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žڡҵ˳Ƕȵķ[1]ģ¼ģУһ޷˳ֹԼϵķܹҵԼдڵЧ˥˺ʲʧ⡣ָҵһԣ˳Ĺǡģ޷Լֻķҳ99ڹΪβ˳ĵĴṩҵϵĴͳʶ̬ãҳ100ʹùҵȨ񲻶Գƣʵû˳ԼȨһеϹȨǿɱע12ʹҵĹϵεţ޷˳вϳʷԼľ棨ҳ102


ӾϿͨҵӵйȨԼǷʵЧлʣְ塢塢ʡг֯ΪְҵߣǷ˹ڴС˳أҽơסƶȸĸĻǷҲ˹ҴḣΨһеһ˳أ⣬˵ҵ˳DzܡѾʼֻڶԹƶȵ·ڣҵ˳нƵġЩķչĵIJҪģΪķ1994꣬ʱʹһЩ仯ɣؼԵǣ˳ʵûгΪЧijͷвʹҵԼˮƽߣʲʧٻЧӣأ


ͨĶļѧѧͷѧIJоɹģԼŬdzԶĵķһʣʶΪ棬ʹþѧԾ˽ɫٶǷǵ⣿ҽ鳬úԼķΧ⣬Ϊ˵Һҵϵİ㽻˫ĽɫΡȨںԼϵµƽλҲܱһ˫ɫΡȨ񣩶ԺԼɫġ롱ĵķΪ㣬ԵǣʹþѧԾ˼ٶһЩ֯ңΪٵѣһ⡣

徭ѧͳڹҽ뾭û൱ľ裬ڶɺЧʲԤĵģΪ𾭼˥˵ĸԴ֮һȻֲòϣģʽھŹؼãһʾڻ徭ѧٶƶȾѧչС֮ԳΪƶʷоĺ⣬ѧʶ˹ڽ綨γɲȨͼЧԷãD. C. North, İ棬1991ҳ21Ϊһ֯ƣܹṩһ õأ򲻾õأʹԴƶȿܣӶٽ߻ٻиĽЧ۳ֵԭ֮һǣҾ߼ٶΪж߻ǾõĵߣּͬɫȻǿ໥תҵĽɫǶ߼֮ô֤߲ɫͻ༴еһɫжʱ򣬱Ľɫ룬Ӷšýɫѡ񣭽ѡݸı䣿Ҳǣж߻᲻ıԼѡ׼˳ζŲı׼ķһִ׹ϵжϣֹϵߵĽɫȻضģųɫϵĸϵҵĽ׷ɫضģΪʲôɴҵ֯˾Ĺ˾ţǸܹȷĿڡǸܹ˳ȨԼľô


ΪʲôҵĽɫԱжߡ޶ԭǹҴԷΧIJɷָһҵ򾭼֯Ĵ߽޶ģԴһײ㣬һ֯һҵһţһȺ壬ЩȷĽIJͬʱڽṹϸЩ֯һԵĶλlocationұҪжλ棬໥Ե棬ұо֯ΪıߣΪԽ澺֮ġľලߡڹҾмලʵʩͿԴλãҲڲõľγɷǶԳƵĽ׹ϵֹϵȷƲȨı߽Ӱ죬ͬʱҵᶨλìܡҵĴԹ㷺ʹ֮Ϊһ֯ͨ֯IJͬṩƷҲʹߵķΧκ֯IJƷԭ϶뾭ȡʹʸ񣬵ƷʡȨıǹṩҪƷƷ˭ʹãȻҵо棨ֱҵĴ֯ҵľڳͻľ֯ǷҲܵҵıأٱṩҲһƷҵ𺦻ǷùԡԼľ桱أЩӱҲо棬ᶨλɫ棬ԸȨıǹҽɫҪݣԹƷǹұҪĻǵͬʱԾж߽ɫֵʱɫ׷ͱҾȨֽɫ֮䲻ɱĽŹϵ˹жĿijͻЩͻŹҵЧܡˣʹҰѰһּͶֽɫ֮䲻ЭϵĹṹִҽ⡣

