ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ܷǹȨʵ#

С*

ԭءѧо20046

ؼʣȨʵܷ

ᷢչƵ¾Ʒѡܷѧ޷ЧӦشʵ⡣ʵĺ蹵͸ӵܷѧ˺ѵʹͽƣ֮ݽ߱¶ţΪ޷ʵ֪εأŵäĿĵչʾĵ·;Σ˼ǿ˻طÿƼ򵥶dz⣺ܷʲô֪ʶ˼ʷǵ߻Ӣ۵ĽÿѧƵĴ۷ڣо˵Ӱʱʷǻ۵Ĵߣδ˼Ŀ·ˡʶĽǶԾĽ򣬶Ƕļ̳кͳԽѧҲЧҲϰЧȾ֮Ϊν֮ѧ[]ϰЧȾܲжȾ֮жĶܷ׷ʣܷĽʼ

ܷķоۡ[]¼ơܷܷۡѧ䣬춨˴ִܷѧ֮뢵ĵλ[]죬ױϾǰġӢܾ塷Ħ类ˮʪ֮żƶҳעĿ¾ɶԺּҸйܷѧԾľҲйܷѧԵģйİ걯롣

ܷۡƪǡܷʡּڻشܷʲô⣬Ϊȫ족[]ͼòֵ[]ѰܷĸΪѴܷۿɽӲĽҲòķѧУ֧Ŵܷ۵ķѧܷѧм˱ߺͰ˹Ĺŵѧͳһر壬Գǡִ޻ڵıͽ []ѱһλΰķѧҡ[]⣬Ҳܳݰ˹[]˵һᵽ˹֣Ҿ޷Ƶߵ𾴣Ĺף۸ôߵ۶֡[]

ڡȫ족ܷʡУܷĽԶܷѧߵĶλΪǰġȰܷѧ߽綨ΪȨ֮ɺģĽߣȻԴΪǰᣬܷ綨ΪȨ֮ɺĹ򡱡Ҳ˷֡һֿܷѧߵְĽ綨ڶֿ綨Ϊ׼ݵܷѧߣԡܷĸĽǰǿȨʵ򡱵ġʵǿȨʵ򡱵ġ򡱡ڡʵ͡Ȩڴ˲ȡͨ׺ͳʶ⣬ʵ[]ʵȨ[]ҵ߻ҪȨȨʵ򡱼ڹȨ֮ɺĹ

һܷѧȨ֮ɺĽ

ܷ̿ͨڿƪܷʲô⣬ȻߵĻش𡣴ȫܷͬۡġȫ족ֱԻܷʡȻڡȫ족35ҳƪڣֻڵ22ҳĩβ23ҳͷ̽Ҹܷһʵ׼ȷ塱ǰԼ63%22/35ƪȫΧšܷѧ߸õΪչģƽϲҪǣܷѧߵְʲôνѧĹ淶Ȼŵ⡣ֱһġ淶̽·ЩͻأҲ⣬ŷdzӲʵ߼ݣ˵׻˵ƨָԴĻܣģɵĸȻ뼤ҵ졣ͬҲܷҵǡĶλȻǸǡܷǰᡣ

Ϊ۵ķ㣬ʱȰѴܷڳܷǹȨ֮ɺʵ򡣴涨ܷѧߵְǽȨ֮ɺࡣҪ棺һܷѧǽߣڶʲôܷ࣡Ķ壬Ļϸۡ һܷѧӦǽ

ҹܷѧ߿ɴԷֳ֣һĻɣǼҵɡ߶˵ߡʵӢ˲˺͹HallamҲޱظӢܷ[]ܷһڽ̣Լܷ˿ɣһԸƣDZʹŴ˵ܷۣԡȳݡfanatical adoration֮˵

˱Ȼұ17911818֮ľܷǰѡܷεѧȲΪܷҲΪηֻܷΪܷԽܷΪְĽڣԾʹȲӦdz䵱ңҲӦDZ绤ʿǸߣֻӦǽߣǹܷDZ绤ֻܷǽķɡ

ܷѧǽߣְѧ֪ʵܷ࣬ѧӡ֪⡱ʼܴӡš򡰺ޡʼ˺͹ҲҶ˹ͨ˵

Էɵⷢ˿ɷΪࣺߣExpositor(Censor)ߵ˵ʶķʲôߵΪķӦʲôˣǰҪоʵɡ֮Χ漰˼άֻ˽⡢жϣԺߣǣԱİ飬Ҫ͸򽻵Ҫ˵ǣߺµķٹȥѾʲô˵߽ӦЩʲô[]

Ȼ˹ͨƵĿǽӢȥķʲôֻкߣۣеְΧڡ߽˵

һ濴ijֺڰףָ״ͻʹ˱ӡһ濴Ȩ̻֮򸯻άߣijַʽԼֵ֧ȨøǿʶĴ󻰣ͼıάԼܻ򲻸ұ绤֮ʹ֮𱸣Ƽ͸ˡijֻΪƶʲô˵ƶȡֵеȻͲӦֵκѣҲ˻ΪӦˣ[]

