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йĻƺ볤չ׶Σ,ײΪũʽʽʹľԭʼIJ׶ξͿԻ۴ʳͲƸͬʱҲòdzرǵջͲƸˮҪ͵ܱȺѹʹЩũϣԺƽķʽսķʽϴڲԭҲйʽԽԽļȨҪǰɥʧˡй˵ͳʷ϶Ǹ߸ϵʥ˺ȨʷǣȨϾﲻԺij̶ȣ˵ʷҲۣ٣Ӽڼ׹ǡӶϵʷ˵ййܳһεķ⽨ʱʱÿɴССɵģֻʵĹ˵䡣ת붫ܵʱڳĻϵش죬Ҳ⽨ƻܶʼѭһʱ䡣Ȼܵ˥䲢ûеijǿķȡ֮ǽ֮սʱڡ۵Ĵʱ⽨ԭԴڵĻڷƱƣʵھУֳ˹ǿҵΪĵͬһڷѪϵͳڵɱȻɱ⡣ھлĸټ·ַ⣬תֱӿƣΪԼڲľⲿھȡĴȻϣԭϵıݡһֲͬģڷڽ̡ʵĻɳ˭ԴͳԽףʵеԽ͸˭ھռȻսʱڵθĸʵϾʵĽ𣬵عӱͳһ֮һµĵ۹Ƶõȷ

йȷ൱ƵĹƣغʱڣйʵѾŷ1516Ͳųֵľҵ̬γ˾нʽĹϵ˰պͲϵԼӴijγŷ޵ųֵĹѡϵͳŷޣҲǿ˵йƶǡ족ģǸܵǣ֡족бģΪΪ۱׼˼ʵϣйƶȸйĻһǰԼ·չģȻ֮䲻˵ûнֽԶԶﲻƶĻ໥ӰĵزйƶȼǧһֱԼ··ȻʱܵԱĸţҲ˵ȫûĻ룬ĻӰ죬ķչȴһֱڹƵ۹Ĺн͵ҸܱߵӡȶdzIJͬһֱѧϰձҲܲһ

ƴغ𣬾йƶȵĺ⡣ֿԷֳ⣬һǹŵѡ⣬ʱ֮Ϊѡ١ʵϣָйεĿԹΪѡ١ͨѡƶԼӦĻԱѡεĽȻᵽһΪᾫӢʿײ㣬Ļʵ϶ΧѡٽСԣ˵йҲԱΪѡᡱѡΪϵ˵ͷȴ£ȻǹͷԷ裬Ϊסѡ٣ܱ֤ȶǹϵڲȨƺ⡣йǸ͵ĵ۹ʵ˵ȻЩӴĹȺңûȨƺƶȰţȨн޷ƵġԺϵȨ΢ȨķָԼÿŵȨϸ֣֮Ȩ޵ģ໥͸

ȻӴĹŽйƶȵĻɫйĻʵȴձȨרҲйƶȵȨͼҪϵʵԼ־ĹߣǿԼֱȨϽغԺĻʵ۸֮ܺǰűʵµĹǶǹΨһľʵ۵ȨǿԴﵽ޵ģʵҪһеĻֻҪںڵĽɽʵûʲôֹܹʵͼֱͳϵٿһУϧߵ̴ӻȡԭתõԻأʵȡƶȣʵۼԪףֵԡȻƵıʹ涨Զѡܵģ۵Ƶıʹ涨Ϯģ۵ѪԵӴļȨ۹ԣʵֻǿߵܱ֤۹תģ˭Ҳ벻˭ʵһлᵼĴһʷϿҲ˳صƶȴۡ

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ڵʱᷢչ״ҲܽоܵĹƶõıǴģƶȰԤ˺ܶ϶ɹԱĻȥܱ֤ƶȵĵԣȽܹӦ仯֮䣬¼źϼ֮Ĺϵ߻ijԱ̶߻һ֮Ҳᷢ仯ŹǸŵ飬Աܱܵ飬øĹԱȴżʣǣκ£תΪŴƶȱдָӹϵģƣƶ徭ѧνġƶȡͨƶȵİţʵתȻƶȵĴڣҲᱻԱΪԼIJķ棬ӦãҲƵģ޶ȵ۷ֹ˹ڲĽšһ棬Ȼ͹Ա֮ϵȷԣҵȴȶ֮һ״ԹԼһǽIJDzûнٺнٺͣDZ֤תתǾûǮ̣

ͬԭйDzܶũʵоƵĹȨҲDzµ£سٺ»ٵƶȰţ٣ʵʲƣơԺƣʷijЩ׶ΣиٵijԡʵڶʱڣǶũĹƣǶԸ˰գкܺõЧֻƶȰʱһͻᱩ¶׳ɱѸߵﵽܵĵزԣйʷĴʱͳ߷ʲô˼룬ԸΣũȴֻʵнΪεʽ𽥱ɲۣȵģռӵʿӢ

