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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ϵ
ҹܷʵʩģʽĽԽܷۡʷͻΪ
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Ҫ ҹʷγɵܷۣܷΪȫ˴ƶ޸ĵθĸ죬ʹ˶Ƶܷʵʩģʽתܷͣʵʩģʽ֮ԽǰᡣԴΪ㣬ܷͨĵͻΪܷʵʩϣҹȷ˴ϵģʽǣ˫ܷáһԪķΥ顢Ϊܷʵʩߡڴ˷£µĹȨΪΥĶ󣬷ɲΥܵɣ߷ԺΥȨģʽʷԡȻľƻܲƣĸķǼǿ򽨹
ؼʣϣܷΪθĸ죬ܷãΥ
 
ƶʷγɵġĿԡͲ裬ʵԼΪġֻдʷӽʶſܳʲôɻ۵ǣԼȱݡֻԴʷŻᱻʷԴƶȵʶ⣬Ǵض׶εʷҪƶȹͽṹǰ
ʮҹܷʵʩģʽɣѧȫܷ˾ȡ֮ģʽʶ⡣ƶȵĽȫרϵģ䣨ǿȶģԭɵġҹܷʵʩģʽĽṹ޹ʶģʽݵǷԴϸѧϵ̽ͽ͡ѧֻǰѡ䲻Զǰᣬб֯˾õɫĻΡ
ͼܷۺʷչʾҹܷʵʩģʽĽṹ͸ýṹʷԡ˾ģʽȣýṹ߼Ϻ͵ҲģⲻDZҪ֤⣨ƪҹʷγɵġĸʽܷۡ͡˶Ƶת͡ߣİ82ܡɡܡܷʵʩģʽǰ᣻ԴΪ㣬ܷͨĵͻΪҹȷˡϵܷʵʩģʽҪǣ˫ܷáһԪΥ顢Ϊʵʩߡڴģʽ£µĹȨΪΥĶ󣬷ɲΥɣ߷ԺΥȨ
ʷγɵʵ棩谭ʽϵ塱ļơʽ塱ʽƷ£ɷֿ졣ǰǷ⣬粢ԭ磬Ҳѧ̽ʽ壬ضʱղȫ᳹һ̶Ϲ淶ʵΣض׷Ҳɱʵ˼һͽӳֵĹ淶áˣʵʽ谭ܳΪʽɡоضܷıΪݵʽ塣
һܷʵʩģʽԽǰ
˵ǰ棺һDzֵؾܷʵʩģʽʷγɵܷۣDzֵؾģʽʷ
һܷҪΪȫ˴ƶ޸ĵθĸ
1.    ܷҪθĸ졣
ܷʲôⲻǴΨһ⡣ܷǡεĸ򡱣ʲôʲôΪʲôͬڲͬʱĻشȴܲͬڽ̺;öΪΡȿǡڷԺõķҲDzڷԺõĹεʵڵ¡ԡ졢ĬunderstandingsȿԾ涨ģҲضʷݱԷɵģ¼ͷֵģȿϸ淶ԵģҲԵģָԵġ֮ԸȿΪݣҲΪڷеĵλ[1]ܷǡڷԺõķֻܷ֮һȫΨһȷܷܷۡ壬ضùͬ壬ضʱϱʷʵҪ󣬲չͨе÷ʽ衰ܷһʵģһɡ㲻ġ
ҹ繫ϣܷǸصΪܷʵθ졣һ棬ܷǷڸijɹ¼ΪѧӰ죬ҹܷѧ˵ΪܷӦ˵ȡĶdzʵĸ󷨡ܷIJԵģʷֻ廳ȥּڴʷۣΪδжָԭ¼ǷڸԵġһ棬ܷҪǸ졣йȻѧӰ죬Ҳ辶ܷ֮ѧرǿܷش𡣸˵ûеġҪȡĶǹڽɾ͵ԣܷ˵ڣδʵֵΪ[2] ҹܷĴͳʡڸݵʱڣǽܷҪǸ죬ݶǸߵС54ܷǶԹʱ·ߵĸơë˵ܷǡʩ롱[3]ĿǸȫָһȷĵ·[4]ϣܷ軭״ǿΪӳʵͱ뷴ӳڷı仯Ŀ꣬ǿܷӦǸԵġ[5] ܶҲΪܷӦָչ򣬷DzҪܶĿꡣ[6]
⣬ܷ֮ǸҪΪ涨ҺĸƶȣǴ˵ģܷǸҲֻǸǡɷԺõķܷѧΪ ֮Ϊ˵ӦֱɷԺõĹ򣬶˵ܷıͬģǷӳͳν׼־ϲ㽨ͳν׼ܷԸߵơܷԷɵʽķ̷ΰıơ̷ΰԷɵʽֵķƺֻܱԷɵʽ֮ޣijıDzǷɣûκιϵƺֻ˵̷ΰǷˡ
ܷҲ͵Ҫθ졣ܷ˵ܷԷɵʽȷйܶijɹ涨˹ҵĸƶȺ͸ǹҵĸ Ȩṹԭ⣬Ķɹ·ߡߵķ룬ҲܷIJܷ֡ڻ·ߡʥͳһսߡϵ⽻ߡƶȡ塢塢ϵƺͷƶȵȣһƺرǹڻȨģǸ߶ԺԵģ漰Ҫ⡣ܷʹľҪڽͨȫƷʵʩġ
Ϊθ죬ܷĺǸĸ˵75ܷ78ܷۺ󣬸ܷתΪĸܷ[7]54ܷǸԵĹܷܷǸĸܷⲻ˵ܷӦϱ޸ģ෴ϣȶ[8]˵ܷΪϿɺƶĸƶӦŸĸϱ޸ģԻڼᶨƵĸĸ֮У