ԣδ֮״µġָ𡱻򡰱绤Ȼڡʡ򡰸Ȼ߱ӵѧ˸񣬹ʶС𡱣ԣѡܷεѧȲΪܷҲΪηֻܷΪܷɣܷѧ߱ǽߣֱȻҪܷѧֽߺߵ˫ݣǣԱϲ벻ϲĸ飬Ҫ͸򽻵֮žߺ֮меϵ[]ǣˣʵ߲׼ȷ֮Ȼ ԭ򣬲ǰҾͼƻָijЩȱ㣬شȱ㣬ĸ˵ҼƻָͱҿijȫձIJ׼ȷͻ֮Ϊȷʵ飬ģ򣬴֮Уܻκʹ֪ʶ[]

Ϊ⸺ΪѧҪΪʹ֪ʶܷѧӦǽߣߡ൱ȻڼȴķƣҪ׷õ롣ƶȲоԶ޷Ľ[]Ȼ֪ʵƶΪкؽäĿ޵ġܱϸķѧңĿȴdzΪѧң

ʵǷijЩţܹʲôԼĵһ⡣žһ⣺е׷УʲôҪģάޣHelvetiusĻشǡ𣿡һԼ⡣ȥȻͺϰѰֵܷÿסҸ˴𰸣־˵ǡ[]

Ա˵ѽߺߵĽɫֿʵȻӦȻзdzʵʵ壺˼ʹʵȻӦȻߵˣߵĹʡ[]Ȼ,ҪΪ߻ԻߣȱΪߡ

ߵķѧǽϿģ˽͵ϸѧ۵ѧ19ͺӢѧ֪ܵʶѧڡ֮˼ijԾ˶Ըĸ͡ӦȻĹעѧΪϸѧĶѧơѧҲڷĽͣϾˡ⣬ɾǷֵѧоܷΪѧ⣿Ҳʹѧ߳еϴѹԹԭΪѧѧķ룬ȷĴ𰸣ѶԷɹаԱãҲ⵽ѧߵĮԴѧƵѧ;ʵ߶ԣҪṩְҵĵλȡӦΪ֪ʶͼյķɱǶԡӦʲôƷͷ㡣ƣ˹о ѧʵκεIJͬţʵڷʵڷָȷĻʵڵģpostiumɣڶι֮ͬУе֮ȨߵʾĬʾȨ

ڷɵĺúͻɹɽκΣ׼Уѧֱӹע͹ʶijЩԭԣᵽҲֻΪЩԭ򣬶ΪȷǵļֵͰֿѧѧˣѧּȷʵڷӦƶ޸ĵı׼ҲڻЩ׼ԭ򣩡

Ӧʲô֪ʶԡʲô֪ʶΪǰᣬԣԷѧΪǰᣬǣѧΪǰᡣɹȥʲôʹӦʲô֪ʶҲ֪ΪڡӦʲô֪ʶԹǰ״֪ʶΪģԷѧΪǰᡣ[]

˹ķȻӱߴݶǣ綨ķѧʵΧdzխȷѷѧֿѧ߾ǽߣߵĽɫ֮ˣҲֻΪǿ֮ɫҪ塣?ѵԣ

Էɺ͵µĹϵ(˹)໰Ҫ˵ԼûȫϷѧߵãǣȷʵǿѧѧscience of jurisprudenceضΧǽͣʵûߵĿռ䡣ķͳе׷ķѧͶԼȴ淨ƶȵϵͳмѧ֮仮ϸĽߡ[]

ܷѧĽ

1Ӧý

ӢûгܷĹңӢѧߴܷ̽ѧߵְʱٵ⡣ҹdzܷõĹңʵЧԣûгܷơʹ˵ҹܷѧߺӢܷѧٺƵ⡣

ûгܷĹңΪߵܷѧȻڳֽܷڳܷõĹңֵҲȻõġȻҹܷѧƺûʶǸ⣬ȥ׷ܷ䱾ʵֱֵȥԴġܷû̫;Сɴ˱ҹܷѧһԵ񱡱̾dzдڽ̡֣ԭǻ£ֿܣȴкܶסһΩհѧߵҪݹٷķ棬ġܷʵǷϺȰںűܷѧƺܷǻѪȻֻҪѪһڿͷǽںϷйǾ;úܹ񫣬ƽҲʵˡΪ̲ܷѧ߾ֺжΪһʣΪʾʵʣʵЩѧ춼׽ܷĸIJͷô޸ģֻҪܷıĶˣҲˡһĴܷŬѡܷɡ顱϶ǹҵԼʷкһĹȣ񱲢ɶȻڳܷõĹң̣û࣬ڸǺͷ࣬ƭڣĶ̲ĽȻǽߣȴDZߡ˹ʹ˵Ľߡйܷѧ߲ͬҪٴԴӢ޳ܷʵ׷ʣ޳ܷĹңΪߵܷѧ߾ýʲôҪȨ֮ɺࡣ Ӣܷûһʽȴзöɾڵ֮ݡܷѧߴ˺ܶѡĽͲƽĿǣܷѧĶͷ˼ʵԷӢܷѧľ

