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֥Ӹѧѧʱ˹۹Ү˵ۡҼǵ
ʱdz޹ҮڵڵȻ¡
The Constitution of LibertyνҪָԡͨū۵ĵ
·Ϊĺгԭ۷ƶȡʱ
ڶ¡IJ½ڣòܽҮ˵ںڷֿ˵
ڹҮ˵ں֮Ҳij߼ϵڹҮ˷֣
õгƶȲԼԼȥ˼гƶȵķӶȻ
Էκо 

The Constitution of Liberty ģΪ
ԭΪоҮ˵˼Ҫס˱
ȽϵͳĶ˸飬оҵ׼ȷġҮһֱ
ߵɣǡԭʼɡһ֡һЩ˶һЩʩԵǿƣ
бС֮޶ȡ״̬ܹҮ侭ѧҵϰߣù
巽֤ǡЧʵġӶǿġֵΪ֮ܶģ
ⱾǰᡣⱾҪҪ⣬õ
Ƿdzģ޷ԼԼҪᷢչһƶ
ⱾߣǶһƶȵ̽֡ⲻǴֺɵ
ԴڱɵƶȱҮ˵Ȼԭʼȴ
ǻ˹Ȼ״̬ΪȻ״̬£κбƵ˶пܶ
ʩǿơΪ˰Ȼ״̬Ϊ˱ÿ˵ɣǿƽ
ǿơˣҮ̸ɣǴɡ״̬
Ϊɱ޷ѵۡΪκθʹñʵǿƵ
ȨӶ¢ϱ֯һһ֯ʧȥƣԸɲ
𺦡ζţһֱɵƶȰţͬʱпܳΪֺ
ɵƶȰš 

ھѧṩƷƶ֯νƷָκθ
޷ռкѵƷȻǷdz˻ģɳ͸
ϵһ𣬵ʵǹƷΪһУ̸κһض
˵ûģ˵ҲԱ˵IJΪ۵ġֻеһ
˵ɲһ˵ʱſ˵ɵġ
̸ʱǡġ֮᪣һ
пʹһܵ𺦣νɣͻŵĸ֮Ļ
ʵֵġ֮ͨγʹﵽȶ
ҲԱɵı߽磬ҲDZƶȵЩˣҪ
֤һɵģÿ˶ҪܹƶȵԼֻҪԼ
˶ԱɵֺֻҪе˶ƽȵܵͬԼԼͲ
ǶԸɵ𺦡һɾ;ڶЩ
ƶȵıάʵУЩƶһȫƶȣȨ
ȣ׹򣬷淶ȵȡǣģҲ
һ漯ţпΪԼƻЩ
ȣֺԱɣûκ֮⡣ 

ԣɵԼ⡣Թв
ʽЩͬʽӦĹܣҲԼġ˵
ʽ֣ƺơֱ۵أƺֺɵΣգΪ
ȨûЧԼȻƲȻ¶ɵֺҲ
ȻẴɡڹҮ˿ĻֲǾ
ȫȨȫȫȨȨȨ
ԭ֮Ҳǿġԭ꣬
1997126ҳпɵ˵ƺ˷ѽ⡣
һΪɼͬھѧУҲȷͬԴġ
ھѧӦΪǽ׵ɡɽ׵̸й̣һ
ɱ־Ḷ́ͬʱҲһ־־࿹Ĺֻ̡
־ȡһʱŻһסΪһ̸
ijϣͨеĹгûʲôһͬ⡣ֻڶ˼
һͬѶȽϴDzŲһƵĹ򣬶򣬼ֻ
ˣųķ᪡һΪҪǡɷ˳
г׹УһκһֶԷóȻԼ棬
ԡͬ⡱Ա⡣൱˳гڹѡУ˱
ͨһʱ˾ܿͶƱԣȴʵϲ˳
Ϊһ˿˳һףȴ˳һᡣڲ˳˾
ܶͨľ߶Լ𺦣ΪͶƱĺϷԣȻ
ǿԵֶȥִйѡ̵ĽӶɵԭʼĶ㣣ǿ
ƼСɴǻһ⡰ɡɲζͬɣ
ζŲͬɣζŲͬɣζͨͬ⡱
ʧɡı׼ǿ 

