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һУʲôǽ̻
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    ̻ĸʾĻcultureĸ̻ĿһĻˡôʲô
ĻĴԴcultura⼴ũһӢġũҵһ
agricultureҲԿĻζŶsoilϺıԶ
ƷʵӦأ̻Ƕ(soul)ڱԶƷʵ
    ֻԴĻͽ̻ڵУ̻BildungbildǹΡ
ͼ󡣽̻ڴζŹ񣬼ijδ֮ʽformۣeidos
ʹе֡ʽдⲿģǻͼ֮ǰѾֱ
ͼ󣬶ʽֽһޣǾԵޣ޶ΣȻ
̻һգգtecheϣеıԴ弴ǡá֡
    У̻һ˵ұұһԴұչգѰijеģʽ
¯ĻУʹ֮ڻжΡұһֹУδ֮ܳǰ
״״ȫģӡǣʹʵҪҲ
൱ϸģκʺƳ෴Ҳܵϸļѡ
ԸκƳʵIJƷ
    ԴĽ̻ѿĹĵұ
ģУұͬڼյ򣬼ֵĸmakingƷ
ƷworksԴ̫ͬͶlaborͶ
ġǽֵͶУƷʵǰеķ
ģķڴصķ(ʩ˵̲ڴУΪıꣻ
ֳͨΪһ̶ĽޣͬʱҲԼΪԵı־
ֲڴأ)Уģʽдⲿ޶εϵġ
̻Ƕ˵Ȼhuman nature˵ıԵĽ̻ôũУ̻ѭ
Ȼķ򣬶ڹУȻΪ޷Ӧ˷ǰ˳Ӧ
ȻʹȻɣǶȻżȻԽи졣Ȼұһʵ
Ͻڶ֮䣬ΪԤƷʣ˵ԣҪԣһƷʽ
ɺ
    ֲڶԡȻIJͬ⡣Ȼnatura˶ϣ
physisķ룬naturanasciΪԴȻǣáԴȻ
ʵ˵ϣвûnaturaĶӦҲûϵĴصķ
Ȼĸϣжľͨphysisʾģʵ˼
ӿĻʽ֧Եǣʵԭ
̻Ĵʼ߰ͼѾֵرڱˣΪͼΪeidos
ĶeidosidealӿеԶεۡǿۣʹ
physisӿֻĺ⵽ڱΡ
    ǣͼȻûϵȻȴóij֮ƵĶ
༴Ĵڡ˵Я磬һҲ߱ij
ڵij߶ȡ̻ζŶڳ߶ȵĻݻ䡣ǣڳ߶Ⱦ˵
ʣϵԣ༴ڴأպ顣ˣ
Ļ䲻ֶͬһĿתĿת
ء롣ںѧ˵ֱ
ҪԵȻ۹⡣ijϣǿ˵ͼĽ̻һִն
Դصĸ졣
    ˣڡУͼȻѽ̻ΪһָijĿĶ༴˵
ΡͼĽ̻ʵġұһʵĺ൱һǿ˵
ʵҪԣʵļѡһҲǿⲿģͣ磩֧ãǰ
أպ顣൱ʹǿڴ˽ұ᳹ڱ
ĶԽ̻У֮˵̻棺˵ԣǽʦ
ģұյĻǾƷ¯ѧ԰ˣ̻ɽʦѧĶ
ۺϺijľƷɣЩƷclassic worksǵһĽ
ǻ۵Ļ档
    