ЩܳѧԽʽܷʱ׼ȷ֪ʲôǽĶʲôDz˶ķʽǽǹҷɵȷ֣¼ȫ綼ɻ֪ضҲ֪ķΪܷߣǵϺŵͬǵĹܻҲѣȴǷϰߵĹӢߵ龳ͬȫͬԴͷβķȫ飬ܷĵ߱԰ܷͨκα׼֣ܷһʣ˹ͨʹùҵļûƭҵĻǽִĴʣܷ֮֮ǰʲôӢܷʺͷΧ[]

ijгܷҸóܷǹ淶ܷ[]ôùܷѧоͨķѧоû̫IJҪЩȻûгܷĹңڳܷáֻܷϷSemanticܷĹңܷѧߵҪһ㷨ѧ߼޵Ķࡣ˵ϣijЩȨķѧң編ѧҲ˹ͨʷѧҹ͸FreemanȻһת˵

ǣҽҪṩǿǵɣͼȷ乤ͷʽʱܱܿÿ;֣ܻijЩŲνܷConstitutional lawԹУ߽١ù񱡭Իֽ޴롣

ţֱܷѧߵоȻҲԼ

ȣ˲˹ܷͨѧоΪȱڸࡣ˹ͨǴͳѧҵĵָ͡

˹ͨġӢۡȱԺ˼ľĻңⱻ˹ͨϰܷ֮УϰҲǵʱз˹еϰߣ˼ѳ¾ɲõ±ƶȣϰʵӵкʹȫȨ׵ִܾͷϡ[]

˹ͨȨȴ˵Щȱǣ

ijǡķ(the direct opposite of the truth)ָ˹ͨȨǶдʱȨȨʵtrue Accountߣ˹ͨʹõʹʱDzʵڵģunreal[]

˹ͨʹ׹˲ʵڻ٣unrealities or fictions֮С[]ײ ˹֪ܷͨѧҹֲʵڵı﷨unreal expressionsҪָо˺ڣʵڵģڱŮ֮ȨࡣǶ˹ͨѧϰҲʹֱDzȷ֪ʲôܷʵڸǸʵЩ֮ȷйϵձĽǣʵλʵȨڸǣٵعȫܵȨߣ˹ͨĵһĶߺ˷ɵʵڱЩʵIJʵڵ֮¡[]

˹ͨĴӢɫ̲ʣʵڸǺͷࡣ

Σ˷ʷҵķ鹹ΪҲڸܷࡣ˵Ŀǻȡڵǰɵ֪ʶˣӦַʷҺͷɼҡɼӦù񱣺ѵķɼҵְȥ֪̽Ӣʲôȥ֪̽ǰʲôӦʲôȥ֪̽˵ʵҵǰӢķԭ򡣡[]

ʷҪdzڶԷԴĹȰܷݱIJ衣ɼҡҪоʵķɣγɹ̵ȷֻҪĹע[]ɼҶʷĹעֻΪʵķɣעڵķʷзоУֻǴӢʷУɼҲܻ: []

ΣڣʷϵģЩ֪ʶܻԻֻ󼴣ִܷ˲ʽretrogressive progressطʽȷģIJdzǵδȵļǻ۵IJ衣ֹ۵㱳ļٶǣǵѷн塣ּٶڸǷɺʷࡣ[]

ּٶǷ鹹legal fictions[]ΪĿģ϶ijЩٵĻܼٵԭΪ棬϶δķ[]й˻׷ݵáȵϹʢĻƽӢ׷ݵնԶǶԴΪݣ̾粻ţȵھͲСΪУ׿ľӢĿ¿ˡٵĹŴܷȨȻַ鹹չһףȻΪݵ۶ȴٵģ

Ժ鹹ڿ¿֮ķУٽɵҵûάʱΪijЩ£鹹ṩȷƽȺͺ㶨֮εΨһֶΣӢղķʿѰӷԺԼУ¿Ȱʹͼ¿ʹõѧʷġ

鹹ĴٽúޣΪƻ鹹棬Ȼиƣ֧ԼרȨȫŴܷ֤ģʽ¯ɡǣԷ鹹ȴ͸ףٶڸ˷ɵࡱ˵ˣ鹹ǰѼٵ˵ģ˵СͷιŴǶʷҵĹ飬鹹ݱΪʷҵĿұ졣dz˵ھͲǼٵģɿġʷҵġ

Ѳ˹̲ͨʽ񱣨formalism,ʷҶʷԴĹȰù񱡣ù񱣬ҲΪù񱳣ڸʵŴǶԺù񱱾ʲôɼܽ˵ʽͺù񱣬˵һѰܷ֮ɵѧ[]

ȻʷĮӣǷѧ֮һȻкùķʷңҲδضϲ鹹ļŴֻǴʷҵ飬ʷӦֱ顣÷Դ˵

ʷΨһֱӹҲ˵ʶ̼ѵÿ˶Լķɵľ޴ȨΪʷо˳Ϊߣһʹ˱أȷ˴нųԼɵ˫֡ԽͣǣΨһǣʷҪŹͱ뾡ʵʼ˼ṩʲôѵͲʵ[]