һıܷԹ涨ҪĸƶȡܷġԭܵҪ󡱣[9]ܷĺܶǣ硰չȫ͡衱ȣʮ˸ĸͼܷĺܶģǹεĻǹھõģֻDZڷ˼ʷѵָ֮ܵĸĸԭ[10]
ܵıݿܷǹҴʷתҪʱڡ[11]ʮһȫᣨ1978꣩ĸ↑ŵشߣҪ󡰶෽ıͬչӦϵϲ㽨[12] Сƽ1980꣩ˡ͹쵼ƶȸĸĽҪ쵼ƶȸĸ뷴ӳܷ֮С[13]˵йȥ꣨1981꣩ٿʮһȫͨġڽʷľ顷ơ顷ͽ꣨1982꣩ٿĵʮȫļõȫӵΪܷ޸ṩҪݡΪܷҪݵġ顷ʮļֱǸȥδԸĸΪĸļ[14]ЩļУĻ·ߣһġ㣩䲻ȷʽرʵѱܷƶ֮ʵȷ˻·ߡ[15]ЩܷҪǸĸ죺ѼᶨؾȥγﻮδȻδ֪òڸԵԭڣʯͷӡܷҪΪδ¼ռ䡣
ܷʵķչʮʷҲǸĸʷ82ܷһ濪غָͬڡ淶ĸһȷϺ͹̸ĸڰѸĸɹܷͬʱҲòĸ[16] ܷӳʱҪʱ[17]ָܷĸ↑ŵĽУĸ↑Ŵٽܷķչ[18]ʮܷҸģ˵һĸܷ [19] 93ܸȷذѡָĸ↑šΪй֮һ
ϣܷǡиĸ↑žָܷҹʵиĸ↑ŵĸ족[20]ǡƽĸ↑ŵ³̡[21]ԭƣָԭơԣ˵߼ԭͳ޹ϵȴҪڸĸﱾ¶˺Ҳͬ˵ᴩܡ͸1954ܷܻĸǽʷۺǿϢʣܷߵķںʽȥǸǾ÷չ[22]˵ĸĸܷܷĶڳ¶˺ΪĿͳκ͹淶ͳΡܷ͹淶ܷ֮Ķ
ΪܷĺĸĸԭͰú档ǰĹʶǣøĸӦעṫƽθĸӦΪĸ·ֻʵһ룬ĸʽܷӦ֡ºͳ¶˺ΪǰܷӦӸĸܷ淶ܷ߶Դ˲ҹͬ˵ܷǿسɺȶǣǰвǿسɺȶʱ̣Ӧ82ܷĸĸΪָڵԷչΪľøĸͬʱƽɣΪθĸΨеθĸ֮ʱǸIJ淶ܷ֮ʱ
ΪĸܷΪҪɸԭ򹹳ɣȱȷֱӹ淶ܡȻΪʷȱ˹ܣΪ˹һصĿ֮⣩ȱȷΪģʽֻ趨ԭ򣬻ֻ趨ͷ򣻹ڻȨģҲûȷݣǰݺͱ߽罻ȫ˴䳣ίԷȷ
2ܷȫ˴ƶ޸ġ
˶PaineΪܷǸͬģܷܷģܲΪ񽨹Ϊܷ綨ȨԽܷʹȨΪȨ֮power without right[23]ԴΪݣܸʶҹܷʡ֮԰˶Ķ嵱գ˵Ψһȷģ֮߾Ͳֻܷ˵˶ĶǴܷۡ
ҹܷۺ˶ܷۣͬҶйҪأȫ˴󣩣ܷҲܷҪǿǣʱܷʵĹͬ죬Ϸ˶߼йһʽܷȴϸ߼82ܷˣͨضܻأƶܷܷȷֱӴ˴˴ƶ޸ܷ[24]ܷȫ˴ȻǿԼܷͻɣͬȫ˴־ܷͲȻڻɣǿˡ[25]ȫ˴ƶܷ˵һйһءܷһзɡִܷͬ忴˴˵Ĺһأɰȫ˴󣬷Ҳȫ˴ƶĻɡȫ˴˵˴˵ġءִ͡ǾĵıףΪ˾ĵʵṩǿԱϡڳ龳£ȫ˴ܷƶɣȫ˴󲢲DZˣͷڽṹԣܷʲôȫ˴˵㡣ȫû޸ֻܷҪȷ÷ɻȡ2/3϶ͬ⡣ܷ涨ʽֻרڹȥʮУܷʵַͨʽ޸ģһƶDZ޸ġ
⣬ѧ[26]ͬΪЩܵͣڴ˷֮Ҫǿǣ߲˵ܷȫ˴ûԼ˵ԺǿԼһܷȫ˴޵ҳŵ˵ìܣΪҳŵdzŵ޲ޣŵǶߵijŵҲߣ򣬡ŵ͡ơͲ⡣ա޳ŵ˵ѧΪȫ˴޸ܷӦѭܷǷĶȦӣΪȫ˴־޸ܷʱܷ͸ǷⲻֻҳŵҲȫ˴ijŵֽ߲Ƶļֵǣʵڷ߼ڴ˳ŵУDzڳģ˵񲻿ǿȫ˴д˳ŵ˵ǿУʵڷڲʵ֣ƺֻǸرѭϷΪͬʱҲԺϷѳΪijΪijصǿԼûضԸΪıȨìܡߵĴǣ֮ԱˣΪΪ˽ͨԺģ˻ڴΪγijϷڴ棬һΪȱǿԼͻ˵ڴˣϷΪǿԼǵΪԡȫ˴˵Ϊ߼ն˵ԼΪԼԼԼﲢ漰һڴ档Ϊﲻڿɹȵ߼ͬһԡ
ڹҹܷIJͣκαУֻ˵˵ȱݡЩ͹ҲȱݣֻǺܷ۲ͬѣ磺Ӣûܷȱݣֻ
  ҹʷ˶
ܷʵʩģʽĽֲ49֮ʷ˶ơѧܷ߰ʵʩΥͬΪҹģ82ܷʵʩ˵DzʵġʵʩͶΥ飬Ȼأȴ¡ǰ߰ںߡνܷʵʩϸִкܷԭ񼰸涨[27]ִкأɷΪӽǺӽǡӽǵǷʵЧҪΥƶΪǰᡣ[28] ѧ˵˶װսǷܳΪܷʵʩķʽȻܣֻ˶սںƻܷӦΪ淽ʽ˶սҲضʷʱ̳ΪʵʩܷҪʽս60Ȩ˶ȵȡ[29]