    ͼյķΧһֶ-Ŀ֧Ĺ̡ڴˣĿ
ɣ༴Ʒ̻ijƷڰͼϲǡĻˡǹߵĽ̻
߹Ĺ༴ѧ-ѧİǺεľһڡ񡱺
Ļˡ֮к
    ʷϣԴԴͬʱҲʾϣִ̻̻IJ죬Ϊִ
̻ϮոԻ˵humanitasĿԾΪġ
ոʵǶĽ̵ĸˣĽԴϣĽ̻͹ʱ
Ի˵˶Ұˣ˵ˡˣ˿Ŷϣ̻գ
ߺ͸ĵԣֽ̻ͱΪhumanitasԣˣ屾
һϣ̻κһ
̻ͨIJԵ˺Ұˣ൱йĻġ֮桱ڣ
ϣ˵Ľ̻Ѿϵϣִ̻˼УϣDZ
ϿϣڳǰƵ˥䣬Ȯѧɺ˹ռѧ̻ǰ̨
ˡٴӳǰеĹõ壬תֹܳǰij˼ͽж塣
תУʿ¡logosĶеġlogosٱΪе̸
áΪνձԻȻɴˣ˶һ
⣬༴ǡanimal rationaleԵĶҲ˵Ŀˣ涨źһ
˵ıʣʹǡ塱˵ҲȻλһ˻Ľ֮ڡ
һϣĻˡͱ綨Ϊ˵ˡ
    ϣϵĹDzڱƷϾͶڳǰĹˡֻΪı
ŵūǻ˵ĹߣǹĶ档Ϊ̻IJƷ
Ϊڳǰpolisлλá˽̻ʹ䱾Ǻʺϵ
polisС̻ĽDz׿Խ̸жactionڳǰж̸֮
⣬ūʿ˵뿪ǰķޡ
    Ļˡ򲢲ͶڳǰĹĺ塣෴ĻִԽԽΪһ
˽ԵİúȦͨ⻹ҵ-ĻڣһӹŴִ
ʫIJͬϿԿϣܹ롰ʫѧ۽ʫʷʫ
ϲ磬ܱ֮ΪʫΪǵĹʣ༴ڹ㳡Сݣܽ
Ǿۼһ𲢹ͬʫеκ͹ʹΪʫġɫ
ʡεģ˺Ͷڹӿ֮Сʫһ
ּգһֲִ̬ʫΪǸеIJ
Ǹ徭ľۼʫʫռʫѧءڴˣʫǴ˽˵ģ
ߺͶ߽еһһĽڱDzɷģΪִѧڸо
֮ϣѧǸоѧԶͬĸоʫĶΪ˽Ե
¼һõܣһֶ鴴˵ƣʼ˺͹޹ء
    ǿԿ̻һʱĿϵ죬༴Եˡ͡
֮졣ͬҲبÿһǰǶȵǣ
ʱ˿̣һδȫרӰаѳĹܹΪʲôˣ
пܳΪԵˡϵĹ𣿻dzһֱǡԽ
ūҰˣ
    
    Ļڡ֮桱ʹãôйͳҲһ൱ϸ
̻ϵֽֿ̻ĴʼܹͿӣǰݶԻ
ĸӦ񣬶Ϊһƶҵ¸
ǡӵ˻ĻĻ֡ͨඨ䣬ԼһЧʦ
ϵ֪Щγ˸Уʹһϣˣ̻Ҳ
Ȼϣ˿ӶʧΪ̻屾
ֵϣŬڳΪл۹Ḷ́Ȩ
ܵؽһ𲢽ȨʹʩС
    ǣֽ̻ĵȻ̳𣿲ǣֽ̻ͳڽĻ˶
Сij£ҵսᡣΪصĵȻĸΪطһʽĽ
ŷĻйͳĽ̻ʽһΪɢ
ѧҪ֪ʶᣬȫҰ޽åԽ̻
ķԾǶеͶͷţַʲôС
    ĸ֮й֪ʶӿʼ˼ѵĽ̻ؽؽһڼ
һȨڳ޷СҪǣֽ̻ؽķ
DzȷģйͳĽ̻ģʽŷ޵Ľ̻ģʽǰ߽У
ִһ޷˷⣻Ҫ߽УǷֿƾԴѷ
ûһΪЧĽ̻ƶȣ˵֮Կʶ̬г̬ĵū
ˡΪصǣʹֽ̻ij̶ֳϽˣҲᷢԵģһȺ
ʶ̬̬͵ġˡ

    ʺԡͼ˽ͭĵʵ֣
йҲСƷ֮˵̻ݲͬIJԲͬĶԴΪ˵Ȼ첻ܱ
ĨƽūҰҲܽһĽ̻ͼʵ֤ʵġܽ
̻Ǵˣ˲µ˻׳գΪµҲܹѧϰֻҪ
ùĻЩ߳ȴʮ޴һЩƽƽǴˡˣѶ
˵ЩһԤĹ˼άʽȫռݵˣЩ˵Ѿú
̣޴һֵȱݣһϵȱݣΪԼԼŪ
˰ԼŪ˵ϱȨϰǿӸƫסӶ޷ѧϰ޷
֪δ֪ﳨ޷˽øĽ̸Ȼ̶ƺ
úиԣΪڽ̸ĸˣռһױںź
󡣴ľDzܱ̳κξоԵ״ڴˣҪIJ
̻Եľ꣬༴ϵijһ˫ۡˣڽ̻֮ܽǰ
ҪԼǷʹԼ޴
    Ȩǽͳνǻٵ޴֮ϣDz̫һӶˡ
޴аѳǽ̻ܽĵһȻȨȻûʹһӶ޴ȴ
ʹڱòҲȻûлý̻ĻᡣΪеĴ󲿷Դ
ѧУ˵ڴ֪ʶ˵ڴ޴һѧעҪΪһλп
ߺͻߣ༴ΪūҰˡ˵е֪ʶֻΪȡ
棬༴Ϊıó֮ʱģΪıţǡūı׼
塣ͬģеĵԺòֻĶĵҰȻռ
ıʣڹǡһҰˡͬʱвdzԵıĿĺԵò
ҲȻdz٣༴ģºͼʣһϣ
ߡˣǴˣ񣩡ūҰ˺ߵļϡ
˵ҲᷴУڰʵ˵һֱϵࡣ
    ǷԸһӶΪūҰ˺ߣû˭Ը⡣ڣû
лý̻Դͻᡣǿ϶ҪΪһ˻Ĺ񣬵
ԼûǷˡȷȵʹĵƶ
ƶʹ޷һλһЩʦȥǡÿ϶
ҲԿ˾͹ǵˡʦΪҲܵ
ԵĽ̻רƶĻἸ޽УΪһƶеĽʦʶ̬
⣬ֻһּ֪ʶĴߡ̻֮ͬܽǰҲûб
ʲôǾ;ԵӶ׳ΪҵĻķ²Ϊºͼ
ߣΪӭҰԺԵ
    ˣûоDZʵе޴ľٵĭûΪߵ
ʦеǹƵ˺ͼ֪ʶĴʹûֻνʶ̬û
б澫Իľ䣬ֻҵĻˮϲҹıµˮûΪ
ϵĴѧ¯еֻһκζȾĴȾסһ
У̻Ƿܣ