÷ⷬǶԴֱδ⣺ķʷֻΪ鹹ŷʷķʷֻΪ鹹ŷʷ÷˵ʵķʷͲᷴԡʱôķѧʷۣԲ˹ͨʽͷʷҵ鹹зŵ߿ķѧͳ͡ͱʶԣ񱡢ʽ񱶼Ƿ鹹ڸǣΣ࣬رʵǵǰһٶı߶Բ˹ͨһޡⱳDZ̵ѧ⡣

2ߵķѧ ߵѧģв˹ͨʼ߶ԡӢָۡ𣬰Ѳ˹ͨijߣԶķء[]߶Բ˹ͨУҪĸ棺һԸĸõʹã޳ɷ취ӵ߷ȻȨۡҹעԲ˹ͨʹõ

˹ͨͨԵӰΪרڸǻҺԻıݣרŵڸٺͽڴ˿չĻҲ˲[]УǷ鹹⳹׼ŭ˱ߡﱻ޳ܵشȻڷͥбȻܡ[]ԿߵļۣЩȫԲ˹ͨģ

ҲһȣԭԼ鹹Ҳһȣ;ҲϣֹߣijЩιѱɣڵʱ£õĹڵʱ£Dzɵġǣ鹹ɽѾˣǰԸ±̺飬ͼͻصαƭ£ܵǴСڣͼκµ鹹˵Ƿԭ򣬴ѱ鹹͸ΣգҺôζԣ֪ʶĹ㲼Ѱߵκʱ򶼸ƽȵˮ׼ڣκ˶ܱΧ˸ٱΪԼǵƭǵĵΣо[]

ϳⷨɼҵĹ磺

вװ鹹Ǿ޷˵Ħûʯ޷˵ְҵƫԻΪѻƬΪdzѡ۾ͳϰߣֱɥʧܣԴʵ̰ذʣû޷[]

ּ̳˱ߵĴͳڶǰͬ˹ͨӢȨ˵ǣ

ۣĵĹʵֻԻͣ󵼣ʵԢԺɫûʶ٣falsehoodsƶͼʹõҵܵ˶˺ûбҪҸ鹹ûбҪĽɳ֮ϣµĻ֮ϡǰЩϷӣӦʵԵԡ[]

ڱ߿ʵĺܶⶼԴϰرǶʵźͽʹáԿ˵ҲΪ󵼺ƭͱעԡʵ֮ĹϵضԴпϵ˵[]

ΪеķɺƶȶܵӳĻԡ鹹ɶĺбҪDz֮ԱΪߵĹƽ·Ϊɼҵлͻɬ˵Ǹ߼ԣڸ˷ɵȱݡ֣߼۵ģоҪΪƶȣɣ֮˵ܱԻѹȵĹߣƭǣ˸ĸĿܡ

Իͻйؽ׼ۼƶȵΧͿ˼ͬ߶Щʽۣ˵ڸǡЩƶȼȱʵIJͰֻܹȻɸı䡣˵֮СĶּ

ԵľĹעԻΪԻ֮Դʶԡ龳֮ϴnettoyage de la situation verbaleΪκо֮湤֮ҪʶDZ˼֮һʹŷ˶˼ңӺ߲С[]

ЩǶʵĴܶƭ˵ĵҪ¶ǣͱѱӲʵ͹ڼʵļԵ֮С[]

ɣΪʵǶԵСԲǽĹߣ˼άĻΪԣ˲ͬڶȻģٵʻɱ˼롣ܷѧʵ񱡢ʽ鹹ĸԴˣ

Ա˵ı⣬漰顢Ӷ˼롢磨physical world֮ϵʡȻ˼άͽĻԣбҪԵʣرʹ棨misdescribeķʽ[]

òȡԹأ[]ΪҪ壬ͱֱӻӵָʾ壻ԵĻλ⣻ʾĬʾٰ֮Իν֮֮仰˵ܹ䣬ijܰ⡣֮ʵʣnoun substantiveʱ[߳Ϊʵ(real entities)]ʱij[߳ƴΪ壨fictitious entities]Ȼ﷨ṹȴ޷ָʾʵ壬ɴ˶ᄈ̸ƻ֮ԣ̸編ɻ֮ijֻеЩ̸ȷʵָʾΧ壨˺ʯͷʱ̸۲塣[]Եʹ÷ʽȻǰ롢Ҳ˵ʵ֮֮IJ:

ʵڵΨһʣsubstancesΨһʵ塣Ϊʿ֮ʴκιǾͱҪʵֻܸʵԸЩ壺һ仰Ǿͱðʡ[]

飬ڣпܱ磬ڣȨծijҲڰʵʣnoun substantivesʵ塢ڵĿϵ

ʣ䵱ƵʣΨһĹߣthingsҲʣsubstancesȱϯʱǵܱչʾ飬ӶֻҪϱ֮ʽʹõijʱôȻĺͳֿĽǣּӦķʽڼʵʴڵ򣻶ԸӦƵķʽܿ

ΪûгĵĻ֮ԴʱĻ󣬲ˣdz־õĴ[]