49Ĺͬ54ܷ趨ȷΪҲ涨ʵʩģʽֻҪָܷʾķ·ߣʵ趨һΪͶ˵Ǻܷܵʵʩͬ졷ƶߺʵʩ졷Ҫ󣺡μЭ̻ĸλȫӦͬء л񹲺͹һ¾飺йЭ̻鹲ͬΪʩ롣[30] 54ʱ˵ͬ죬͵طִˡ[31]ʱѧ[32]ҲΪڵľ޴仯ǡȷִ˹ͬ족Ľôִеأڻ֯ıйִУͨװȺ˶ʵ֣иҲִСʱܷͬ죩ִΪߵҪߺ͸죺Ȼֶͨʵ֣˶ҲǣЧģʵֶΡܷƶҲǿһҪʵʩܷë󶫺涼ǿܷǿԡҲʵеģ[33] ߻ǿܷʵʩƻıҪԣ ڸʱѾȥˡ˶ķҲͱŸı䣬걸ķƾȫҪˡ[34]54ܷȷԭ򡱣ǿһйһعԱ롭ܷͷɡ18ͼܷʵʩķʽ˶תΪơڰ䲼ĺܶʱڣ54-56꣩ڣ54ܷȷϺõʵʩ[35] ֻ꼻һ֡56꿪ʼܷͱ˷˶ƻˣĸʵϰܷ׷ֹѧ߶Դвͬͣжϴ󣬻Ǹ˳ݺרȨܷ濼ԭҪ
һ¶ܷΪйΪҪݡǰ˵ʽܷģȱֱӹ淶ܵĸܷʵʩȻζҲζŸܷܵɱָܷĴڣҲָܷʵʩָܷйʵʩҹܷDzҲɷԺֱõģΪIJǿɹ߾кľΪ淶úܷ£͵ú£͵ڸޱ߼ʵɲȨȨȨȨ϶ΪһɺͲڡйӢϵͬвǿбȸӢ취ȨȴûеձרϣΪι̵ͨͳйûСʹϸ÷ɵйٻƵԩٴ˵dzնܷˡܷĴıתΪȷĹ򣬲ܳΪΪĸݡԹ¶ܷΪΪ۱׼Ϳܺܵص¡ΪĿIJֶΡĻһū״̬
¶ܷȱԱʵЧĴ̼淶ʵЧع漰ΥӦĴ̼sanctionsҪǽͺͳͷġȻԹͬͬΪͷĽṹԣΪ֤жϷṩĴ̼ΥӦʩӵijͷȴʵЧϡʽܷIJ涨Ӧ̼ǰǽһ㷨á¶ܷʵЧֻǻܷʶʹߵε£ȱͳĹȣϣ¶ܷʵЧȻǻΡֻܷΪ趨Ʋ֮淶лϵУܷǷɡ[36]
  ɵġ˶Ρϰߡ54ܷ䲼ĶڣƶһЩɣܷתɾΪ淶ЩΪܷ廯ķɣҲûܺܺءʷԴʱִڶȡȨǰĹͻƾɷƹпչģȡȨֿչ˴ݻپɷͳ˶ҲȫΧڵȺ˶˳ԤڵijɼȺ˶һַ籩ʽĸ˶ҪȺڵֱжɡ[37]ˣڵʱִ߼Ⱥ֮䣬мijӾɷƵֱȻһзƵһӷƵë󶫣ҲȻûҲУһס һסǡһĴΡĿ˶[38]
ĸ󣬿ѡһǷԭеĸʽܷۣɹʽܷۣǷ˶ʽʵʩģʽȷƻʵʩģʽйѡ˺ߣǿͷƵĽϡ֮ڡܷйʵʩIJɻȱԣܵȷǿҶӢ˵ֻȷƵķƣʹܷ涨ȨõЧϡ[39]ҲΪҪʵʩܷҪǿơûзƣĺϷɺȨͶûбϡʮҸʹѵ[40]ܷʵʩĽǶĸйʷĹתǣֻһܷ£ͽܷУ¶ĸʽܷںɱĿԣܷйʵʩԾ巨Ϊ
˫ܷƶȣĵͻΪ
ڶĸķ˼Уйƶ82ܷйܷҪʷܽᣬ82ܷҪǶԽĸڼܽѵܽᡣʹ˶ԣķ߼ǶοѵİѺͷֹصľϺǻʥıȷʷѵļͶδѵĽ䱸
82ܷرʵʩ⣬涨һ嶼ܷΪĻ׼򣬸άܷϡ֤ܷʵʩְһзɡ͵طԷ涼ִܷͬһйһغװ͸塢ҵҵܷ֯ͷɡ5[41]
ܷʵʩƶԹΪл񹲺͹һȨʹȨĻȫ͵طᡣ21ȫ͵طᶼѡٲලءлءضල3ܷȷȨ֮壨ȡڶĽ綨Ϊ֮塣
һЩΪṩߡܷʵʩִܷкءտɭ˵ִҲá[42] ݸ߼淶ͼ淶淶֮ȨʵʩƲá[43] 淶ձ淶ԲضĶ󡢿ɷãҲ淶ضֻһΣ[44]ֿܷɷΪúֱãָܷɴתΪĹ淶תֱãӦͨô˾淶ܷΥ飬Ҳֱܷá˵ܷãΥ飬Ҫԣ߰гܷûΥУضҪּܷڳĺ֮ձ淶ܷ͡⣬ҹһЩڣɺܷרŵʵڷͬһDZͬʱõģDzͬģɲܷ
ܷܷĵʺʷĽѵܷú֮ΥƶȵѡҲ˵ܷطܷúΥƶȵֱӹ涨ܷĸԺ͸ĸԣܷʵʩƻıܷľӦã˫ܷƶ˵ҹܷðֱúͼãǰߵߴأߵȨءͳ̸ܷã̸ֻܾijЩijĵáܷĵͻʶܷʵʩƶȵǰ֮һ
һ ĸ涨ֻͨ־巨ɼֲܵõʵʩ
