ꣬˹ͳ֮󣬷Ժŵ䵽ڡū(Dred Scott)͵㡣ʵϣ߷Ժоȷŷ˾壬ȫ˳˾ԤȻĽעΪ˾˷ʣϾijЩ£һҪ˾Ԥġͨע˹ͨٽ綨ִԺе˾ְܣһչƺۣΪԺպȡ뷨ӷӾ޴׼ձΪɹࡱ(suspect classification)Ժԡϸʵ۹漰һ漰κӣⲿɾ١̡ˡʷϣõָĽעصĵλ

ȻĽעϾֻһע˹ͨٲڴ˽˵Ҳ˰ڵսɡĽעij㣺˾λʧ顱·Ӹãɽע׼ȷԣ͹ȺǷΪȺڽ첢ˣô˾Ᵽ͵ڡŪˣҪõ˾ȺȴܵӡָͨĽעĴǾԣҪⱣʵǡ͹Ⱥ壬ǡɢȺ壬Ʃ績Ů˺ͬߡʱǶȺ壬Ϊǵļж֯ɱľ޴ϰͨƪģ˵ս򡰳ԽղƷ˵ǸˡĽעִ塣



עĵȫһǰ᣺СǰȻԶġǰ᲻Σ֪ڵϣйҶԼǡģõĹҲ࣬ٹһѡ൱ءͽֽϵĹ涨ʵϡѡԱܴ϶˵ôƶķЧΣ֪ˡηֹ֤УΪˣΪѡٵһ̣ѡٵǸλʵѾˣԸ޷֤µѡܷҪ̱õεı֤עٵΪ˱̵֤ķλԺֱ뷢ӦеáʵϣǡĽעĽעҲȷʵᵽγӦܵϸ˾顣ɽֹijȺѡٹ̣ôǿ϶ָͨѡٺԼȨˡ£ԺɶԴиϸ飻Ժôǵԭͻǡǡƶϰת

Ƥ˹ڵ漰Χ㡣ѡٹ̲ܵƣڴԼǰƣһܵصŤѡ˿ڷֲIJ⡢ѡ״IJԼɶԾѡʽĹƵȵȡ⣬ܷɹ涨ûʲô⣬ʵʲȴܻɫɫ⣬ԶʶѡƱĻijЩЧѡƱȸ߶ȼ⡣2000ͳѡһеӡijؼѡͳѡƱ飬ԺӦкΪأѡһι̣ǷԺֵܲġ⡱(political question)⣬Ժ˵ʸˣᡪͳԼȻDzֵܲģ2000ѡΪѡ˾ĻԺĶ͹ܵɿıϡǷԺڴӦʲô޶ȣѭʲôԭ˾ı׼׵ôûʲôܱ֤ٱƽ˸͹ۣν˾оҲͲ˰ԼͶƱѡ2000ͳѡġ߲ʲоУķˡƤ˹ڶоһࡶ֮(The Law of Democracy: Legal Structure of the Political Process)һ飬˵Ǽĸ֮ɡġεܷƪУܽ߷Ժһͨ˾ܷ(judicial constitutionalization)ʵ⣬չһ׼˾Եı׼˶Ŀһ¡

Ȼһϵƶȱϣֻ˾ԶԶġ˾ǶԼܷȨֱҲһϣûۺɣûгֺɵı뽻ûѡѡ˵׼ȷϢָġܲʲôأȵѡһ̵ĺϷԣֻרƵҪ췹ˡΪʲôɶҪͬʱҲΪʲô۵Ҫʵӳͬһ⣺֮Ҫ֮Բܵƺ͸ԤΪᷢһֲáǻķ˹Ͳ˹(J. Brandeis)ս֮һϵзΰ˼롣ܷһ涨᲻ðۺɡô̵һ仰ζʲôǽΪһDzܿƵģ۽ִΣա(clear and present danger)ԺӦϸ۵ķɣֹɹɹصĸһ˼зƽϵͳ1941ġɡһУΪִΣաܷ׼ṩݣʹһ׼ΪΪܡ