壬ĴڣҲʵ廯ˣױΪʵ塣ˣDzģıҪĹʵʵڣû˼Ͳչ[]ԡر֮оĹϵȷ⣬ʵĹؼʵ壬εʣcorporeal substanceȷʵڵĿ壻壬ΪĿĶ뱻˵ǴڵĿ塪DzͼʵĴڣǣԾǿ壬ʵڵĿ̸ġ֮DzͨͳʿµֲĶ巨˵ġֲĶ巨ֻijijҲλĸʱãijλʱ㲻áѧͷѧĴ࣬޷ֲ塣 ߵĽ취ǣһȱphraseoplerosis壨paraphrasis˼ͨ˵ǺʹʵʵʵĹϵʹʵʣڶͣarchetypationüɽֲе

һ濴ֽDzܵģôڲڣnon-entities֮УʵʾֻκΰʵⶼǻЦģnonsensical[]

ˣɽ岹ȱͷͼ塢޶ӦʵڵķѧʣǡЦġ

Ȩʵķɺ͹

ҵܷѧܷѧ߽綨Ϊ֮󣬴ʼԼоĵһǸܷ¶壺ܷӢ÷ֱӻӾȨķʹйrules []оǰǴѧʵij㣻ȻԸóǿȴǷѧеġ˼άͱԣԻȷգDzɻȱġҪѧţ٣ķѧҵĺġijǶijЩ֮׼ȷ綨;ȷ⡣[]

ʵݿܷĶȨϵȨҪڲȨʹܷڹʹ ȨϵɷΪڲϵⲿϵڲϵֿɷΪȨҪصĺϵϵǰ߹壻򹹳ɹҽṹⲿϵȨĹϵϸΪȨ͸幫ĹϵȨͼͥĹϵȨͣõĺεģŵĹϵ

˵ܷݺ󣬴ѶߣҪעĴǣǹrulesǷ(laws)˵Ĵɷѿĵģּڻҵע⣺Ӣ÷ԣܷconstitutional law Ĺrulesȫͬԭ׼ݣprinciples and maximsһϸķɣڷԺǿʵʩĹ򣬿ɳģҲɲģƶϰߡͳ򷨹취ͨЩ򹹳ϸܷܳΪܷķɣ the law of the constitution һװconventionsĬunderstandingsϰߣhabitsͳ(practices )ҲԼȨijԱԱԱΪʵϸǷɣΪ޷ڷԺʵʩⲿֽܷconventions of constitutionܷ£constitutional morality ˵²ָκʵݣֻ˵Ǿ˵ȰյЧĹ򡣸ø塣 һ͵µ

ܷͨкǿҵļֵԤ衣ܷΪȨıϣʵȷϡֶ巨ͻ˷͵µĹϵ͵µǷѧҪԭ

ڱߵķУԺӰǣķѷ͵·룬ʵȻӦȻڷУߵġƬۡȷʵȻӦȻϸַ֣ƵĻӦձϰ֮ﱻʵӢѧʵ֤崫ͳ[]ߵķҪһǷʹۣimperative theoryǷ͵¹ϵۣ͵ûбȻĻϵкܶҪӵżȻϵεĻӦþȷҾ㡣ߵķɶ[]ֶԷĿĶ·Dzİǣ߰ڷѧʱȴȫµģ𾪵ģǶԸĸߵ˷ܼ[]ߵţҪΪǶԷķͷʶȡ

˹̳һͳʵȻӦȻҪȷߡֶԵĮӣֻǷϵġɵϣҲΪɺ͵¿ȫ룬ڡɺ͵´ҲԶǻɵƤܴ֮ij̶ֳȵغϻ롣֮ޣdzڶԵԭĵӣֻΪ˱ѷ͵Ҫѷɺ͵߼˼άҪѷɺ͵ʵжзָ

λ˼Ҽֵָǣܹ侲Դ֮񷨡ڵʵȷ⣬֮ⷨȨľڡ֮¸أߵĴ𰸺ܼ򵥣ϸأɵȻڶԷǣߺѵʶDzģǽʱκᣬֻҪ֮ɶòĿܣ÷⵽ֿţⲻӦǷˣǷҲҿΥ˲ͬţǷˣӦõġǣڷɲʱֹ˷߿ȷǷ˵ְҵëΣգһǹڡӦʲôĹܻⷨȨԷĴڱսǣܻȡ£ΪΪ۱׼ӶӱֻСǡ롰ӦáֲܰǶȹΣա[]

ַܷ͵µּ֣ڸ߶򵥵ĵһܽΪܷijΥij±׼ܷ෴ҲӦΪijڵģΪܷΪܷĹ򣬶ʥ붥Ĥݣ֮֮ǰ壬ǼȨ塣ǰӵ޵ĸ췴εֻܰս״̬ӵ޵ķӣɣֻܰͶά̹ɲĸ˹̹Frankenstein[]֮ڡ

ɺ͹ķ෨

1෨ܷѧ

κθں˵ȷںȷӡڶ֮󣬴ܷࣺһܷɣܷʵԿѧоԣ෨ƽļߡȻȴر˵ıҪǼ临ӵģͳĺºдʽĻֺٵĻģDzŵġΩн෨΢ȡȷ֪ʶѧرעط෨

ҪµķɿѧҪڴֲڸ֮ձﱳľϸڿչоȰһΪȻо󡣺ϸڷṹĽǷ֡κ͵¿ѧ֮ı貽衣[]塢ֲࡱdifining,identifying and classifyingĹ򡣴ķɺ͹ĶַDz֮ʵ֮٣ԷȨȨĶַҲͬˡ