82ܷȷ˷ԭ򣺡[45]κεڿɲĿȨȻ෴ġ[46]ҪĹǣΪݵķȷʵ淶Ȩߣר־ȷȨйԺɣȷάֹȨƷ񡣲ȷķעҪݻٷơ
ҹܷĿԷֳ࣬һʽڹһ[47]֯ȨͳίдƶȷȨ֮ݺͷΧʽʵġ
ʽֿԷֳ棬һֱӹ涨Ķʽ=ȷij򣻾=ְ֯𣩵ȷ壬ǿܹҲӦӦձֱãй֯ͳҪȷܡԭ͸ҪƶȣӦЩ˿ܱ֤ΪйĶģڷԭ򣬴[48]бҪͨЩתȷĹ淶Ȩع涨ĶʽǷʽǡɷɹ涨շɡֻɴֱãΪӦ崴ȷΪ淶ڹһصϯί⣬һأܷ涨ƶɡʹ֯ͳ廯еĵǹɻȨĻȨԷֳ࣬һȨDzȨǾȨȨָڹȨʵԤɼֵΪĵĻȨȨڹҶڣΪϹƽȶȫ֮ʵơ82ܷЩȨĹ涨ʷʽǣֹǷ֮Էɹ涨֮зɹ涨񣨵33ЩһܷûжԻȨʵÿ϶ͷ񶨵ķΧûȷɹ˾õĿɲľݣܿˣܷ36͵37ǰһ棬ɻȨ޶ᣬֻɷɹ涨רڴصְȨ˾ֻշɸ֮8456Ҳ˵ЩȷȨͷɱԭͬʱͿƶطɵȨ𡣴Ӧڱԭ򣬲Թԡ򼰸ֱ֪ܷΪ˾ձ淶
   ʵҲȷҪƶ廯ࣺһĻȨּܷĵֻ̬ͨǿеΰְ֮ܵĹŵɹҲͬ82ܷùͨɻж羭ĴںͷչϳеȫְܡŵܷҪϸ淶ƹҵǿΪܷȴҪԸȷδжԭͷ82ܷ涨ྭĻȨЩֻǿĿεʺܷĹߺƣЩܷҲѾĻȨ߹涨һ¡82ܷƺҲѶߵͬЩȨڣԹ涨ӦߣԺܸЩȨΪĿġΪĻȨʵ֣ȡڹӦĻߡ[49]ЩȨӦȨ߼ϸͬȷúҪȡ־ǰҪúزȡ־ȡʵԴͲƸʵء˵Щ涨Ƿܹʵֵ⣬ǹҪŬĸ涨[50] ָ˵ЩֱǿҲɷԺֱãΪݣܶΪۣⲻ˵Щ޹淶ЧЩֻ Ŭ 棩󡱣棩ŹȻԲȡʩʵֻ֣ʵ⣻ϸʵڷ߼˵ûбôߣЩߺ;ĻȨƽʵ֣ҪģIJƸٷ䣬ϵÿλIJƲȨԭӦɴزö᣺ӰȫĹؼϣ߷Ժоȷߣô߷Ժضĸоһ񽫲ԼͳߡҪʹʵڷ߼Щͱɴظݹ񾭼õķչЩܷԴΪ˾ֱõձ淶ʹʵʵڷ֮ڡܷ͹涨ڸȨǡߵָԭ򣬡ֻҪƶʱЩԭ򣬶ӦɷԺִС
ƶȺͲȨһҪܷǻƶ,Ȩԭԭ򡢷ԭȣ͸ЩƶʵڵIJȨɲҺȨظȨѡٺͱѡȨ⳥ȨȡƶǸ߶ȸԭ򣬸淶֮ʵڷԲֱݻƶСʵƶȵ;֮һʵĻۺϮҪΪγɣ繲쵼ҹʷ͵µʵȷģһ;ǰƶ׷תΪɡȨһֹȨκιȨʹշɣIJȨͿ׵ضΪΣܷ涨ȨʹҲ涨ԹȨİɷɹ涨ˣʵڷ߼ƶȺͲȨֱҲǴصְҪؽȷڷ֮УԱն򼫶˻
Ӿϱշԭ򣬲ֻܷʾĬʾίдƶɵҪֱɴãԴ˾ֱõձ淶ܷֱӹ涨嶯ʽļ⣩ҲҪؾĹ涨󣬲ֱ˾йá
⣬ܷĸĸʣҲҪܷӦҪɴֱá߻ʷѵԼʶľԣʶȶƶȿܲõģٱʱ˼άʵҲҪʱĽʶơܷʵĺǸĸˣ˲òȷijЩЭ⣬ܷپʵס塢ȷĹ淶ǰƶȣȨغͽγɿռȨ˴أӶúʱǨͨʵʩ޸ܷܷûΪȫ˴趨κεĸĸʹƶȣҲҪʱDZŴܷĺȫ˴󽥽޸ܷȷغͱ˽ƲȨȨԭ˽ƲȨ֮͡ȨΥָܵǴģҲܷضijִֽģȴܷ֮ĸ
һνԣܷʾĸ涨ֻͨ־巨ɼֲܵõʵʩֻܷûо巨ɣܷĸ涨ͺѵõ᳹ԣǿճ [51] ֻܷܹ涨ԭ򣬹涨⣬ıȽϳһЩܾܺ壬Ҫ᳹ʵʩܷܷͨƶķɡ[52]ܷܷáÿΪܷͲܱΪǹҵְ֮һ[53]˵ܷĸ涨ֻͨ巨ɲܵõʵʩ˵пŵijɷ֣ⲻǿɣΪֿ޴ѧʹȻ˵ȷʵԼ˷ʽ͹˹ҹܷʵʩܷľҪշԭʵʩֻͨ巨ɡֱãЩǸ߶֮⣬˾ûΥȨġ
ȨҪǼܷ[54]
һܷڹԺȫ˴䳣ί֮ϵȷ壬Ҳ廯ԺӦֱЩܷ֯ȫ˴ʱܷڡԺ֯涨ԺֻáԺ֯ǶܷļáڹԺʵְȨҪԴܷͬ1涨Ժܷͷɣ涨ʩƶ棬־ٴ룬ʵԺһΪʽԺְȨʹҪܷͷɵݡԷԭΪ֮ݵĹӦȷ壩Ϊ͵ĻôڹԺְȨܷҪ淶ʵǹԺȫ˴䳣ίᣬҪȫ˴䳣ίӦΪԺṩȷĹ淶ݣɣҪȫ˴䳣ίЩӦܷڹԺְȨȫ˴䳣ίⷽƶطɣԺӦֻЩܷȫ˴䳣ίûƶطɣôԺӦڲΥܷԭɣ硶Ȩǰ£ߡϰߺʵҪʹܷ涨ְȨƶ棩ȫ˴䳣ίԹԺȨ飬߻Ӧݸþ飻нŹԺֱܷӺͼáԺְȨÿڼзɵˣԺֱܷãҪڹԺȫ˴䳣ί֮ϵ棬ڵǰ޷ɵļϣԺֱܷƶ⣬ԺͨӦֱ÷ܷ
