ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ΪԼ




ҪȨԭ£ԺǿԲǹȨıΪΪĻԭڷѧӽıʾԼʽʽԽ׶򡰽ԡ׶ιɡԻ̸СЭΣ˹Լ߽סԼԼЭǹԼľ̬гƺȫ򻯱£Ȩʡ͹˽ϵģʽ˱仯ΪйΪԼչṩڵڵĶ ؼʣԼ̬ȫ򻯣򣻹ѧ

ڵǰ෨ѧУǿΪȨرǡȨıһ;һ޴;Ȼ;ȴ˷ѧѧߡ 1ƬǿȨĵ־ԺǿԣȨʹߣְԱȨߣ񡢷˺ܷ֮֯ϵһȨ񡱡ĩãʹ֮䲻γԻ򣬼ȲڱȨʵ֣ҲڱϹȨල

ԼɢƶеĻ̽ĸ⣺һɳԼĹϵԼıʽԼľ̬ġȫ򻯶йΪԼӰ졣

һԼ

ڷιҼܹ£Ļԭٰ塢з塢ƶԭ򡢷ԭ򡢳ԼȨ(discretion)塣еĹԭУ͹ԵķɼֵڷѧӽɳıʾԼɳĺϷȡԼߵͬϿɡ

ǽ̵ƶȻձ̬ǡijֱ׼۵㣬ƽȡʹ˿Ͽɵ2ǻе̡ĻԼֵDz͸(participation and transparency)[3]ɳĹָڵĿɽԡ(the public accessibility )4Լ֮ڻϵԼڹе֣ǹΪԼʹΪԼΪܡ½ϵԼԼڡ򷨡мһܺõ֤Լڹתʽdz򣬼Լı壬˽ԼԼԭ͡

Լͬ㡣ԼԵ˫Ϊ˺Ϊǰᡱ5ƽȡ˼Ρͺ(϶Ժͷ棬ǷȨ) ԼΪĻ㡣˽ϵȨȨծȨתĹУDZԼܡ˽ԼĹͬԣʹͬࡢʵȨתͨԼͼ򻯣ʹԵ˽ȨԵ˽Ȩתֵעǣйѧӹע³⣬񷨣Ӧеĵλ6Ļ˽ϵԼעԼĽԡִԼƶȹ淶ԷĵԼеijʵȷ˫Ȩϵ7Ʃ磬бꡢʽͬ˵Լdz磬ҹͬȷ˺ͬΪĹԱ֪ͨ˵֮⣩Э͡ܡǵ˷ЩԼΪdz͸ʽ

ɳԼγɵĻơ͸Լ͹򣬿˵ִִԼͬصĶǶ̬ĶǾ̬ķΪḶ́עȨԭʵַʽDzͬĽɫһ˶ʱӽչ׷Ȩ档ңִ˽ȨʵʵȨȨתǷɳ԰֮Ե˽ȨdzȨΪ˽ȨֿɷΪʵʵ˽Ȩ뼼˽Ȩʵʵ˽ȨָΪݵȨĹȨȡΪĿĵծȨͼ̳Ȩ͡ʵʵ˽ȨַΪƲȨȨԣΪɹϵ䶯ԭ򣬾мֶεʵȨΪ˽ȨγȨȨȨ8