ԷٷȰDZ[]ȻĹؼҪʶǴѧ񱡣ߵĸգȴⷽʦ˵ߵҵĴºͼֵĹ۵㣬ķ˵ǶԹ۵ͷĴĶַӱķֻǷĸ¡ԤоĸعԤ˹ںӦɽ֮𰸵Ĺĸת䡣[]

2ֻܷǷ

ص仰ҲڴˡܷΪܷɺַܷ෨ֻǼ򵥵ķ࣬شţҹܷѧߵش⣺ܷDzǷɣ[]ҲΪش⣬ܷѧߵķ롣ۼҰ֥Ƶоܷ˷ѧҲ˹ͨʷѧҸʵëȴһˣܷȻǷɡ˾ˣ νܷconstitutional lawʵֻǿʷϰ֮ϵʮּܣܷϸ˵ȷʵзܷ֮ȻڱҪֻϰҲɵӢĽڵ󡪡⣬ʵ𣿡ˣѧҽһعóȥԴˣȱЧʸһʷǵʷڡһ˵ɳɳĹ߽ҵѡ˹ѧڣCorpus Professor of JurisprudenceΪְоɿѧĹʣಿ֣߽ҵѡչʷڣChichele Professor of International LawǡǷɵķɡĽʦϰڽЩʷĹԼdzʺϽⱻձļ裩ܷ[]

Ҫش⣬ȽһҸܷ׼ȷ壬Ȼٿܷں̶ֳǷоĺʶ󡣡[]ǣ͸ǰܷ壻öٱͳ˵ܷǷɣܷɣֻǷɣдĹЩDzҲڷԺõġ

ѧҵܷоֻǷɣûֱӹⲻǷɣΣ뷳ͷѧҵĴݡ[]ܷɲܷѧߵΨһĹעܷѧߵְ˵ʲôܷķɹ򣨼ԺϺʹõĹ򣩡һ㣬ʹܷѧˡ[]ǡܷ֮ķɵоۡоƺֻܷɡ 3ܷҪ

ǷζţܷҪܷѧأȻǣ

ΪЩ׼֮ԱΪôʱĹҪʵǾʹźˡκνʦԸڴܷУЩͷͬҪijЩмijЩ淨Ҳһм[]

ܷۡ岿һ־רܷĽǣһҪܷĬunderstandingsȻʷѧһѧ֮ע⣻ѧעǵʣʹܷķɷ棬ҲѰա[]ڶܷƲԴܷɣΥܷȻΥܷɣӶƲãܷʵϼӾܷɵʡ[]ʵڶδؾǾԵģ⵽ʱΥ֮ԱأȫΪΥܷؽΥܷɣܷרƹ֮֮֡ԱأΪΥᵼԹڣ԰ѵζţȨߵΪԽ˹ӵĵߡרƹ֮ԱأΪвԷֹר֮ҲδԽӵĵߣδ졣

ܷѧ֮ԼоܷɣоܷҪΪܷѧӦʵijȨֺ֮Ĺ࣬ЩǷɻǹڳܷõĹңʶ𲢽ܷԽܷ֮Ҫ[]

ʵϣܷıȴʵĹңܷѧ˵ܷҪܷıҪǧٱЩңܷıֻǴߵӡٺԱı֣ҪоǵܷıܸDzҪģֻоܷ͹ˡʹʵĹңܷҲͬҪԹڲܷңӢҪ˾˵˵ܷУúӢһشܷ淶ͱءڸȨϵܷ֮㡣ʹܷɡʵгΪһֽģʱܷʵбͻʹõķʽԸַʽ䡰ܷɡЩȻǷɣȴԼ淶Źҵλơ[]

4ɺ͹Ķַ˹

԰˹ĴǶ෽ġܷĸϣֵΪܷΪܷɺܷܷ¡ֱ԰˹ֻǶԺߵķӡʵ;廯ѡ ˹ܷΪķɸġΪϸ˵ͼȨߵȨܷɵơܷ۵ҪǣͨȽΥܣunconstitutional Υ(illegal )IJ죬ֱڵȨߣǾܹͷܷĺ塣еĶУȨϰصĹЩ趨ģܵ˵ϿɣDzδȨ߻ȷС֮дʵЧΪԴڹϵʷΪԴڵǰĺ⡣ǷأƲáΥˣҲʹ̷ձǴֿȨƶķɻִ۾ͿԳΥܣܲ˵ΥݶṫȨݼķɣȻΥȴΥܣΪӢϰұֵ֧ԭͻ򵥽˵ijΥܣ壩˼˵ȣ÷ijضһ£ΣȨϰظù򣻵ĴͬùȨƶΥܵķǷۣ˴С[]