һְǰѹҺľϵͳְϷֿþͨг֯ͨĻġεֶڡֻṩһЩþжߵľ߹ƽԡһΪҵһָ£һıҪͶʲӯԵģ仰˵ұ֤񷨵ʵʩ֤ŻһƵЧת֤ŷλľù֮ڣHabermas뱾1989ҳ195ڹҲԽҵġáֻͨ˰ȡҵIJʣάĴڡˣִǽ˰ջϵĹҡְſʶȱɫŵ󣬵ǣͳһЧ˰աϵͳĴΪ򣬹ұضԿƣУҵʣȡȨķʽ֤룬ֶ֧滺ҪIJҵͨԴҵͶʡ֮ұҵһַʽ֤ԼľüȡҪǣַʽǷΪûṩЧʻ͹򣬹ṩġƷǹģǷǹģʵ϶ΪһĿڵġ˵ʹ徭ѧҲϹҵıҪ

ֻҪdzϣɵģĹṹһô͵óϣҾȨҪӾȡòֲκα׼˹ʽ״̬ЧʵģЩ״̬½ԵıЭᣬȫһ롣ͨṩһԵģһṩӦȷԲֵȡȨBuchanan뱾1989ҳ237238


BuchananȻ۹ҵĹáˣҵжȻо壬úϷȨ־ù򣭱˰޶Լƾ֯ĻᡣôķǣܽľûӶЧʣЧʵµۺɱ󻹵ҪɹҳеԹҵ¸ְİúϾһӡԭ˵ģҵΧdzԽŵģһҾ֮ϣ档ҵġ˳Ҳľ棬Ŀ㣣ܵѡĿ꣭ijЩ׷£һǸԵѡأ˳ǷܡĸأԼٶܰǽһ⡣

ҵġòǹģҳΪͬҵ֯һгߣͶʵӯԻرΪĿľû󻯾ĽɫṩƷݵìܽʹжĿԤԣȶԣͣòڸĿ֮ɱ仯ڸֿܳеɱ֮D. North ع۲쵽 ĿIJȫһµìܣ


ҵĵڶĿİһʹ󻯲ȫЧʵIJȨһĿͼȷһ׻ͳԼ󻯣ߣԭſһͳߵļ裬ôʹͳļŻ׼¢󻯣ٷĹŰϣūƣٵ͵IJƣͳߣļţ󻯵Ȩṹ뽵ͽ׷úʹٽЧ֮䣬ų־õijͻֻì᲻ܹʵֳĸԴD. North, 뱾1991ҳ25


Ⲣ˵𺦾ǹҽ뾭ûĶʹǴٽĿҲ෴ĺԭǹҵƵλʹԼΪ׵¢Ͼõķչ¢Ͼεػȡij¢ֹԴЧʹüƵ˾ûĹ㷺ֲ;ԻȡĿԣӶ˶ԺԲһٽձĹƷΪһԼֲֻȨЧȨĽṹ


ЧȨвʱ򣬹Ż߼˥ˡ޸ĻȨṹٽѡ񣬵һʱʵϣҵľã棩ɫòʶȱ仯ýɫڹ֯޷ʼһ֡ѹʱͬɫֵλõı仯˵ҵѡǴڸȨУұȻDZ䶯ԵġĸġԼϵҵĽɫҵһDz䶯ģֵֻѡԼֹѡļԴڽɫĵһٶٶ˺Լ˫ĽɫһзǺԼ޹صԼڽɫķɢԡԼɫķԡ

ѧٶͨϸı߽磬ôʹ򻯣ţ󾡿ܾȷǣûаѾж߷һϵеijһλϽзףԼϵΪֻ漰˫ԼһʱųϵĹϵĹϵ˵ĽɫǵһġȷҿԷָģԼֻ漰˫ijŵΡȨԼ˫ĵλƽͻƽͨԼЭĶ޹ءһרŻĽɫϵٶÿһϵУֻһרΪϵĽɫá˵ķɢԺͷԼٶParsons Levy ϸ۹רŽ ɫΪģʽѧɡɢԽɫ߽粻רԽɫ߽Ϊģʽı仯ΪdzִԵһչ


