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κĹ͹Ϊء塷뱾

Ӻ˹?ףHans Baron1955귢ո˳ڷ˹ѧʡ1𣬹񹲺帴˶ѳˡѧʶ̬򹹳һ˳㷽ҵdzʷ񹲺ⳡ׳ĸ˶ûʱźѧĻ¶ϢĻʧ⣬ǼӲͷ˼ʷܷѧѧʵ֤оȶεġ㷺ԶӰ졣ŵ˵帴Ѿ˵ѧΪעĿ֮һҲǰѧķչʷͳҪ;֮һ

ѧᄈ˵ھĶɧȺǿ֮ѾʼʶѧûɳڶԹһƾáտδͳ޶ãҲ޷ԡvs.塱һƵĻ۵ǿš˵񹲺·ֺͲͶڴִҹг򹹽͸ͬͬеתйɾмʾá޷漰˹⣬Ұʵյ۽ṹͻΪж塷һ֮ һ

ͼȨѾΪڡıսԻԸ˵ʷѧƫΪĴͳ˼ʷͼʽ˹񹲺δͳǣع˼ʷչ࿹ݵѧͳΪߵҪǰһУҪĹɹʷѧ򲨿ˣJohn Pocock˹ɣQuentin Skinnerġ

Զԣ˵Ĺ棺һ⣬ǿάȣԵΪĵĹģʽΪִ֮ǰġԷΪĵķʽʹִԵشת֮ȻDzеصõչģֶƺռϷ磬ģʽûνִԵһȥ˳ǵ󣬶ΪĶֺͶԻ߼Ծ۵̨ϣԡסΪϹҵý飬ӶԵԡȨͷ׵࣬ṩһ巶ʽԹŵ乲òֵǰ巶ʽոµ˼ʷ档2

ֵעǣܲԮ˲֣Isaiah Berlinںɹδʷ淶еֶΣֲֻ̽͹ʷѧͬʱڡʾߵ֮ĽŹϵ3ȷ϶ɹһβΪĵĻɣӶڼֹ徫޷ݡ

벨һԹ֮ذѹͬ˹ɵĹԷΪǰ׶Ρһ׶εĹҪͨά˼ĽԹ塱⣬ΪӵʵɻɣβΪĵĻֻάʹٽɵĹԼֵӶڰɵҪԭͬʱ֤˹ŵ乲Ļִļԡ

˹ɵڶ׶εĹǶν塱IJ4һ׶Σ۵ĽɵĹԹϵתƵɺɵںԼɹеĹա塱⣬ɻɵķ沢ǸϰūۻӦأɵǿƷǵɣǸɲɻȱĻ˹ͼ˰ѹģʽģʽĴͳڷչһֹ巨ɹ۷˴󵨵̽ǣǶַɵĸԴƻǶĿĻܣΪһ˼ʷң˹ɶδ˵ĺβһ۽һʹá塱صԹ塱֮ޣѧ۵Ŀ꽵Ϊάϵɵ⣬ԺƵĴԼ⣻һڷɻ빫ԻԵȻĹϵʧݵѾأɵıΪ໥ͻĸ֮ĹԷɣϵԵĹҪ÷͸ı乫5ǽῴܷѧģʽԱΪ߳ijԺŬ

ܷѧеĸǵѧлҪɲ֡˵1980ܷۼǼ۵νܷԭּoriginal intent⣬ô1990塯ƺѡ⡣6Bruce AckermanЪFrank Michlemɭ˹̹Cass SunsteinͻĴ

ǵһܷ۽ڹϵĹѧҡܷе빲ַͼڶܷĽаִͳۺһ𣬴ӶνĹ塱

Ϊܷһּ͵һġԪһ͵ξܷΣΪԱΪԵġǡĹ塱еĹɷ֣ΪԵԭеȺڶ͵νΣǡĹ塱еɷ֣ΪĴѡ񣬶רעԼĸ˽׷󡣳dz̬ܷǷdz̬ʷֻнʱڡսؽʱںʱǷdz̬εʱ̡в˶͹dz̬εҪԣΪеĹɷ֡

ȻԪ۵ĺǡ񡱣ĿҪָݸƵʵʳѵʶڳʱڣܷȨԺƽܷʱڴɵԭͬȻʵŷĹ룬Ҫչ̶ֶȵĹԵʮֽƵġˡ˽˹ʣ˽ˡǿdzΣǿܷΡ7ףԡԼԡΪּ顣

밢ܷʷѧ·ȣЪĹܷѧѧ˼ԡѹͬƹķչܷ۵ĸĿַ꣬չֻͨЩͳϱų֮˴ֹ֮вʵ֡ˣЪҪ󡰹淶޲һְԺԵĶԻֶԻģʽνΡԿЪͬɹԸڹķʽεͿԣҲϣܷڹιȷһֹģʽȻΪͬƵֹǴܷ֮еġ밢˾ȨڵܷͬЪ֤һ֡幫ݵķǹĵĸһϣŵ乲ͼһ£顢طź־Ըš罻ֲоֲ֯Ĺ㡢»쵼塢ͽͷСͶԻͬľۼǹݵ̨йݲԹʽ룬һ㹫еıغ֡8

