ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

˾֮һ

β


һ˾ƶ

һƶ

ΪĹ淶ΪʹɿЧӪƶӦʩͬƶȵĹγɷϵƶ֮ҪĿڶ˵ԼˣƶȻᣬ༰ĵ״˥ϼл󣬷ƶҲд衢𼸸󡣴ӷʷĿ죬ΡʷıǨĿǰдķϵҪɷΪķϵķϵķϵָ仯ĹңķϵָĹҡǰߣɵԳĵķΪҪ飬ķҪķԴߣɵΪҪݣҪԴԭҪķѧԭʮ͵ϸ˼ռͳελӦоӢġֳʱڵģӦ취˾ƶռĵλɴ߷Ժ󷨹ٵпԡѧܷĿ󷨹١Ϊƶ˾֮һ

˾ձ黯

ڶս֮֮Ͼ֮ŷӢ֮⣬ι죬һ˵ɷΪһΪ֮Ϊͳ֮֯ģάִͳʽȴµļֵڹͣ綫ŷ֮ƼȻΪάִͳ֮ڸƣɳ̶ϻٵ˾ƶȣϣܻ֮Ȩߣŷ֮ƼȻһ֮ڲνܷ֮ңΪǿר˾֮ءȻʱ಻ȫĮܷ֮ͳơڣʼѰٶԲߣڲΥܷϵ֮ԭ£ܷ֮ͳ⡣˹ܷϵ£Ҳ˾ƶȣʾһƶ֮ʱҪ֮ǿʹڲͬļֵʶңڲܷ֮ŷң޽˾ƶ֮ʷҲ˾ƶȻ֮;Щ֮򡢷ϵͬؽڡȨԽ֮֮ͳϣ֮ʷ֮͹ԲͬԡȨԽֵ֮вͬ͹Ȩ֮ͳηΧ֮ȨΧλּٰڴȨȨ֮ϣҲ˴̬ȡȻ˾ƶȻϣȡ̬֮ͬȣܱ˴֮硻֮Ӱ졣DZ˾ֵϣμ֮Ӣϵ½ϵս˾ԭ֮գҲսϡʹ߲˾֮;ͬԭ֮ȥʵзǵƾܾ֮ߡ


ܷλ˵

һѷķλ

¹άҲѧɷѧʦѷײ˵ʱΪһҵķϵһԲ׶ΣԺоصĴ֣ɴԲ׶ĵײ㣬ײϵķΪɡ֮Ϊܷ۷ֱɴӾ̬붯̬ĽǶɫһӾ̬ĽǶ۲죬϶£淶֮Чݣѷۣ淶Բ׶壬϶£Ŀӣɳ塣λ淶lower normλ淶higher normݲžЧԡ֮λ淶Чϵλ淶ݲžЧԡ֮λ鷶Чλ淶˲֮ݵߵķ淶ܷܷЧԺָλĹ淶ѷָν֮淶һ淶Ч׵ģDZ˵ļ裬򣬡λס۽޷Ӷ̬ĽǶȿ϶£ɴḶ́Ӷ̬֮ѷָײϵĻԭڣγɴ淶ϵһ淶ijضķΪù淶ϵڴһķ֮ġ֮ù淶ѭ淶Դڸ÷ ܷ֮涨

ȱܷʽȨֱӸݣˣ߷Ժʹ˾ʱܷӪšȨԽ塹ѧߣԡ˾ΡJudicial review and DemocracyۣǿͳνԴεľ壬弰ѡƶ֮ԭ˾ԵɡΪ˾زûְķΪȨĹһijƶķΪЧľԭΥ㣵ġΪЧķɣ˾֮ѧߣӻ˾ʹ˾ġԻlegitimacy˻ѰܷСܷȨ˾ϽȨĹ涨⡹ҲǶʱξ飬Ѱ˾˼ܷѧߵĴ뷢չѧ˵Ǵ󷨹ǵܷоɵݿΪ˾Ȩʹ˾ߣ֮Ϊɷʹ˾ܷϵĻbasis or milestone of Judicial review over the American ConstitutionҪĹ۵˾Ĵڲֱֵܷ˾Ȩ˾项one Supreme Court has the right to review the lawǴֵܷġм䡹( Between the lines of the Constitution Texts )۵õġǣΪļڹء˾Ρ( Judicial Review and Democracy )ڿģ㲻ҵɵ˿켣һԣ͡۵Ļ( Literal or Textual Basis )֮ԡ˾ܷϵȨΧ( The province and duty of Judicial Department )ܷΪȫλ׵ķɡ( The Supreme Law of Land )ܷһڹ֮˾Ȩ߷Ժʱƶ֮¼Ժ߷Ժ¼Ժ֮ΪְְڼӦٺ𣬸ٺڲüܷ֮ǰι涨ڹڱܷͨǰǷ֮֮ԼڱܷЧЧЧڰʱܷͬݱܷƶ֮ڹɣԼڹ֮Ȩ޽򽫵޽֮ԼΪȫ֮߷ɣκܷ֮еִݷԺ֮پӦ֮ع涨޳ΪڡȻģûӴḻܵ߼޷Ӧ練ԵˡˣΪ˾ƶߣ޲ǣջ۵ģʩ˾֮֮ʶʵֵ֮жϡ֮ۻġ޲Угԭϣõܷѧ߻оߵͬоڣѧεΪ糱۲Ƴ³£ϵΪȻʹá˾项ΪȽ˾ƶȡcomparative judicial systemǡȽܷcomparative constitutionȨ֮ϡоһҪɻȱĿ⡣