ĻĽǶȣƶȵʱ벻͡йζĸij˵ǿġ̺ij״̬ľ磬ʵ־;ͷǣʵƶȺβϣζξ䣬Ĺξе½̻ǣά͵ʶ̬ȵȣζȨ˵ȨȨƺƶȰţȨලȨõļٿصȵȡ

ξغÿ̬߱ġܼ򵥣ϵ£֮йʷϣͼķʽάֹҵûйûһܳáϱʵҲ԰ͼô󣬵άһɢڷƵũҵȣȴáսԽȻֹʽڷṹƻˣѪԵΪĵĸϵڷƵijЩԪأȴŹɢ䣬ΪСũͬϼٴγƽϵڷƣڷƣû˹ȥṹҰ֮Ϊɢڷơ֡ɢڷơĹ㷺ڣ꺺ʱ򣬴ᶼһӦȻУڷҲһִٽʹͻķչ¹Ӷĩ꿪ʼŹ廯ŷʽ֣κϱʱڣѾŷεӰ֮¡ڣڹƵ£廯ջDZˣй˳ڶȶСũᣬɢڷǿӡס𱰡ŮбĽṹԸΪɺĻģ֧йΪˣÿͳߣһزҪͷҪ᳹ÿһ档йʷϵļٸʵУߣҲԴ֮ͽȴʼֻһʶ̬һؼǣǻʵ۱ˡΪʶ̬ڻʵ֮ϵģһڵĺϷԾ⡣

Ȼξ񲻽ζʶ̬УŹԼʽǻʥϣȨͬӣͨʱʽѬպڻΪǵIJԾΪӵij̶ȣڲƸӣϵУǵרŻֻӵķݣûĿܡٰѧУѧһֱҪݣڵϰһΪѧǴﵽ֪񡱡ģӴ֮й¶ʹú1859⽻УֳĹַӦʵϲǴͳξһֹȷ

Ϊʶ̬кǻƶҪأŴƶȳֳĹٵһɫͿˡֲоʾԺԺĽϣΪϵṩ˳ԱʵϣϹУζѹڲƵеͨʹǽ;ĻٵǹŻϾζҲʿ򣬷;ƾ٣ˣDZųʿĺȺ֮⡣ڹIJϲ̵̨ͺĻųе

ĹٵһƶòԴһǶȥ⣬Ǿƶȵİš˵ʵװζǹҵ֧ҪأʲôʱˣŴйȻҲ⡣ʵϣÿȫ߲Ŀʵ˾ǿԼġ˳ЦʵǶھȨҲûзɹҲ˫н˱ҲԼԾӿƲƣѡԱƱƵķʽάֹҵȻDzԣһ˼ƺͽ̻ʵۺ;֮ĵϵʹߵҲѱĵһաڹŴƶȣЧҺЧ֮䣬Чǵһλġԣӵܵ߸ȨľˣӦ÷ġȻDzɿģĹҲDzɿģȽǾ˸ΣԣʵĹ˵ĽϣΣյġԣ䣬ѹߵУЧһʯ񣬼ѹˣ䣬Խϡ

ξһѾˡءŴƶȰϵȨƺ⣬ҲڡIJ棬ǰ潲ƺ⣬ƺ⣬֮ƺ⣬طԱ֮ƺ⣬ԼƺȵȡʵϣŴеȨԶԶֹЩ˵꺫оٵЩ֮Ժھ֮䣬ڳ֮䣬긴һƳ³µţֻѾƶȵϿۼˡ

йŴƶȲͷױ˺ӣͬʱҲڣӦǹŻνŵʽںij˵κһʽƶȰţҪͨŵŵʵ֡ʵǵ۵Ŀռ䣬ƳԽѾΪһڹ֮ضȺ塣ǵελߣеΪòμӿƾٵļУǣDzвɻȱػǻãû٣񲻻ͣͣû۵ıȣôе񶼿ͣڡһ仯ٵĽ䣬ηαãԼĹأԼ³¡һγԵı仯ٻᵼΪĸı䣬ò˶ãпؾյĹȻIJͬʵ۵IJͬڹŸIJͬǻӰ쵽ǣ˭Ҳܷϣβв벩ĵһ

ƶȴͲǾֹ֯Ϳܣûжõġ֮ȻȶйŴƶȵĹ涨仯ȷһֱڽ֮СݹǧĹŵƣƶȵĸıǴӲԱﵽԱٵԸı䡣ƶϴһ鲹ȻòԭĻʧЧȡ֮йƶȵĹڷãȶϾΪصĿ꣬ͼṹĶĶǴı䷨ԳɹԽƶȵijڣԽ

йִƶȱǵĶǽձʱ䲢ﱾߵ·ȴԶѾʶĶö࣬峯ɥʧ˺ƽƵʱƶȱȴˮϵͣ롣˵ʵȻھйˣԴͳʹͳƶѾûжӡ󣬵ͳƶȵӰڱǣӰǵΪֻѧϰͬʱعԼҲ߳Լ͡