    ̻ͳѱжδؽĹȣֻ̻ҽ̻Dz
һֻūҰ˺ߵĻҺãʹҽ̻ԿܵЩƷڡ
ȻǺȫڽ̻˵ѾˡȻ˹ǣǶЩԸ
˴ӲġֻҪ㹻ذϺϸģǾЩΰ
˵̵ܿ̿ܶĺ⡣ֻҪdzǴһDZȼ
Ļһ˵ıһֲΧһмȡ
ȼϡһ򿪺һ˵ľҰһҰͻǸһ־飺
еﶼ߱ϸԣӶǰױȵ֡
    ǵģһֻ֪ʶ̬ǻԡ֪ijʶˣֻһˣ
ȻūҰ˺ߣֻͬʱҲʶĸ߹ʶʥˣ
ΪһнˡнǾԵˣԵҪֱרע
ж;
    ֱֵ봥Ը
ܣҲͬһԵֱ༴ʽСճеĿDZ
ƫǣﱾ༴ﲢԭ飨ԭֱ
ֻۣжֳɾĸơϮģ£ǴС˵͵ӰгϮһˣ
ֱĻڶƫ飬ǿޱĻ˵ֱ۵ı
ʱֹͣ˼˼ʿ״̬͸ȥڰѱõĸе֪
ʶ͹˼ıԵڽϵ͵IJͬ˼Ӵ˼Ӧһվɽϵ
ˣǰͬʱֿԼµľƽԭûȥЩ˼Ӧ
ǿеģȴţʲôҲѰңʱ׼ԼнܽҪ֮
ֿбͬʱרעģ༴ǰͬʱһӣרע
רעκѧϰǰᣬͬʱҲκѧϰĿ֮һѧϰĿҪ
ѧֳԵ֪ʶʹעеõۣʹ֮Сֻ
²Ż񻨶ڴIJƥϿ֣ıʾ־ۼ
κֱ۵ҪأΪֱ۱ͨһɱܽУͬʱ
Ҳκδǰᣬ˳ֳİΧǣκ
ģϸڣϸһָ߳ж֣
ǽڱ˴ʹܱα벻
רע֮бܵһ̵ϸ塣㼯ʹ˽鱾
ָļ󡢻þģϸµذֶԭҳϡһ
־յǾϡڽ֮еŬֻԼ
Ȩѡ񣬶޷ѡʱݶ˵Ԥжijϡ֤ʵ
һֳĶߵĹϵھУΪˡ
    ھΪԣԵʽʫѧʫ
˺ѧһĽʦˣþ;ʫѧʫָ
һдԵƷֻʫƷ
    ʫǻ˵ǴСͶܶʫһдءǶʲôдʲ
ôȷŴͳһʫ̵ĹȣʫѧϰΪ̻һҪ֣
涨һ˵ϢǣһͳҵֹΪͼѾ˸
Եı仯еԴļ߸˹׵磬Խ̸
дѾǹŴŴʫƪȻȻǽһ֣ѾЧ
֧һˣ˵侫һʽˡдʫڣһֶźˮ
ƽҫһ罻ԵӦд߱˵ʵȫ޹ءͼһѾ
ȥԣԻʫ⡱Կ߸˹dz׵Ŀ룬һͻ
˱һЦǵȻԴӹʫٻﱾľ񣬵־븽һ
ȫµ-֮ϣ༴ִ֮ϡһʱʫƪֻǺִʫ裬
ҪӴͳмȡпܵϣȫµĴ졣
    ʫƪضѵġдĶɶ˵ս˵ðΪִ
ϵʫǾ飬е΢ƽ⣬޿Ƶйִʫžٵ
Ϳն飬һֳϸǶ硢׼ȷա
ţִͨʫĶǻк;ϸԣԼһڷḻ뵥֮䱣
ԡ
    ˵ʫĽʹǸܵϸôѧܻڵ
׿ԽҲܶѧ˵̫ˡ˵ֻǣǿĶͼʿ
¡¡¸ΰֻбһ쳶ƪ
ѧζѧԭʫԡ˼Ҳ档ʩ˹˵
ģֻоһĶܷǵǵ
ж;Ʒ֮⣬Ҳʹǻת۹ͷľ֪
еʮ·ڶԼķбȽϣȡѡʱִ̣Ӷ
ԺͲ֪ܵжһ־ԵֱԤУɴľ
͹涨һˡ
    ̻ʹǻɣfreedom׿Խ(arete)Ȼʷֱִ͹Ŵ
߼ֵ֮ҲijֽźͳͻѧϰķɣֻкĽ̻
ܳΪһʹɵļգ򲻹dz߸ΪǸ
ҸĻӡΪʩ˹ۼɽʱ˵Ļ
    ɽΪΰǵIJϽһ˳modestyֻǫ 
(humility)ʽ֮е顣ͬʱһ¸ҵðգҪȫʶߵĸ
磬ǵĵ˵ȫͬĸꡢ˼ۡ
Ҫ¸ңζžĽܵĹ۵㶼߰ͨ
İеһܳļɽǴӹеĽšϣ˶ӹ
һĴʣdz֮Ϊapeirokaliaȱľɽ
ľ֮С