֮ƺ

һϵ˹֮Ȩ

˾ȨԽ壬ϵϵ˹ȨΪ֯Ļ㡣ϵ˹š򷨾塹У˵Ӣƶʱһ̸ÿһȨһȨйعʷȨйȨݵһȨִƶʱĻõķɣ޸ĻֹƶķɡݵڶȨźͻսDzʹڣάȫԡݵȨdzͷþ˽ǽƺΪ˾ȨڶȨΪҵȨһһľƽ״̬ľƽ״̬Ǵ˶ΪǰȫġҪɣͱ뽨һͳһ񲻾һ񡣵ȨȨͬһ˻ͬһ֣֮ɱ㲻ˣΪǽҪƶŰķɣŰִЩɡ˾ȨͬȨȨҲͲˡ˾ȨͬȨ϶Ϊһ򽫶ԹʩרϵȨΪپߡ˾ȨͬȨ϶Ϊһٱ㽫ѹߵͬһ˻ҪƽɵͬһʹȨƶɡִйͲ˽˵ķȨһб㶼ˡ ֮

ȻμѧΪʩҪģʽʩмҲ൱˵ǵڶڡIJеĿһṹɵΨһ;ѡ٣ΪȨǮŤԷӦ᣻ɷѹ壬¢Ṧܣᷴӳۺ⹦𽥽ɥʧԵۺЭѳΪġͳΡԼֵʶɴĶʴġڶǿбɡThe Tyranny of MajorityäĿ·ʹۺ϶Ԫ᲻ͬĹܻܰ塢Ҫ߻򷨰ֹרżʹսɻߣеΪӦֻнίίȷʽָרżԽ޴ңʹȨܴȨ䣻ΪӦزֹԱרҵȤڻøίԱᣬԴȫԺר˾֮⣻ίԱƶȷ֮һԾŶȨȫԺΪʽߡԱǰ⣬ʹ淢ѡ֮Ҳ𽥷ζ룬ʹҲ㲻룬ֶѭʹƶȣս֡ԡ

Ȩ֮ʴ

ŹĶԪƼרҵķչһǧյȨֻȨġ֡ǡƤͼ¡Ȩ𽥲ʳ˾Ȩ֮ȨޣӵС׼Ȩquasilawmaking power͡׼˾Ȩquasijudicial powerɡ֮ԽҡתȨλҡֵָעĵطһҡķɹרżͳƻʵʩʹڡ⡹ġΡDemocracyתΪרżTechnologyġרżΡTechnocracyڶΡΪרżΡȨͻڡרżšTechnoBeaurocratУʹΪ߹Ȩصġ塹ParliamentaryתΪΡBeaurocracyΪݼӢͷΡEliteracyҡܣӴӡרżͳƻݻʣѴͳġıΪƻ塹ȻݱɡƻΡġҡȻԡƻΪ⣬Ȼ㷺ضɺȨԼơ塹Ŀġ塹ݱͳƻǿͳƵġͳ塹塢ҡΪǿܵʣԻı󡸼ƻȨķʴ󻯡ͬʻԼȨС˾ȨܡΪͳƻҲᾡ뼯ȨζƵطΣʹ塹ȨݱΪȨС

ģ˾ȨȨ֮

߷Ժ֮һֱ뾴أԭһ㣬ձѧߣԴʼǣҪ֮ʵ㣺һƶȼ͹ۻʹ߷ԺԼԽλʱԪѫһΪһܷԪ߽֮ģ֮ȨܣϣΨ˾Ȩ٣Ȩ֮أԼȨ֮ǷΥܷԽܷ֮Ȩޣܺƽˣ˾˾ȨܣжǷΥܣžƣաƺ⹦ܡȻΪʵȨ֮ƶ£˾֮ߡȲƲֲعԱȽϲ׽ỷ֮ǿӰ죻ܿ͹ۡжǷǡֹ֮뾴ء˾Ȩ֮ţ˾ȨԽȽϲֽģžܻڦ˾ܣڱϣǾϵڷԺ֮ضϰΪɶãΪ֮ݡڶܷʷϣ߷ԺʼʾȻƽ壬Ժƽ֮ɫҳַ˷֪ѧʶٱܷ֮ɣѧʶ֪ʹȨϺ֮ƽ֮УȨ֮棬άֹ֮;ء߷Ժ˾ȨʱַȨԭάȨƽƺ⣻Ա֮Ȩȴƹִãάܷ˼룬ǿɼٽ衣ܷΪ߳ȫԭ˾ؽϰ¼֮ʣʹ˾Ȩܣ߷ԺһֱȨֻ֮йȨεȾ֮ϰʹ˾ȨΪ֮оġ߷Ժ˾Ȩ֮򼰷Ϊԡ͹۶Ȼ֮ʱνոʽʴԻٱ˴ԿͷۡѣͶƱԶͥоԺогǩǰо֮룬ҽӷ֮Ҳһ룬ַ٣ã֮塢߷Ժѧ˶壬Щֶ֮೤ãʹ߷ԺΪ̩֮ɽȫ༫ء

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