M. WeberĴͳԺԻ֣ParsonsչһԷԸ ɢ ָԣdiffuseness and specificity˵ͳִΪģʽIJParsons, 1951 ֺֻѧ M. Levy ˸ΪϸµĽ˵M. Levy, 1970 һȻܵܶ˵ˣŽɫɢ֡ͳͻԵΪģʽжѡһϵҲڶϵЩϵƶȻж߽ɫɷ棬ǵĹ涨ʹж߱ԽҪλI. Craib1984˵ֻܰ ɫεĹ׷档ļٶ;ѧҪǣù򣨺Լ˫ƶģĿDZ治ܶԷֺȴɰ߾һֳ˫ϵġȫֽɫԼ׳ɣڴڰ߶ڣʷĻԡ˳ζŷԼԼĽɫӰԼԼĽɫݣھѧĵһٶлܣᆳѧעֻǺԼ˫һԼеضĿ꣬ѡֻضĿйʡңֱƶȻɫڴжǶԼ򹹳սһܹĽɫԿƶȻڴ𣿡˳ڹұԼô Ȼô򵥣ԭôڻٻԼȨ

ÿһֽɫʵʽޣLevyƴΪضǿԽһۣκһֽɫϵɢϵͽɫ׼ֽɫı߽粻гԽʱѡı׼ͱȷѧеѡҪԽɫ߽IJɢijһϵеĵһɫΪһȱʧѡʧȥǰᡣΪڳͻĿľУѡı׼ܶԳ̶ȱ׼ȷָʾ


ѧΪΪ֪ĿеԴȷ˼ԸĴ𰸣ĹģϣöóɱʵĿꡣǰصĿѧԶܽ⣬ǷһĿһĿìܣĻһĿǿġPeter Kosloweski뱾1996ҳ35


ԣǽҪǣҺҵŵһԺԼ׵λǷȷȣҺҵһƽĽߣҿѡҵҵȴܡѡ񡱹ңˣҵͬܡ˳ֻƲķʽ˳ΣԼ˫ηͬҵȻͬҵȻڡλƶ£൱ֵαҵеȻԹҵҪΪǰģԼ޷ȷ˫޶ȡҵӪƶƲȴһ¡һҺĵжһ£ǵķǣΪܵʶ̬Ӱ죭ûԼڱԼ棬ԸΪǹҺѡ񡱵ĽԭڣҵĽɫֻǾԵģ֮Աҡͨ֯Եɡҵѡ񲢲ĺԼһףҵѡҪ֮⣬˳治ܲںԼʧĿǾͻ˾ӴҪλáҾܾеЧʵɱͼר棬ֻɫĴλΣûгԽڹ֮ĵԳ䵱佻׵ļලߡǾеȻ֧Եλ֯뾭þʱԼͬʱҲǼලߣʹԼܵ׶ԷԼҵıȡı߽˭ö¢ҵΪͶ֤شڡ[2]


ԣһϵ޷Լ˫ƽȡලҵҵҲΪԼжĺŴسΪҵλȱ1996ΪҲСжϰάӭ1996Ծ߱Ϊгʱķ̵ѡоӪߵĻƣΪҲԳλȱ˵˫ǾѧжĶ壬ôߺʹߵĺԼϵʵϽأ


Ҫ۲ͬڡѡ񡱣󻯣һѡ߼ڵĿԡѡ߼ܵѧѧƶȡע⣬ȡùrule-governedΪconsequence-governed IJ͡ѡ߼ѭʵԣappropriateness׼жһϵصĹͳ漯жҪжԼĿǰ龰ʶʧѡݽɫƶȵĹϵʶʵжı׼ǸԼ棨March and Olson, 1989, ҳ160Ϊ ˺֯ѡ ж⣬ΪжĽɫѾ߶ƶȻˣͬǰҳ20߼ԼĹ̺ʷʽDzͬģ


ѡ1 ѡ2


߼ʵ߼

㡡ɫ龰к

ʲôҵѡ Ҵʲô龰У

ʲôмֵ˭ʲôɫ

ѡ 龰ȷжʵ̶Σ

ѡѽж ѡʵж[3]