ƷʲԱΪǶ˶
Ʒڲͬ漯ţƷζŲͬɱ·
ἰĹƷʵҲijЩ˲ںϼţȻ˰
棻޹·Ż·ѹΣܹ
ѡ̲ɱػ𺦲˵棬ڹƷУǿ
ܵġֻҪѡ̱޶һ̶ɵв󡣵
ڹƷ˽Ʒ֮䣬ûһȷġҲԽĽߣ
ѡ̲ԶͣڹƷ˽Ʒı߽ϡһԽһ
磬ͶƱıײͱọ̀Ϊֱӵ¶ɵַ磬
ͨͶƱijһ˽Ʒļ۸й涨ͻֺ˫
ͼ۸̸еɣͶƱ۸ܲͬгļ۸񣬱뿿
ǿάһ۸DzƷֶȱDzòͨ
Ŷӻв򵽣˵ĸһأԽ
Ʒ߽ΪҪΣź˰յӣֱ۵ؾ൱
˾ļ١ǴΣҮ˾˵ؽ
ġһʵһһԵİʼʹõ״˵Σա
ЩΪȻϷԵ˳ΪʽߡʶУ
ŶʵͶƱصǡӦɶͶƱ
⣬ڷΧϼȷơʹǼʱȨҲӦܵ
ԭơ129ҳ 

ҮνĶͶƱڷΧϼƣԱΪڹ˽
֮仮һߣѡ򲻵Խ硣漰⡣һ߻
ģڶ˭ߡڵһ⣬Ү˲ûиϸĻش
ֻ˵ߵĹ̲ӦЩԷĹҲ
ʶֻк߲DzԶڸǻܴµĹ۵ԴȪ
˵߲һü߽磬һԭ򣬼гܹ
ⲿԵУĽ롣һԭţȻ
Ƶġһԭ򡱣general principlesСڹҮ˵Уһԭ
򡱾ijеζصĶȫ塣ԭ
Ϊ˵˺Ϊ˵״ΪΡthe rule of law
롰Ρthe rule of menӦνΣԭͳ
ˡʵУָ˼乫ѡġһԭ򡱣ܷ
ܷڷЧϣܷصӶпܶ
صȨ޽й涨ҲܶͶƱķΧԼԿԳΪ
˽֮һߡǣܷԶرִУҲԶʹ
Լһǣ˭ܷڹҮ˿һѾ
ʵ˻شһҪĸ˾Ȩjudicial 
review京Ƕͨķִķ߷Ժ
ԭԺΥܵķƷ˾Ȩû
й涨ǾɡѷһЪ󷨹ȷġij
һιеԷݽѷ֮
߷Ժ˺ܷȨǣ˭סƷ˽Ʒ֮
ߵ⣬õ˴𰸡֮׶˵IJȣǷΡһ棬
Ƿ˵ͳΣһ棬˾ϵܷı߰пά˵
ѧҾ񡱳ΪˡƽԺǷѧԸĿߡ
οӡݣ1991320-311ҳ 

Ӧָܷβ˾ƺʽżȻֵģ
ȴκʽ𵽷ĻáͷδֲͬĴͳ
򵥵˵ǽ·ɢĸ˵ԸתѡḶ́ǽ
ʷۻɹ淶Ĺ̡һЩ
˾ƶȣԴΪֻؼ
ʵҮ˵أο Law, Legislation and Liberty, 
Rountledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. and the University of Chicago Press1973
ȣŸʷص֮ǰ
ɷƶġٵĴͳһϵеڲþκһʱ
жǰ¼IJþĻϣݱ
úһdz͵Դ̣ɾһԴ
γɵġʷĻۺڷٲþݵIJͬԭ
ڽϳʱмԱȽϣӷٲþϵгԭͻ
ǻۣӽ׷塣Щԭ򲻽þ尸ضԭ
Ҳνġһԭ򡱡ˣϵܷܴӷٵ
ͳе֮ӦǶԴӷٴͳгԭȷ
ϡڹҮ˿ڷһԴ̣ӽԷ
Ӷӽ壬Чʣ֮ܶ
Ƶʡˣ˾ϵһԭĵطǷε塣һ棬
ڷһְҵҪͻĸ֮Ѱԭö
壬ڣ䣩ᷨٺʦһϸԣļţ
˸пˡ塢ԭֹƽͳѵ
Ҳػܷǡѡοʢ飬ٲþ빫ѡ񡱣й
ѧ1996 