ڹϣ˽ԼӦڲ繫˾³̺ƶȡִᣬ˾ͨҵ֯ľΪʵزɹѡʽɶͶƱԱ֯ͨԼɢĸ־ҽ˻󻯺Ͱԡ

ڸΪԼΪ̣һìܣڴԼ֮ǰǶʼų־ĶˡԼϵнãʹھе˴ﵽ־ͬһ9Լ˲ͬ־ͳһԺͲԡԼһʡʾ밴иܽܵԭǡ10ԼۼǿԭĹҲǿԭĹԡΪ־ԼǿۣϮѧϵķۺͽ׼ͳεĹ۵㣬һʵǷɹϵ״̬һֵּǿӦһֹԵĺԵĶɳĴȨӾȨȨתԵĹȨڳԼ½ɾƽʶȨ塣νĹȨĵ־ԼǿԣǴӾ̬߱ԵģӶ̬ϿȨʵֱȻҪȨ˵˼ʾ˼ʾ˽Լ˼ʾڲκͳ̶бͨȨԼġȨȨ͡ȨȻȨ˲һжԹɹϵġγȨ˶ԿȨڳУǿ˵IJȨȨͿȨ˵־ԣȨʹȨ֮γһֶ̬ƽ⡣Ϊ־ԡۣӸϺȨȨԼƺȨԭû۱Ѭպ֧ţȨ־Խ¹ȨΪȻԼ˷ȻԣȨΣDzԶġ

Լӣԭδܴ͸ɴ˽֯ľԣIJDZȻģȨҲȻȨijһءȻʵֻǷɢ˽ˡڹ(State-centered)ȱʧ(Democracy deficit)Ļ£桱һԭ򣬼컯˹ıĩϵҲ˴ͳԼԭ÷ΧִɳһָʽԼԼԭڹ󻯣Ƕ빫һöµĻ˽֮Ȩͻĵ⡣ Լһйع滮̵ĵ֮ĸֹϵ11Ĺ򡣴ʷĽ̿ǷȻʹ֮ΪȨĹʶǰȻϵ߽ķͳԵȱɳġ12ķչǶȻ˼ʷϣȻȨԼȨȻ˥ʱ򲹳ȻȨԼȨԼ֮ܡ13ͼֵԪִ򷢻ƶϵձԡȷԡԤԺͲԵƣʹȻںƽԡɡԵнഫƺ˵Լ˳򣬳ҲԼ

Ϊֹ徭չ׶ΡδۼͷijӦͷijкͲָͬŵغˡҪʽIJ򡱣ӶѳԹΪҪ򣬡ʵDzԼ򵥵ذѳϵԭΪʽ룬Ҳͬʽ塣ֵҪֻ֤dz԰š14ڡͷij򡱽׶ΣǿձԺʽ壬򱻼򵥵Ϊʵʵ巨ݵֶԺ͹Թ淶ڡӦͷij򡱽׶ΣҺͺԷ˳ʽ塢εձԺ⵽ʴתǿĿԷ֤γɹߵҪԡĻҪһ֡μ⡱ʵ屻Ի漰ĹϵԽԽӵĵУϵ˵IJμӺͳΪݵijеҪϻǰδеҪԣҲDZעسɡ15ִѾԽ˴ͳȨķɱ绤׶Σתϵ绤׶Ρ

йšԼ⵽ԣɽͬڸԡԼ˵ƣΪּǽdz뵽ͬ־ͳһһ16ǣڸԡԼѧ˵ۻҲǴġΪԼΪǰģڸԶڣִҵĹʼԹΪĿġ͹ⶩ˽17

ڸԽĹԼۣҲ˸ڹǰԺԡ20ĩںڸѧӰԶѾѧ߿ʼԹʺ͹ҲʱĽ綨顰ҽ˵Ϊֻǵ16ͲŲġҺʱ⣬һǶȣǹʲô⡣й˶ԣҽ˵ȡмʮġձ˵һ۸ǶķѧԭԵӰ졣18ΪʲôĹ۾ʲôĹֱӰ쵽ǶԹ빫ȨȨϵĽ綨Լá

ΪԼı²ʵ֣ûԼ̵ijһ20֮й֪ʶѾϵɷݹ˾Ĺϵ˶ĹػһΪгµҵΪƶµΪ֮ڸ߶ȵ׺ͬԣ19ΪҵΪ֯ʽΪʽΪѧϾй֮ͨѡٳ˾˰ճȫԽԼҪԼŵԼʽΥԼΣԽ˵ִɳı˹ﴫͳķɾγɹԼ˽ɫϵ ԼԻ̸СЭ