˹رѣᵽܷһʣָʵڵ£ʵڵʵڷĻϡֵ£ʵڷĻϣȷ֯ͽṹȷӵȨĸ˵ĵλϸĵȨ߶ԣֻܷʵڵ£ʵʩƲáˣʹijΥܷȨߵķΥܣҲûΥɣܳΥͳߵƸΥܵķ˵ƱΥģʹ˵ƱΪܷϸʵڵ¡һ仰Ȩʵ巢ȨλӵȨĸ˲ܵϸʵڷƣ綨ȨʵܷǴصʵڷ

ڡѧݽ¼ġҪĩβעУ˹ѹ趨ķɣΪܷд

ھͳεĹУܷdz򵥣ΪĿֻȷӦӵȨǶͳΣܷͱȽϸӣΪҪȷЩ˻ĸŵӦӵȨҪȷЩ˷ȨķʽھͳεĹУֻܷʵڵ£ڶͳεĹУܷʵڵ¹ɣҲʵڵºʵڷĻ[]

ڱߵԳھ֮ʱߵȴ˼йܷѧ¼׾

һйܷѧҪĵעѧתΪĽѧҹܷѧߣҪô黤ɣҪôɡֽǰս˳īdzѧƺǰ߶ԹԣԺ߼ԡȻڲ֮ǰʹУҲ;޲¡ߣ˹ͨѳ¾ɲõ±ƶȣҹѧִ±ڶƣôƪȨΡȫ˴߹Ȩءֻ壬ȵȡм˻ҹܷأصijʶϰնйܷи˽⡣ܷѧߣӦ׺͸ذ֪ڣֺǵƣǰȴԺʵĹϵʽʵ࣬ùûʵԻҹʵʵйؼǵƶȡʷʵΪѧעҲʵֵĶ⣬ʵƣǷ񣬶ܷŷȨƺ⣨ݺ棩񣻸տŵĴλǴ֮·𲽡 벢Ե̬Դܷܷѧ߲ӦھɵȽʽԤ衣ܷԣǷɺ͹µĶ״̬ܷԶɺ͹֣仯Ƕߵͳһ̶ȣܷתΪܷɣij̶ֳĽܷҪǵ¹ǷɹִĸҲĸȱݡҹܷܶҲ޷ڷԺã˵ijɡΥܡ಻ζŵǴ˵𲽣ڳ׶Σ͵ˮƽܷ࣬Ҫߺε¡ܷ˾˸ǰ⡣ֻܷвģɣڷԺãҪIJҪӦҲڷԺáչ˵ԡijƶܷȴԡͷ֧Ʊʵʩܷĺ󷢹ңضǫֵĹҪȹûʵĸҪꡣ[]ʮʷԳɾͣγƶȻۣҪĹ쵼ְƵķϳʮ߲ٶְСƽĴְǰһĴְǿһܷµIJ档йξܽѳΪתйܷʹ֮һϵȫ顱ܵĹ涨ͬġơҲйܷ[]ʹõܷҲ⣬ӦȻѧ糣˵йܷûʵʩͱȻζţйûܷıеĹЩǹҪܷѧھͷҪйܷѧȥֺͲ͡[]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# ڡѧо20046ڣɾ

* йѧԺоԺ2002ʿоºͳ¶˺ʦлͷǷĶȫģ޸شл

[] Ǯ£½⡷2002棬3ҳ

[] Albert Venn Dicey,Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution ,tenth edition with introduction by E.C.S.Wade,Macmillan Education LTD,1959.ݾ汾ױģԻӢܾ塷Ϻӡݣ1930ꣻйƳ2001ӡ룬ʱʧܷ֮ķоۡѴѩ

[]˵ӢܷıߣcodifierSee Martin LoughlinPublic Law and Political Theory, Oxford University Press,1992,p140.

[] Dicey, Law of the Constitution,OUTLINE OF SUBJECTTHE TRUE NATURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW,pp1-35.

[]ڴ¹ȤĶߣɲοԴءӢܾ塷ױ룬йƳ2001棬580ҳ¡

[] Albert Venn Dicey,A Fools Paradise,תCosgrove,The Rule of Law, University of North Carolina Press,1980,p247

[] Dicey, Lectures on the Relation between Law and Public Opinion in England during the Nineteenth Century,Macmillan andCo.,Limited,SecondEdition,1914(³Law and Opinion),P.134.

[] Wilfrid E.Rumble, The Thought of John Austin, London: The Athlone Press,1985, p48.

[] Ibid., p4.

[]ڡʵѧǷѧۺܶҲܸӣ롣

[] ȨҲ̺ܸܶӣȤĶ߿ɲοC.E.Merriam,History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rousseau, New York, 1900.

[] Dicey, Law of the Constitution,p12.

[] Jeremy Bentham,A Fragment on Government, the new Authoritative Edition by J.H.Burns and H.L.A.Hart, Cambridge University Press,1988,p8.

[] Ibid.,p9.

[] Ibid., p4.

[] Ibid.

[] Ibid.,p10.

[] Sir Roland Keyvet Wilson,Bart.,History of Modern English Law,תDicey, Law and Opinion in England:p133.

[] Philip Schofield ,Jeremy Bentham and Nineteenth-Century English Jurisprudence,Journal of Legal History,vol.12(1).May 1991..