2ط˴䳣ί
ְ֯Ȩʱġط˴֯涨ڴ˷Ӧֱôְܷ֯Ȩ֮ʹԷΪ档һ淶ܷ涨طڱڡշɹ涨Ȩޣͨͷ顭ΪϷɵΪdzԽȨ޵Ϊ˴ġշɹ涨Ȩޡշɹ涨Ҳ˵ط˴淶Ϊֱֻ÷ܷڶձ淶ҲƶطԷ棺Ȩܷͷֻϴϵĵط˴䳣ίᡣܷ涨طԷԾ涨һΪִзɡĹ涨Ҫݱʵ涨ڵط񡢲Ҫƶȫͳһķɺ桢ҪƶطԷȫ˴רȨ⣬δƶɻڵطԷ棬ܷĹ涨ǣܷͬɺִһطԷֱ÷ɺܷڵڶ͵ƶطԷ棬ֱܷ
3Ժί͵ط
ط֮֯Ӧֱܷ֯Ժί֮֯ӦùԺع涨ְܷȨ֮ʹܷ涨ԭȷ涨ίԱݷɺ͹Ժ桢ڱŵȨڣָʾ͹¡ؼϵطշɹ涨Ȩޡڵij޷ɿѭϵͳһԣί͵طӦռԺط˴ʾӶȻתΪط˴͹ԺĹ淶úʹ⡣
4ԺͼԺ
ְܷ֯ȨʹѾ֮ʱ֯廯ɺķٷͼٷ廯⣬ܷȷ涨кͼ칤ֻǷɡˣԺͼԺе߷ԺͼԺȫ˴䳣ί֮ϵӦֱܷ⣬Ӧһֱ÷ܺϷķܷ[55]ܷϣεطίҲѭǰչʾ߼Ȳ׸
һԪķΥƶ
ΥȨȻذܷȨˣIJܷȨרۡΥƶֱܷƶΪģ82ܷȷһԪķΥƶȡ
ܷȹ涨ܷලȨֹ涨ԷԴΥȨְȨ໥ģǰߣǰ߻Щֱܷĸ淶ǷΥܵȨܷط֮԰ѷԴΥȨרŹ涨ҪΪԴΥҪԳһ࣬ͬ򡣱ҲҪԷԴΥȨΪ
ܷ622涨ȫ˴СලܷʵʩְȨ881涨ȫ˴Ȩ䳣ί׼Υܷͱʮڶ涨͵Ϊȫ˴ίֻȫ˴ijȫ˴ίܷලȨܷȨȫ˴ȻҲȫӵСܷ671涨ȫ˴ίȨܷලܷʵʩȨԺƶִܷͬ桢ȨʡֱϽйȨƶܷͬɺִĵطԷ;顱Ȩʡ˴ί׼Υܷʮڶ涨͵ҹܷ涨ΥһDZ飬һ顣ֿһΪһҪƣǽơҪƺͽƵIJڣҪ󡱱Ȼ򣬡顱δؾֻȫ˴ίᾭоΪҪʱ󣬾;ַߡһЭ̽׶ΣҪרίԱʵʩڶ׶ΣҪȫ˴ίʵʩΥĶֻǷ棬桢طԷ桢͵˼һԪķΥƶȣ˵һԪģֻȫ˴䳣ί᣻Ӷ˵ֻڷ棻ӳ˵˫ġͨĽͲͬΪҹܷڣһµĹȨΪڣͷɣΥĶԺӵΥȨܷȨ
һµĹȨΪΥĶ
Դúʹ죬ɽ׶ηͲ㼶Ȼķÿһ׶λ㼶Ĺ淶õԣָʵڷڵĹ淶ԶԣֱͬԿ϶񶨵ķʽԸһ淶ԵҲӦֱԴ˸һ淶Ϊ׼ȡN1ôN2N2ôN3ӹ淶߼N2N3ǶԴĿıΥN2,N3ʹڷ֮⡣N1ѾöתΪN2N2ʹΪĿĶڣN3˾ŵΪN2ͳΪN3ӵأN1Ψһ;N3ͲԡN2ǷN1ʵ߿N2ֻڲǶաN2ǷN1߿սΥN2ֻɴΪʵN1N2ʱN3أӣN1ԭּƣйʵʩN1ʱN3˵N2ΪǶN1öȡڵıʣʹԴ˵ˡȻN2ܲN1⣬Ӧ˾Ȩϡ֮ԲN3N1֤ԣԭһػṩ޴ɲռ䣬ΪN1֮òN3ֱ֮ɣN1ܳN3ܾ壬кܴ룬N1֮ڲN3֮ԵֱӸݣҲ㼶ͽ׶ηȻķܿN2¹淶õ塣
մ߼ܷϣֻЩֱܻ(䷽ʽ϶ԵݺͷԵIJִ)ܷĹ淶ſɴΥܲԡʵڷҰڣɴΥܲɵΪֻУ
һԺȫ˴䳣ί֮ϵΪԺְܶȨڵġȫ˴䳣ίƶطɵƶ桢ָʾԺȫ˴䳣ίȨ趨ƶ棻ϴе˴䳣ί͵ڶƶĵطԷ棨͵ϯܷΪԺͼԺȫ˴䳣ί֮ϵΪȫ˴䳣ίֱܷΪҪǻɺͷǻ֮Ϊʵڷĵȼ߼ҲǿΥɵģȻܷȴųֿܡ[56]
ͷ߼ԣطԷ棨ΪִзɡĹ涨ݱʵľ涨棨ΪִзɵĹ涨ƶģ߷ԺͼԺԷɵ˾ͼо¡淶ļ;ΪΥܡҲʵϿΥܣӷ߼˵ЩΪԹΪʵԵ⣬Ӧһ淶ɣУ䲻һ淶ʵԵܡҲӦڴ˲һ淶ΪΥܣù淶⣬תΪһ淶Ƿϸһ淶⡣߼ȷ淶úʹΪķƻԼùڵɲȨά־Ȼķʹ淶㼶˾ְڹ淶ķλϽ⣬ⲻʵСη
ɲΥɺΪܷʵʩ