Լ˼롰ѾηɻʵҳΪһƾ۵ķ֤ʹǶ֮Ծܾġ21ǿɴӲͬӽǹ۲ΪԼơ磬1787ܷΪЭ22뿴йWTOʹѧЭһơijŵʹѧκͳĬͳһʹѧ˶Ի̸СڶͶڹϵϣϵȨҲȨı߽磬Ȩ֮µȨȨ˾Ȩʵ֧£ǿԼķʽԼĹ񣬵ΣȨйΪ뿼ļֵءΪԼĺͱȻѡ񣬶Ի̸ͨСЭΣʹһѧγ򡢹Ȩͷƽƽȵᡣ

һԻ̸

Ӣѧ߷չͨʷָ20ͺҪʽ̳ң̳ҪԭǿɽԣȰ˵ǿʵʩҪʩ23ȨӵʹǿȨķȥ˼⣬δǵЧ档24

աѧ߼κδڵĻʽľ־ǶԻԻǡڡ롰δڡ֮IJתҪΪн飬뻥״̬25ڡĶԻ龰¡۱߻ȡɡûȨϡǿȡ26

ڴѧϣԻһһϵĶԻ֮еһ̸ֽͨɡָͷ񶨵Ļ﷽ʽ̸ͬ졣ԵĶԻһʶḶ́ͬʱҲÿڳͻѰҿ϶;Ḷ́۳ɷ֡27ҵ̸УԻ˫ƽȵʣһһָϸҲһһĽȰ桢顣28ʷϣ˹(New Deal)ΪڸǣϾѪҺ͹裬ġ¯̸A Fireside Chat빫֮ӻﵽݵƽȹϵݹںġ˹ѡͳƣ¯̸ٽ˶ʮһΡ29廯ᄈ¯̸͸ص˵ʽι͡ᡱڣܵķΧ޵ģսΪҲйԡ͸ԣΪ֪ȨΪǹҵʵ壻ԼһεƶȣۺʱԻ̸ǶԹΪԼȨغά/˽ڲͬᄈλƽȣﳡ(discourse field )Ĺϵı͹ȨȨǿ

̸кЭ

̸кЭ鼰ĸѧĿѧоĶ󡣡ν̸Уָ˫෽Ϊ硢ıϵΪȡһ£ıͬ໥̵Ϊ͹̡30ЭԿԣ֮Ļϵìܳͻ취ΪһֺΪЭһֽףһȨöɡ31ΪγɷʽЭһĻѧϵľ״̬ͲĹϵгϵҲһЭƶȡЭͬһǻۺͼòЭĻǰǶԶԷ˸桢Ȩء32

̸ζЭľΪĿͻЭַͨʽͨɵЭͨģɵЭǰߵ͵ҵףΪɽĿԭλ򣬡ͨıĿ۽ĶЭ÷dzģԱÿһԼֶ˵۵ʲôʲôԼʵΪ˸Ĵж󡣡331992꺣Ͽ¼´ɵġԿͷķʽһйԭ򣬾һЭ

̸кЭԱﹲͬ˵Ĺͬͼȷţһڽо֮ǰŽ֣Ҫ壻ⲻֻΪѡܻӭߣҲΪ˻Щʧ֮ĥΪЩٻΪǵҽٱȡ34ͨһ֡ͬԼӦͨЭ̺໥ЭƽӦñ³çʵľٴµ޷صĶ35

йȻʹƵʹöԻ̸ͨСЭ̡ȴȱ䱾ʺͳҹעڹ빫ȨϵϸǽʹЩϣе̸кЭ̵ʷΪ̸ڡЭĶԿ£ͬ漯šͬݹͬϿɵĹβϽеһgive-and-takeЭ̣DZ⣨еأκһȫӮȫ䡣36Ҫ̸ܷУһϣȨԼƽ漯ż̸УѡƶγɵIJͬ漯̸֮С