ڷεƺͲȣΪһеƶȡڡ
ʽߡDz˼ġѡ߷ԺʲôȨƷ
ѡԱͨķأΪʲôȨȨҪܵԼ
Ѿش⡣һƪ˵Ƕϰڿ
˾ĴֻĻþΪҶΪ
ͲȻ˻᷸ɵҲ᷸󡣡
֪ʶӦʲô顷19947£Уûκ
һƶǾԵĺõġһƶȰŵȱһƶȰȵġ
ͬƶȰŹͬһƶȽṹܽ⡣ͬ
Ȱ֮ǻġΪġԣβǶַѹ֣
ƶܹЧڵǿͶƱԼΪά
Ү˵֮ʽ߶ԣʵ
õѣΪעαЧе
ͼ˵һǶжܳԽijЩ޶ȣǽᣬ
ӦѭЩԼƶԭôǾͿ˵Ŭ
ǡġҪάͱԴȪұ
ʶδػйÿй۵еõӳⷬ
ҲǶҹŬпϵĸ롣ĹУΣտ
¾ǶԡЧеȱʶǵʶֻͣΪ
ǶΪȻؾʹ壬Ļ
ҲǻûгĺôʱҪĻһЩطûнͶ
ƱǡõƷУѾ˽ƷԸˣ
һЩ˴ͨĶԼ۸ơ˾ҵƵķʵϣΪ
ŬӦԦ͹淶ͶƱһԭ򣬼
ܷԭа˵ĻȨĹ涨֧Ȩ޵Ĺ涨Լ
ʲôĹƺ⡣ͬʱҪ˾ϵijɳͳ죬ʹ֮Ϊ
صԼ 

˷ΣܷⲢûⲻǹҮȱ
ӸϽͲһֱиоһƪҲᵽ
Ӹ¶ȱͱⲿ
ⲿͲȱһʼǾ˵һֱɵƶ
ţͬʱпֺɡ߼ȻҲڷκ˾Ȩ
÷εķȥԼ˾ϵȥƺʱε
ҪΪԼˡٺʦѸӣΪһ
ţDzеĸԣײ㣬ϵ˾ϵ
ռԽĵλĴԱʦ򷨹٣
Ȼιǿѹšŵ棬Ҫиķ
ɴ˲ĸĶԷɷ󣻶ɣǡǹIJƷ
DZ˸ֹ̬ȣDzֶ̫ᷴ취
make lawơͬ漯Ϊ˸Ե澺Ϊ˻
⽩ֶԤ㷽ʱ˾ϵΪܷػˣȫ
ְʵϣһ취ɵĻԽԽķɣ
ɷΪһҵҲԽԽ١ΪԽԽ
֮ľףöԲгϵ̸С˼
IJѡ̲ѾԽ˹Ʒ˽ƷĽޣ
Ҵͥڽ̵ķֹӶͳƶȽṹƻ
һ棬ڲϵţ˰ӡԤռ
ֵıأӱͳ1902꣩6.2%ң֪Ϊ1992
37.6%ΪҪǣܷ涨ƶȿ£ûжԷɷ
Լİ취ΪҪƷٺʦϵӰ죬Ҫڹ
ϯλҪ޸ܷܷҪԺ͸ķ
֮ͨǡʦͷٹЩеĶ 

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Ʃڽ̺ҲԱĻͳִʵĹ۲췢֣
гú͸˾ɲܴͶƱеڽ֮ķչ
ĻͳǣʲôĻͳǻصʼĸɡ
ڹҮɳ˻ʹЧʣͨɵɵ
״̬ǿƣ¶λཻγɹ淶ⱻΪԷ
ҲɳΪͳγɹǿضԣĻͳƵںˣ
ͳʵɵĽڹ淶Ĵڣÿ˲֪Լɵı߽磬
Żᱣ֤ɵģͳɵϽΪ
ԼĴڴԼڱԼͳڴ֮䴫ݵġµ
һDzٸγɴͳijɱûоͳγɵḶ́
Ҳôͳں壬ɶԴͳʾɣͳǿ
ԼпָܷõĻཻķʽһⲿ
仯ڲļ£ͳĹ淶пɷΧ
ĵչ谭µĹ淶γɣʱͳֳɵ
ˣɵ⣬ɵıġɼȿͨͳԼֿ
ͨͳֺԼһֹΪԴͳ̬ȡӴͳҲĬس
档ӴͳܻᵼƻɻĿºĬسɹпܶɱµ
̽οдͳ֮ijͻؼڣڴͳ봴֮
ǡĶȣǡǡʷ⡣ƣʹҮ
˸ĵģǴͳ֡Է˼֯
ݻ٣41ҳһ棬־ܾһߡϡ
Ϊʲôһߡ187-206ҳ֪ʶ˵˽
ͳ̳дͳͳȻԷеΰʷʹ
ͳı߼ϣһչԷݽľ޴Ĵ¿ռ䡣 
Үˣԭ룬顤֪  ꣬1997
ۣ꣬478Ԫ
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