                                                               һ20025人 

 


޸| 200251921:21 | ѧ
 
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ظ:



ǵģҿӱУųȥģ󲿷ֻҰˡԼڡ

ʱɽֻ˽£ڹٷϵ֮УԹٷ
ϵľ޴ѹ

ϣϣ


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ҾдͦѧʣܼѧϵĹЩ۵㣬Щ顣˵һ¡ȣԽ
ұõ⣬Ҿ̫ˣһԴѧĽ׶֮󣬾ֳ
һ֪ʶӵij嶯͸֮ʵϣΪ̻һνĻΪΪĶ
ĿԵĶ̫ˣ뵱ȻĶ̫ˡ˵ʲôijɹĻǡǡ
ΪôһЩ˶ڽ̻ķ֪˵ҲЩˣʧƫ֮ӣ
һΪԽ̻⡣˵̫ˡҿ̻ĿģҪ
ǽ̻ɹҪʨӽ̻ɼͥҪ˵һȻȻĻ
γ޾Ĵ͹ˡ̻Ҫ̫࣬һ࣬͹ݣһݣ̻Ͳǽ̻
ˣһͼ˼ȥȨҲͺΣˡ

"ǷԸһӶΪūҰ˺ߣû˭Ը⡣ڣûл
ý̻Դͻᡣǿ϶ҪΪһ˻Ĺ񣬵
ԼûǾͷ˶ֻȥһūҰˡȷ
ʹĵƶ--ϵƶ--ʹ޷һλһЩʦȥ
ǡÿ϶ҲԿ˾͹ǵˡ
ֺܷ֮ơµǿԽ̻ģǻд
ȴǽ̻ģҪǡǡһɶҰԵ˼άĻ

ҿϵϣǽ̻ǵȼԼǼ

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ȷʵľ˵һִֵԴѧĿ֤ΪһжָʾмԿһЩ
ִ̻ճƺDZΪ淶ڻõģ
һάȡľֻֽ̻ĻһӶɥʧԡӦóϣ
һеĽУ͸̫ԣҲ̻ܿĿڰ
ص֮  һǰĿռлλãδĶǶԡࡱ׷
󡣰صι۲ĻһǷdzǿ죬ͨжõ
ɡҸ΢Щĵӽ밢صжӽǵĶԽӡ֪
ļȨǴӰͼʼģͼǸģͶ
ģΪԼṩֵ壬ΪʼմĿ-ֶε֮Уб
Ҫж֤ԴܰĹϵ˵øһ͸ˡ

ľֿԾٵõ¬һԳǰԵͿ
ѧ֮漼ɣǰԱȻ״̬ģһ棬Ȼ״̬
ΪڱϵȻԡڵ¹ͳлתΪ
պʹ֮Ĺϵʼմ֮СѧϣһеĽۻҪһЩ̽
֡һݽıڲòء



޸| 200252219:53 | ѧ | ɾ
heide

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ܻһҲDZ߱ΪǡRepublic8565d,ᵽArcadia
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ԡ˶һҲdzͬĵʡҲ»˹˼˵ѱΪ֮
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еͳǰһʹеԺ
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