ȱӹ빫֮Ľ֯й˽ijͻܱҲܱڲ⡣˽֮ijͻԺַʽЧȨ־ǿѾߵʷͷڹ֮ɵ磬ܶԹ߷ӰҲܰѸ˵˼жϽΪ֮С37ΪԼϢʽ̸кЭתɸָij򣬲˽֮䣬Ҳ̸֮Уڹ˽֮䣬̷ϵġ߽סЭʽƻ漯ŵ̸С

̸֤ΪԽеҪķɳͻƣЭֶΡ21ͣйⲿڲϵ̸СЭ̺Э⡣

1ó˵Э̻WTOǹ֮ϷƶߺͲþߣйӺնԻ̸ͨСЭԼ˾óļɡԶԣΪĶԻ̸кЭԵģӴĹʹ쵽˽͹ڷ򣬴ӽ׼ӽDZԼḶ́˫ӮDzͬóס˽ѷʽ

2˵֤ᡣ֤ƶķϲǣ˾֤⣬ҹ岿ȷ֤ƶȣչʾ˹Ȩеơ֤֤ͼ۸֤Уʷѵ֤ᡢ㶫˹·˼۸֤ᡢй·˲ÿƱ֤ᣬĿ۸֤ίԱһߴӪߴרѧߴ˴ЭӪ̴Լɡ۸֤۵³һļƻʱǰܣۺ͹ı棬ѽ˵ᴩڶ۹̡֤ͨᣬʹӪߺܹؽۣԴɶԵ۵ıҪԡԵĹʶıҳƶۺȫȥѰͻƽ

ԵһһȺԼͬķʽԼڷĽڣǵľߺжܹȨĸ档Ӹ˵嶼ΣͲһ壬һܷǰͱ־εȻˣҲȻ˹ɵ֯塣֯嶼һ壬ͻ塣ϵָȨ֮ԼȨԹȨȨ֯ԣ÷Ƿ⣩Ԥ˻˽˵Ȩ

ϵҪȨ֮˼ල쵼ϵ⣬롰ĬسɹΪΣԱȨȨΪûзɳԼĻȨȨ͡ҹܷͷȷηΧ˵˽ȨΡر߶ΡũΡоΡ˾ҵӪȨԼ֯Ρ

Ӧ˵ҹ˽ϵѳԶߣƶȻȫΪ˺˽ˡ˱йʷϣСʸС쵼ˡԹʡаͼġնࡱвȨġСǧټϾǡСһֽߵϺ38Զ׼Ȩ弰쵼˱κμҪҼѡ޽ڷ籩͡ӸȨ粨ʵرγ߶ȡڹΪֹĶȨȨǷ

Լľ̬

1888꣬¹ѧ˰?ҮڹԼ֮ۡȷԹԼϵǣһҽ˹ԼƶȡԻ̸СЭεȹԼͬԼľ̬ͨԼĴͳԺȨԭ 1߽(plea bargaining)

߽ϡ״Ϸ(arraignment)ָ뱻˻߱绤ʦ̸кּۻɱԻȡᶨ̷Э顱˫һЭ飬Ժ㲻ٶԸðʵУʽȷ˫Эݡ39ݹƣ°90%߽ͨ׽᰸ġ40߽׳ϵ˶ϱһĴȨԹ˺ͱ淽棬ܺ˺кҲ˾ĹԺͷɵԣ֧ѧʵԼԿʽϻѹֵĽѡ2000913գѧĺ͡йܰ䡰ϷдϢ֮Ա߽׷ʽ᰸ġʵϣҹ˾ʵеġ̹״ӿܴϡߡ̷ϵġ׺ᡢƶȣܺʧʣű߽׹ɲȨ˾ɲȨĴڣʹ̸СЭ̡Э֤ȼͳʱɡ41߽͡סIJɹֻһԵ͹ƽ