[] J.Austin,The Uses of the Study of Jurisprudence,(ed.H.L.A.Hart,1954),תM.D.A.Freeman, Lloyds Introduction to Jurisprudence, London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd,1994,p20-22

[] Philip Schofield,Jeremy Bentham and Nineteenth-Century English Jurisprudence.

[] Dicey, The Law of Constitution,p5-6.

[] μ޺ ߢӢʱҵܷƶȡѧ磬19838£ҳ14

[] Dicey, Law of Constitution,pp.7-8.

[] Ibid.,p9

[] Ibid.,p10

[] Ibid.,pp1112.

[] Ibid.,pp14-15.

[] Ibid., P15.

[] Ibid.,P17.

[] Ibid.

[]Blacks Law Dictionary, 6th ed,p623.

[] ˵鹹Դļٶʵ˾֮ġJeremy Bentham, The Theory of Legislation, edited with an introduction and notes by C.K.Ogden,London ,1931,p.71.

[] Dicey, The Law of Constitution,p19.

[] Maitland to Dicey,fall 1896,Cosgrove, The Rule of Law,p 177.

[] Richard Posner,Blackstone and Bentham,,Journal of Law and Economics 19(October 1976),p570.

[] ڱߺͨĹϵμGerald J.Postema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition,Clarendon Press Oxford,1986.

[] Ross Harrison,Bentham,LondonRoutledge and Kegan Paul,1983,p24.

[] Bentham, A Fragment on Government,p52.

[] Bentham, A Comment on The Commentaries,edited by J.H.Burns and H.L.A.Hart University of London,The Athlone Press,1977,p58.

[] Bentham, The Theory of Legislation, ,pp.71,72,74.

[] صϸɲμHart,The Demystification of the Law,in Essays on Bentham: Studies in Jurisprudence and Political Theory,³HartEssaysClarendon Press,Oxford,1982.

[] H.L.A.Hart, Essays on Bentham, IntroductionClarendon Press,Oxford, pp1-2.

[] Ibidp8.

[] Philip Schofield, Jeremy Bentham, the Principle of Utility ,and Legal Positivism. (2003106һУ֮δ)³Philip Schofield2003p12,лѵ½ڼĸƪܳ¡

[] ڱߵѧɲμC.K.Ogden, Benthams Theory of Fictions,Routledge,2000,first published in 1932 by Kegan Paul,Trench,Trubner&Co Ltd.

[] Philip Schofield, 2003p13.

[] UC lxix,241(c.1776).תPhilip Schofield, 2003p13.

[] UC ci 341(7 August 1814 )[Bowring,viii ,262],תPhilip Schofield2003p14

[] UC ci 95(25 July 1814)[Bowring,viii,219],μPhilip Schofield,2003,p14.

[] Philip Schofield2003p15.

[] Dicey,The Law of Constitution,P23.

[] Philip Schofield,Jeremy Bentham and Nineteenth-Century English Jurisprudence.

[] Hart,Essays,p53.

[] Bentham,OLG,pp1-2.

[] Hart,Essays,p28.

[] Hart, Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals,Harvard Law Review,Vol71,February1958,No.4.

[] ӢŮѩMary W.Shelly1818괴ͬС˵ǣʳ䴴ߵĹܷѧ߰³William G.Andrewsָά̹ɲͳߡSee Constitutions and Constitutionalism,D.Van Nostrand Company,Inc.,1961,p.9

[] Bentham, ,Preface of PML. in CW 9.

[] Sydney Smith,Benthams Book of Fallaciesin Edingurgh Review, ת Hart ,Essays,p1.

[] Hart,Essays, p4.

[]ʮйܷѧȷΥƶΪҪʹѧǰǣܷDzǷɣܲڷԺãòо尸

[] Dicey, The Law of Constitution,p22.

[] Ibid,P22,23.

[]Dicey ,The Law of Constitution, p31.

[] Ibid.

[] Ibid.,p27.

[] Ibid.,p417.

[] Ibid.pp417-18.

[]ҵʦ2003ĩҵĻ˵ʶѭڳܷõĹмֵ

[] See K.C.Wheare, Modern Constitutions, Oxford University Press,1956, Chapter .

[] Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined ,edited by Wilfrid E.Rumble, Cambridge University Press,1995,Lecture VI.

[] John Austin, Lectures on Jurisprudence or the Philosophy of Positive Law, fifth edition ,revised and edited by Robert Campbell, China Social Sciences Publishing House Chengcheng Books LTD, Reprinted from the English by John Murray 1911,p71

[] C.H.ģŽ ,С룬磬2004꣬ҳ9

[] ʱ֯١涨ͳƣʱԼ涨ΪϸڸƣҪΪǰԤͳɽΪԬܷ涨ϯͳװҪΪʱɶȷŹϯë󶫣浱ѡ˹ϯľίϯȻë󶫣Σͳˡ˶ܷ涨ԹҾίϯûй涨ƣҲͬ []Ҳѧⷽ湱ϲ˵ijɹ¶˺ġšϵ塱ⷨѧ19954ڣϷƶйĽġйܷƶȡɳ磬1997꣩,һ,ϸйƶȣй֯˾ȷʵɷѿġ