ȻִΣա׼ʹֽȻͬĽһֽΪҪԺƽ۵ȻǷۡһֽΪƽ⡱·̫̫ۡȷٵɲȨ̫ڲΪҪṩЧϣʵϣδս֮估֮һʱڣ߷ԺĶǻڻķ˹ٵġִΣա׼淢ս۵ɸƽ⡱ˡˣΪ˱֤ɲĿƻᣬԺӦòȡԡ(categorical)·ܷΧڵۣһɲ棬ô򵥡Ȼֻ˲ȡȥ˵ĵڶ·಻ܳߡв(J. Black)ѧзƵʦ˶Լڡ߽ɺνϵͳչɵľԱۡǡᰮʦȰڴƪУзƽΪԼͻķ˹ٱ绤ʦƫ桱ǹɵĽ档ǣ߶йϡ



Ƥ˹ڵһ˹ؽڵҲǶ߷Ժһ쿪ͥڵкܽᡣۡÿ궼һλ֪ѧߣһܷѧдһƪġǰԡ(Foreword)ع˺ȥһչչµһ˾ɾ͡2002ǷͬѰһ꣬Ϊ߷ԺһԳϵķʽо˺üصİӸϸıַͬԹ۵̬ȣȷ϶˴ѧУ԰ġƫж(affirmative action)ĺԡƫжʱҲΪӡ(reverse discrimination)һַϵġӡһ෴ӡIJȺϵȺ壬ƶߵǿȺԼĿDzȺʷܵӺͲʹǿͨι̱Լ档ƩݴѧҽѧԺȷΪȺ¼ȡȻչȺҪȻĺ˲ְ˿档ζԴ֡ӡ߷Ժ൱ֵķȻΪӡһû𣬶ڡɹࡱϸ׼˹ͨټֲܻܿᷴ׵ΪӡĶ󲢲ǡɢ͹ģҪر˾ʵùУٶԾƫж׼ƺôϸһѧΪУ԰ġ(diversity)涨Ⱥ¼ȡߣֻDzȷ涨޶1970߷Ժ״νӴ֮󣬡ǷΪƫжṩܷݣһֱһδ2002꣬ѧ¼ȡ粨˫ͨýơ߷Ժ´о޶ƶȵȾƫжĺԣȷ϶Ϊƫжܷݡʿûо̫Կʿһʱġʤ

оƺе⣬Ϊ߷Ժɱռϯ󷨹׿˹(C.J. Rehnquist)2000ͳѡ5:4оʾ˹͵ռƵķԺɡǶͬ˹սڵġԭ򡱣پŷʲôʶ̬ӦDzصģǡӦáӦãʵ˶׷Dzܾġ漰κİУٵоȻܵʶ̬Ӱ졣һ2002ھƫжͬеشʤ˹ؽͼĻĽǶЩȥоΪٵĽ͹̲һܵĻӰԼʵϣٵڹʶ̬ܷ⡣ͨԺĻܷͣھ尸лʵȨҲͨĻԷٸ˵Լԭ򡱲ųΪܡ

ȴڵĶٴ˷ѧġࡱ׵ͼۺѧȽѧԭʾ˾̵ʼáԺԼģ˾Ҳظıᡣͺʹͳѧ͹۲֮ϵͳķѧҲ˷ԺΪߺͱеDz֮ϵִѧʾ۲̽ı䱻۲Ķ󣬾ֱ仯ں΢Сġͬģ˾оҲıдоʵٱ⣬ڡͳΪֱܷռУоӰԴ֪ıоӰᡣٱʶԼᡰ֯һӵ硱ʶоֻһֱġ۲족ġΪΩˣ˾̲ܻӦеθС


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۵ԨԴ뷶Χղķ˹BҮ(James B. Thayer) ǧ

The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law

ܷԭ򡭡ղأ˹(Herbert Wechsler) ǧ

Toward Neutral Principles of Constitutional Law

ԼЪ˾ְܡ˹˸(Felix Frankfurter) ʯ IJЧ

John Marshall and the Judicial Function

ԽղƷ³˹A(Bruce A. Ackerman)

Beyond Carolene Products

εܷ£ HƤ˹(Richard H. Pildes)

The Constitutionalization of Democratic Politics

ɼεĹϵǣз(Zechariah Chafee) κ

Free Speech and Its Relation To Self-government

ܷķȨ֮γɣĻԺ뷨޲أC˹(Robert C. Post) 봨

Fashioning the Legal Constitution: Culture, Courts, and Law

ܷռ䡭˹Hȴ(Laurence H. Tribe) ?V

The Curvature of Constitutional Space: What Lawyers Can Learn From Modern Physics