ڴ½ϵ߽ױΪΪԽֹǣԼǴ½ϵϷѧĸӰ죬ҹѾѧ߶Լڵݡ̬ЧԼҪо42ǰΪﵽһķЧԺķʽӰϳУγԼԼƽȵ֮ԸķɹϵйͨΪϷڹ򣬲ԼϵǣеϷɹϵǿʣֻҪ˵ԼΣ򰲶ΥϹƽԭ򣬲Ӱ칫棬ɺӦõõɱ˾ʵԼͰϽ⡢Ϻͽ⡢֤ԼԵԼߡߡߵȣִгеԼԼֵ֣̽Ӧ˽ԭϳ򣨹תףԼijȡڹȨɺ׼ǣڹȨǿʢйû˽Ʃ絣ǼΪǼΪͨ乤߽׵ǼΪӦǹ³ΪDZǹΪ˽ǼǾǹΪ˽ξȻ޴档 3Լ

ңԼһйԼֻһϵʡѧڴԼͬʱѾӲͬĽǶȶԼ൱ооԼڵļǰᣬԼ߼չʷΪоԭ㣬˵ºͬӡ˵Լ¹򷨵54涨֮ɹϵԼ趨֮෴֮涨ߣڴޡ򷨵781涨ԼΪһ⣬˺趨һɹϵԼָ֮䷢ɹϵĺ⡣

ǣԼĹܡɺͱҪԣܵѧߺִԱ顣ǷԼһ˽ϵԼԴƽĺ⣬֮ĹϵȨ֧ϵûжԵɺͺĿܣΪ˽ԭԼɺϵԭڱϲɵ͡43ҹ޳ԼĸԭڶԼƻԤͬĿ־̬ƻ£ԼΪйҼƻʹ廯һֹߡʲôԼɼƻļƻΪﱾƻΪһΪصֶͨγɾҵָ֮ɹϵͬʱҲ˲ͬҵ˽񡣡44ƻµԼʵгúµɺ⡣

ԼΪԵı죬ȨзʽΪִѾΪԼṩ˺ƶȱͨȼƶȵ֤ɺʵ֡ԼĺڲԵȵλϣͨЧȼñϴƵԷ˼ɱʾγɵġƶȼԦȨij졢֯ijɳԼְܵıǨȨʱҪĿĿǶѡʵֶΣԼָȷǿΪ

ͬŵ㣬ȷбҪȨöԹ͸𺦣Լκ;ȼûơִѧԼϵԼϵĹʧΡԤΥԼΡʵΥԼκͺԼʵΥԼǺġԼһͨԺºȼʵֵģǰоȼýϲִѾΪĺϷת̺ͳĺϷԣͨЭ̡֤˵ƶȹԼ趨йп󻯱ͿԼεIJԼһҲѸ١Чƽ⵱֮ϵԼȼƶȵĽһͨЭ̡ٲûþԼ飬ͨ˾鱣֤ԼȨõɵԼͱϡ 4Э

ǷǵȵģȨǷֻɹһʹǷֻйһزܴ棬ЩʲҡŴͳģʽĸҲDZijΡ1990ͨЭƶ·(Negotiated Rulemaking Act)1996ͨġ鴦÷Ե׼ЭƶƶȡƶĴͳͨ-ƶ(notice and comment procedure)ҪȰƶĹ²ݰҪݣڡǼǡϣϵ˽ۡϵȨַͨʽѾرӦǵϵ󹫲űƶµĸݺĿĵļҪ˵Э̳ͨ-۳ĻӵһֳãҪڹ֮ǰһܹƵҵҵлᡢ弰Ӱ֯ĴعԱɵЭίԱᣬίԱй½Э̣ίԱɺ⣬ɺĹΪ£Ȼͨ-۳Э̳ϵ˾͹µʵѡ飬ʹ˽ڹƶнɫӻЭ̹³ڽ෽Ԫ飬˵ĺϵǿͬԵĹʶ̶ȡ