ɫƶȻʵĹϵǶؽɫУʵԺΪӣʱжпܱ任ԼǰҪѡʺƶȵҪⲢΥҪ档ýɫصǿԼϣ˳νɫҪ൱ȷȶͳֵ֧ĴڡʵԵѡܹΪʲôڲͬƶȻж߶¼ѡͬΪʲôѡʵԼʵʶ֪ʶжϣԼΪʲôҡ˳ܵơⷽ棬ṩԹ֯Ϊḻʶ


Ҫرעǣ⣭ϹӦ˳˵ġԼϵĽ۲ҵԭ⡣ҿָĹ޷˳ʵòӦá˳߼ۣ෴Ϊڽɫͻṩһʵ֤ڡ˳ijһԼϵǡ˳ijһɫϵܽ⿪һͻ֢ᣬпܼǿЭɫĴӶԴĽʵṩȷ֪ʶָΪнԵҲǣѰһֹҺᣬҺҵҵľְְ֮ܺʵϵṹʹڽ͹֯ĽɫͻЧ桢پûɱ为ֲIJƽ״[4]


-----------------

οף

࣬йѧ1994Ϻ磬1996

D. C. NorthʷнṹǨϺ꣬1991

MOlsonж߼Ϻ꣬Ϻ磬1995

࣬۴ԣг߼ҹ꣬1995

J. HabermasִҵĺϷ⡱ 1989ҳ183213

. գ徭ѧѧ磬1985

άӭҵҵңҵۡϺ1995

Ŵ֣ҵĸеҵ⡱й19965£10ڣ

Peter Kosloweskiʱѧйѧ磬1996

Ian R. MacneilԼۡйѧ磬1994

James A. Caporaso and David P. Levine, Theories of Political Economy, Cambridge University Press,1992;

Douglass C. North, Institutions and a Transation-cost theory of Exchange, in James E. Alt Kenneth A. Shepsle, eds., Perspectives on Positive Political Economy, Cambridge University Press, 1990, p182;

James M. Buchanan, Property as a Guaranter of Liberty, (The Shaftesbury Papers,1; Series Editor: Charles K. Rowley) Edward Elgar, 1993;

Freedom in Constitutional Contract: Perspective of a Political Economist, London: Routledge, 1977;

ɡгң80 ξѧϺ1989

T. Parsons and Edward A. Shils, Tiward a General Theory of Action, Cambridge, Mass., 1951;

Marion J. Levy, Jr. Moderization and the Structure of Societies: A Setting for International Affairs, Princeton University, 1970;

I. Craib, Modern Social Theory, St. Martin's Press, 1984;

James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Rediscovering Institutions-the organizational Basis of Politics, The Free Press, 1989;


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]ࡶйѧ1994Ϻ磬1996ҳ90107


[2]ѾʶÿһƶȶԼĹ棭˽ƽ

ɽܱ׼ƶȸҵضɫͬйأʵУڹҵĹȡȷBuchanan齫ƽȵɡΪѭԭ򣬼Ϊļලߣְ

跨ڶжߣԼ֮ά־ɵġƽԡBuchanan뱾ҳ240


[3]ʮƵĽӷоĽչг֡ѧIan R. MacneilڶԼоУ Լ 滮̵ĵ֮ĸֹϵʱ䣬˵໥ԣڳŵڴϵĹ滮ԼһԽءַԼѧӽǡڴ˻ϣָˡϵԼ뾭ԼϰߡڲԽڽڴȽ֯һγһ۵ʹԼһԱڹϵΪԭ򡣲μIan R. MacneilԼۡ뱾1994

[4]ֻڸϵĹҲչģû漰ʷϵĹҲ棭йҵ

ԣһйعҵĴͳʷĻϰĿһûȥȷҪΪʵ̬ǡʷءγɵģӳ˹Һ͹Ҳͬ·ÿһֹҽƶᡢáΡĻ߽绷IJϰԵݡѡʽйֵжϱ׼ڳʵγɵҽɫƶȵĹϵ֮ж۵Ļж޷Եķ档ѧƽѾӷӽעһⲢصоףġ顷199610ڣϰ߷ҡ



ԭءѧйо199712

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