ܷ涨ȫ˴޸ĺͳ䳣ίIJʵѧΪù涨ȷȫ˴䳣ίᷨɵΥȨʵΥܡ˵ֵȶ߼淶ȷͼ淶֮ķʽжһȷͼ淶ͳȷͼ淶ݡܷȷձ淶֮ձ淶ȷ淶֮裬ʽݷȫͬġ翭ɭ˵ܷձ淶ȷ佫õͳҲȷ˾оȸ淶ݣֻܷͨȷͳ򣬶ƶݵȷȨأֻڼ龳£ֹܷͨijЩ֮ʽ޶δƶݡ[57] 82ܷݲ޽ֹȫ˴ίͳܷȫ˴Ͳ˴ǷΥܵĽǶȶжϣֻǷʵжϡ82ܷߺ;ĻȨĹ涨Ȼָʾķ򣬵ǷӦɳίתΪԼں̶ֳתȡھúķչ״ί˺ܹγɿռ䣬ί滮ƻijתΪȫ˴ΪתʱѾ죬ôȫ˴䳣ί裬ҲΥܵ϶ʵ϶žܷڶȫ˴ί֮׼ϲʹáΥܡִܷʹáʵɡ
ƺȻȫ˴ίķǻɲʵΥܣȴʽ(ͳΥܣӽṹ϶ܷ⣬֪ܷȫų˷ǻΥܵĿܡܷı֮ʱһףӦ˽ıںδȷDZʶΪľǡDzѵƭ֡[58]ӦڻܷĸΪ壬ܷܺѽ໥һ£ӦѸı֮ڣ壬Уֵ壬Ҵ󱳺ࡣһнͽӦʵʿԣӦIJ͡[59]
ȣôʲճ⣬DZרź塣ܷڷԴԵۣڶԷ·ԴʹáΥܡ׼ͬʱֶʹáʵ׼ܷȨԺԼʡ͸˴޸ļϵͳ¼λĹ淶ȨʱȫԡʵǡΥܡΪ߶ȣʵ͡ΥܡDzͬġΣֲֻܷᷨΥܵĿܣĵĺԣDZš䲻Υܡļٶܷȫ˴ίݺƶģȫ˴ίỹȨܷ޸ܷܺܵĹҲȫ˴ίֵģҪƶijЩΥܷķɣΪΥָܵ޸ܷƶķΥܷɣԽܷģҪǣȫ˴ίdzȫ˴һֻһλᣬȫ˴ΥܵһʱĽȨ޷ȫ˴ίΥܵȫְĽȨ⡣Ϳ⣬Ϊʲô˵ȫ˴ίΥô죿Ӧ⡣[60]ȫ˴ίķǻɣܷͨ幫ȻԵִȫ˴ûԲʵΪͱܷǻɸº塣ͬȫ˴ƶĻҲܵΥܵɡɺܷͨ幫ȻԵִǾͱܷɸº壻ûɻȫ˴2/3ͨûɾ޸ܷҹط֯ѵطȨʡ˴䳣ίµĽϴм˴䳣ίᣬʵϾԻ޸ܷΥܣ෴Ǻܵġⲻ˵ڷǷΥܵû壬Ҳ˵ϵĸ岻Υܵɣֻ˵ʵڷ߼ڣûġ
ܷӦҪȫ˴䳣ίֱãһɺ߸º޸ģ⣬ΪܷΪĸĿĶΪƽĸ棺ܷ涨ҪĸƶȡܷǰȨȫ˴䳣ίᣬֻܷǡƶȡѣȻҲǿȫ˴䳣ί᲻Ƶġӷ߼˵йܷϣȫ˴䳣ί᲻ΥܡⲢ˵ȫ˴䳣ίȨ޵ģڷ߼ϲƣȴʵϺܵܶںڵơͽˣΪʲô˵ɽһʣȫ˴Υô죿ǾܵġǶǹҸƶȵĻɣij֣Ǿ˵ҳˡ[61] ʱȨԭ[62]ͳˡ
ʱȫ˴ΥܵжϣѲʵڷڵжϣΪҳˡжϣ˵ǡΥܡ˵ǡ˵ΥܿԷֳ࣬һΥܷʵΥܷthick constitutionΥܷĸԭΥܷ[63]ʱΥǵڶ֡ȫ˴ʵϵĶľȼãֻҲӦ䵽ϣԼѡķʽжΪл񹲺͹һȨ񡱣ȫᡭල ҹƶȵĺݺ͸׼򡱣[64]ΪǹҵȨ񣬹ҵɾ˵ա[65]Ϊֻ񣬲ǹҺˡ[66] Ϊܷ־ȨԴͬӵ[67]
ܷȫ˴ְȨĴǣҲλԾʶ7578ܷĶȫ˴ΪӦʹְȨܷĶǡӦ߹ȨʹְȨȻDzͬģǵ޸ľȫˡ7578ȫ˴ʹȨΪȨĽȡԼġΪܷȫ˴󾡹ʵܷߵģְȨȻα߽磬˴ġӦж壬Ȼȫ˴Լֻ[68]ܷڴ˾תΪ⣬Լ˵Ķdz棨ͨƳ򣩵ʽչʾΪҳˡ⼴DZı⡰ϵġָ
߷ԺΥȨ
Ա˵һԪķΥƶȵɣܴ巽ǰط˴䳣ίΥȨѾΪĹʶ߷ԺܷʹΥȨȴһֱвͬһɺǿѧ˵Ϊܷʵʩģ֮ԺֱܷþˣΥ顣ѧ߽֡Υ顱͡˾жϡ[69]Ҳѧƫܷ˾á˵ЩҪԺֱܷͱȻζţԺܷΪжijЧӶʵϲ֮[70]ΪһֱܷͷԼţضƵԺͱܷͷ֮ѡ񣬼ʹΪرѣֱжijΥܣҲȻijɣӶʵϷֹͨо취еһŬ߼Ϻ͵֤ΥƶȵıҪԣһͼʵǶ淶֤ɣΪ82ܷӸ跨ԺֱܷȨǰһɣ߻רŷƪڶɵĹ۵㡣[71]Ҫ֤˼·
ףԺ÷ɣͱȻҪͷɣͷɱغԭҪܷĺ壬ҪܷͲϸòŷҪ˷ԺܷܷȨ
ңܷͻʱܷһҪԺԷΪ׼ҪԺܷΪĻ׼򣬲Ҹάܷϣ֤ܷʵʩְ𡣡 Ժ֮СȷĹѡȨζŷԺҲзѡȨζŷԺҲڷɺܷѡڸз񶨷ɵЧҪԺάܷϡ֤ܷʵʩͳ˿ջ