ġȫ빫ΪԼչ

йѧܷȨԼϵȡǶԹȨʺ͹Ľ⹹ոµ⣬ԽȨģͣһǡȨԼͼʽͳȨĺϷֲȨԼöɡǡսѹͼʽжԶͽ䱻ΪȨл⡣45ŷ˼ԡȨԼͼʽ͸ҵĹϵżȻģŷᡰռ䡱ijָı˾ɵιϵµġԵιϵһжµġĸԵı׼ͬ(consensus)46иȨ֣˽ʾԴԼӰ죬Ƕ͹ȨϷԵ֪˱仯Ȩ߷緶Ѫͳ塢ѧԼȨ壬תܷԼȨѧȨġϷԵĻͬ⣬硶ԡ˵ġͳεͬ⡯47ԼIJβԼ壬ִȨ塣ִվѧҲϵĹѡۣ߼ͶƱΪҪֶενṹ48Э֮ĹͨͶԻ᳹һԭ

ȫһڿ㷺ʹõָһֳԽߵġԵġӵĶķɺ̡ԡȫ򻯡ֽ1ȽϹʻģʽ(The Comparative-International Model)һӽ͹ԸԻĹҺ͸ԻķƶԼ֮佻ú໥ϵҪԡ2ȫ򻯼(Globalization As Americanization)ȫͬģȫķɱԽԽķɣ͸Եȷгֵȫ򻯡3ȫ򻯼ǹһ(Globalization As Denationalization) ȫ򻯵ķǹһӽǣǿ˽˺гڴȫʱã׷ѰȫԹʱγ͵Ȩ˽ԼҺͷǹҲ֮Ļϵ4Խȫ򻯺͹ڷ(Globalization and Domestic Law: Transforming the Local)ڡȫ򻯹ҡ(globalizing State)ṹ֮£ȫطһֵһġ̬̬Ǽ򵥵벿ֵĹϵСȫ򻯸УȨûʧȨƬ(fragmented)ȻڣġȨԹں͹ʵġҺͷǹҵIJֻȨƬı˹ңҲ¶ˡ롰˽ȥΪģڳˡ˽ӶҪ˼ڶ漰˽ĹߵIJ롣49ȫ򻯱£Ŀǣ͹棬Ҫȡ˽ģʽ˽ִ֯йķΧͨԼʽ˽˿ŹƵصѾӹĺ(command-control)ʽתгʽ

ȫ򻯼һֿ͹һԹ̡ǣܿȫ򻯽Ȩ˥䣬ȫ򻯽ȻǡϵΪαϵġ˵˥ˣ˵ڸı䴫ͳܣȫؽ뵱ϵ50ȫ򻯽ٳйԾɫ͹ܣ

һȷݹϵڹͬϵγɵȶϵĵλڹʻȫ򻯽УйݹԹߡߡѡԽߡʹߺƶֽɫݡȫ򻯲ıй˵Ҳڸı䷨ϵȻȨԼͼʽɵĻɫйͲɱպͲɴֹѧ͹йѧΪ˽еġȫ򻯡һֻ룬涨ҵĸƶȣĻȨرǹһص֯Ȩȣ͸ܴȫ򻯵ķˡ51ȫǷһֲʵʵĻ룬뱾޹أ۵ۻֵȶġ񶨷ȫ򻯵ţͨۻǹѧϰ˽-ⷨ͹-ǿзĻģʽڿ˽Ĺʵִ˽ǹʩʱǿзγɹȴܱⷨ˴˵̶Ȳͬ˽ҪĻҵǿɥʧԼԣǿǹȻģɳнãΪԼҲǿܵġ

γɹȫ򻯽̸йгú͹public sphereֻƣǶġνָ͹֮еڵһУйһԵĹܹõƻıϣγν(public opinion)ԼලȨӰҵĹߡǷǿƵز룬ƻı֮ɡԵձ⣬ʹȨĺ52йܷγɹ˹͵ġ򡱺͡ijֶһʵȫ򻯵Ӱ죬йıͳְܣڹγɷʽ͹˽֮ĻϵϷ

ѧǶʮһйѧ⡣гôٳĹ뾫ĸ˻ʹйѧķչпֻܷΪѧ˽ѧԷ򡣡 53ѧΪйѧµ㡣54˽ѧע飬ѧעԴڡڵʶΪЧΪÿһԱĺ˼⡣ѧ⡰ڶԪвϵضԻ뽻ȡùʶϳϷԹ淶ӶΪȫ򻯵Ϸ򡣡55ѧǡ塪塱ܣﵥһԣߡΪͱԵˡѧŽʵۣͨԪĽ조ڡӹԣѧォйͳѧĸΪĹȨ־ԺǿԽתԼͿԳ

ΪԼڿ洦ʱҲDZڵΣԣ

1Ƿ漯Ų(capture)Ʋ2050-70ʵͳ沶Ʋһձ⣬ζ漯ŲһDZڵвζDzͨ;(back door methods)ԹʩӲӰ졣෴Ϊ漯֧в(threat of Interest Group Domination of Agency Policy)֧䡱ȡ񡱵ķΧ56ˣһǿġΪҪڹ빫Էְ޷ĨɷȨļԼɢԼһ⡣

2衰εĹԡ֮á57Ժ͸ǹѧĻֵ룬ǵʵǿɳĺϵġǣΣ״̬£ĹȱɳԼζŻԡΪġɡҺ͹봫ͳ˽򣬵ճձλ˽ʷȫĴ58Ļй˵ĻŲн跨ιҵĿҲжԹΪԺԼĿ־塣

йķѧһڳʷжʱ(ʱ),ȫѾDZ˽ṹ(ʱ)Ϊ͸Ժ͹ڵIJԣǵйι۱ǨΪֵ⡣һ棬йŬִϣεʵԡԡձԺڱѿɲһ棬ִij򡰲μ⡱͡۱ۡʴεʽ壬ѹԵĹŷ򡰻Ӧͷת֮䣬йġͷܻδü⵽ȿĴˣйķƸĸﲻѡ񼤽ġմķʽҪѡȽġСķʽǿƷʽɵԼʽڷɳĺơ

ȨǵùȨǰ᣺һǿƣеǿơԼЧԺҲγǿȨǣԼγɵǿʺȨͬԼǿױܣΪƽȺ˼ΣDZŵϵƲΪԼĸԱ־ƽԺ˫Խ棬ԴԶҲӦйԴѡйȻӶйƻǿ˹ǿĵȷչǣڳ硢塢׼ײ㡢֮еĹͨЭŬ׿гЧҴδְֹܱͣǨ֯ɳԼʻӰ죬֤۸֤ԼķɳΪй͵ĹȨģʽ

Contractual Act in Public law


Abstract: Under the principle of the peoples sovereignty, unilateralism and compulsion is not the essential character of public power. Due process is a basic principle in public law. In legal philosophy view, procedure is as contract. Procedural justice is developing from the period of formalism and ceremonial to the period of negotiate. Contractual ideas in public law can be expressed by the acts of dialogue, negotiation, compromise and autonomy. Contractual form in public law includes plea-bargaining, civil action contract, administrative contract and negotiated rulemaking. In the background of market system and globalization, the character of public power, state-centered and public-private partnerships are changing, which provided an internal and extrinsic foundation for contractual act in Chinese public law.

Key words: public law; process/procedure; contract; idea; form; globalization; public sphere; public philosophy.

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*ִѧѧԺʦʿоҪܷ͹ѧо

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