1986߷ԺԺίָʾ͹£ءͨͷľ飬طľ͹£ܷɡ治ִģڰ참ʱִУҪáԺĹִ᳹иַɵԼȣӦִ᳹УҲֱá ߷Ժ55ڷԺܷ˵ġҪáͬ⡣ԺĸһܣԺúͽֻܷҪʽУҪ
ǰѱܷɲΥܡʹʱ׿һ㣬֤Ҳѳ
ȣҲϷԺͨ÷ܷνܷ˾ԣӻûκʵģΪĹؼǣԺֱܷܷǸ⣬ǷȨԷɺͷΥ顣
Σ֤ûͺ⡣ʵڷĻϵͳͺDzͬģѧ߰Ѷ߻ܷͬʵʩƶʵ˵ضij淶ָ֮ᣨperceive۵ģжֿܵģҲʽĵȨĽ岻ij淶ָ֮ͬһ淶ⷢͻʱȨʽ͹ۺȨijľ֮ڲ⣬ijͻ顣ȨֻȨ͡κ嶼ȻұȻԷ⣬ȴзȨҹʵڷȨѧ˵ȷֽͺ⡣ͬ41涨ԸʽⷢģӦͨԽͣ涨125·ԺͬģӦ塢Ŀġϰߺ͵µȷʵ˼˵ȫ˴ίнͷɵְԷɵⷢ˷ִίһͣȻ϶һһ [72]ʵڷ˵ֻ߷ԺȷĽͻŽнͣÿ٣ʹйУܷȻ⣻Ҫܷĺ壬ζžӦӵܷȨ˵ĺܽͲܷͣԼܷԷľܷĽ͡
ٴΣѧԭ֮һǽҪҪ񣬵ֻʷĿĽ͵ԭɣαضһٵȽܷնֽܷأ
ģѡȨζŷѡȨҲζܷͷɼѡȨǶĴãƳĺһǰһԺΪȸݵԣûԣ෴ΪǰǰһԣںһвڣˣһЩӦǰһǡ෴ġ֮ԿԲչ£ԲЩִܷɡ淶ҪΪЩ淶趨˱ȽϾΪʽкǿĿɲԣܹΪٰ참Чο֮Ҫô淶ҪΪЩ淶λ׹ͣκιҶϸرΪdzΪǵͼĵطȨصľ飬˾ܷͣ涨ԺֻշУǻֿǣΧĻЩؾͿԽ˹淶ƶȨԤȨʱĿǣܺǷԺݵģɳͻ涨ijͻȡᣬ˻УǾ˴ͣԺûзѡȨڴˣΪյ֮ԭĹ淶ܷеȫ෴,ˣﲻǰĻ˵ˡõܡʹĹܣֻ˵ԺںҵΪʲôöΪʲôҪܣ񲻹ȻΥйԭʲôɼΰأܷ˾׷ĿԣǡõʲôأʵķչԺ̬Ҳת䣬áĽɼѱֹˣԺúϷЧĹ¼淶ļ ˣΪ֤ĻϺǰʵҲ͸ܳΪ۵ĸˡ
壬ܷΪһ֯͸ˣ۹ݻ˽ݣȷˡܷΪĻ׼άܷϣ֤ܷʵʩ񣬵߷Ժܷͨд񡣶ԷԺ˵ҪԺݷУɶȫָԺֱӽͺܷԸûɣÿ͸˶ˣȻǻġ
ҹܷԷǷΥܵ⣬߷Ժ๵ܡͬ͵طԷΥ߷ԺҲΥȨֻоʹȫ˴ίҪȨ֮ˣǰ⣬Ϊܷ߷ԺǸڹԺʡط˴ĻءְȨΧڣ߷Ժչ淶ͻøԴֱܷϣ߷ԺΪԺʡ˴Ȩ߿ְȨΧжܷĶ⣬߷Ժ⡣[73]ٿžЩ淶Υܵģ⽫ʹԺΪõIJš[74]
һ򲽣ʹ˵˷ԺֱܷʵϷֹɵȨҲܳΪԺΥȨĸݣΪֻ߷ԺƶĵܷͷɵĹ淶ܷͷִܷȴȷ涨ԺֻݷɶС
ϵij򽨹
ҹʷγɵܷۺܷʵʩʷѵֱúͼõ˫ܷƶȣԴΪһԪķΥƶȣƶȵij̬ͨϵĴȷܷʵʩȨԭdz̬Ϊյܷͺʵʩߣֱӳ߰Ѵܷʵʩģʽϵ,[75]ڴˣܷڴڣƶġȨġ־ģʵʩȷ京Ȩģ֮ǹͷרƣܷʵʩͽ͵ȨνľӢߵġйܷijʵʩ棬һֱܷƶȣҪȫ˴䳣ίܷ跨ɡԺͽϴмϵĵط˴󣨰ίᣩεط˴󣨰ίᣩܷ桢طԷ桢μͨƷ棩ȫ˴䳣ί鷨ǷΥܲľȷձ淶ܺΥ֮濪أΪΥȷ˸ɲijܷļƶȣҪǣɷȨܷķɡ͵طԷ棬ܷĸʽܷۣҪȨΪĴԭ򣬼ַԭִϵʷǶȶԣǺģˣ߼͵ҲԽܷ˾ƪȻһƶȵľʩƣҪѡٺ档ΪҹܷʷԣƶȿǺģΪ߼͵ҲģƪΪƵƶ˾ģʽҷպͳɱߣԣƶȿܵľʩIJƣƶȣ¯ɣֻǸĸɡĸķȻԭ򣬼ǿƵij򽨹ƪ
Abstract in English: Our historically developed concept of constitution, that is, constitution as the political platform of reform which can be made and amended by National Peoples Congress(NPC) , and the transition of constitutional implementation mode from mass movement to rule of law, constituted the premises of the construction of the existing system of constitutional implementation. With this as the starting point, through the typological analysis of the constitutional articles, I concluded that, as to the constitutional implementationChina established the popular constitutionalism mode with the legislative supremacy as its central feature, the basic characteristics of which are as follows: double-track application, NPC monopolized review of sub-laws constitutionality, the people as the ultimate guarantor. In this positive system, the official actions below the regulations are not the objects of constitutional review, the constitutionality of laws can not be challenged, supreme court is not authorized the power of constitutional review. This basic framework of this system is historically reasonable. The future reform should be its procedural construction.         
Key Wordslegislative supremacy, constitution as the political platform of reform, constitutional application, constitutional review
 
 


*ѧԺʦ󹫷ijԱ[email protected]رлΪ׵ʦѣǿκлסɺ׿׾ǡϣ˾ƪƪȽܷ˾ʹģʽΪϡṩ߼͵µ֤ɣڡⷨѧ20064ڡijЩ⣬ƪֻƬԵ֤ƪչĶԴԡƪ
 
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