ij˵Ъֻǡ̸ֽûṩʵЩ۵ķDzͬɭ˹̹ѡĹ塱廯ˣΪ۲˸ĸĽ顣á顱жߵƽȡͬƵձ塱͡ݡĸԭ̻Ĺ塱ںĸԭ໥ϵģҪΪԵ飬ĺĹǣһĹܡĹѡֵ㡮ƫ֮ƫáΪƫγɶֻṩᡣ9˺ͷ˶Ϊ빲ͬƵĴٽϵһģҶԾйԵIJֿ߱ţ˫˭ӦDzߵϴڷ磺ǹߣǴߡɭ˹̹⣬漯ŶԪĽͲͬѷʽ塱޳ͨʵֹͬƵĹ룬ͬʱֳϲһ㹫Խ˽Ĺġˣѷһ֤йԵӢΪĴƣǾԽСغԽϴѡһչ͹ ɭ˹̹ڵʵʵ⣬ķͨѡʽĸٲƸϵӰ죬һýԼٷ䣬˵ȵȡͬҪǣȻɭ˹̹漯ŶԪһȫûιϼֵԪʵԡ˵ļֵ治ܡǰεĺԴģDZĶһͬҲԤȸģͬIJ ϵIJͷԿܷѧеĹ帴˵ҪԹͬΪּĹŵ乲壬˵Ҫ빲塣Ъɭ˹̹ͬĹ塱ɭ˹̹ȷطڶʷĽа빲ضΪǡһٵĶǿĹ汾Ƿģǰ崫ͳĺǶԺߵIJ䡣ʮԣ˵Ĺ塱ǰεĸȨ˽Ϊԭ汾屣־룬ôڹ֮ͬΪ빲ȺеǰޣҪǴѧĻۺͻIJϳ干ȺĹϵ

Ӹ˵һȨΪʯѧӦأȨо͹˹ѧһԹΪȤǣƺҲһḶ́ͬԶ͹ĵͶա ǰѾָģ˰ԵΪĵĹģʽȨΪĵķģʽΪڷͬļֵòͬ۱ԣ֮ûԵġǰߵĺķǹݡԡɺ͸ܣͨЩ޴÷һʷõеżȻԣԼεԹƶȸʱĴԡ10ΪֳͷβԲܱԭִȻȨ۵ԣضĶȨĿ־ͶԤ޶ɽŹϵ

벨˲ͬ˹ڵԸȨΪںɺԹΪɣΣ11һΪɵȻȨȷȨֶεġһ֡Ľ̬ȲǸܹӰһ̶߳ȵIJǡ12һΪк͵Եݵģȷκγ̶ȵĸɵıҪ˹ɻͼͨ۷ɹоеĹܣ֮Ľܹϵַɹ۾йǿҵĹŵ乲ľӢԵȫڵǿڹԺ͸֮ϣνв֮Ч13˹ɵĵͲδȡóɹĸԭȻڣڰѹԺβ빤߻ͬʱûжȨ۽׵ķ˼˵û֮佨һڵġԴԵϵŲòڰѺ߷Ϊ޵ͬʱǰ߹߻ֱӵĹ߻ǼӵĹ߻磬ȷƣȫͬ޶˹ȨɶȨ׷ǷΪۡ14

˹ȣܷѧĴǶڰڵȨŸΪȫϵͳʶǶΪȨεIJȻIJˣȨµϢµҰۡ磬ڶνȨ塱УָδʶȨԴȪܷδضܣе⣩Ȩ 15ԺԶԻģʽЪҲԤȴڵȨΪ֤޷ġ۵ɭ˹̹Ȩȡ帴ˡҪˣһΪֻܷΪ˱һϵҵȷġ˽ȨһΪܷļΪ˽漯ṩ򡣡16ΪƻǹУȨǰεظģõ̵IJ17ͨԻḶ́ǰεƫáֵͬת䣬Ӷʵ˹߼ͳԵת͡ȻԷԺΪĵĹܷѧǿĴ֮ıҪԣӶȻг̶ȲͬľӢɫʣЪɭ˹̹ڰΪֱӵذݵ֮УƽȺͻԾĹڹͬƵչۣΪڹŷκܷԹ˼Ķعס18

رҪǿβеĶԻķǹתDZܡνǹԡһָƫáֵͬγɲڶԻ̣һֶָԻֻ̲ǹƫáֵͬγɺתֶΣڵءԵز뵽γɺתȥǣģʽһ泬ԽּڵԸȨΪںɺԹΪIJεġԹ塱⣬һΪ֮Ȩһ𹹳ƶͬƵijƽ̨19ǴǶȣ־عĹȺֿͱDZҪͺ˵ˡ

ȺĹϵһֱһδѵ⡣ָΪһֹϵδͳȺҪ˼ԴͬʱҲע⵽ȺʽҲӰ쵽ijЩ⡣ҲѧͼþӢֹȺ塣ͬʱȺһѾ˹㷺⣬ڱһӪۼҶԸƺš磬ɣ¶һǿ壬ǰߣɱϻڵҪΣպߣκ֮ĹϵǹԵĶǶԵģ20һǿȺȺ壬ǰ߷ȨԺձԣֻǷԺձܹԵķʽԱ绤ȷ϶Լվںһϡ21

̩հȺΪ͹崫ͳĶţԲΪĵĹͳɵĸΧɣĹ֮󣬶˾ΪĹģʽֱ̬ȣβΪģʽʾ͡ƺ̩ŷһȺ塣ҪעǣͬһƪУڿ϶³ѷĻеԭƫҪԶڸͬȺάȵĸǿ۵IJȵͬʱΪָ߹ԵĹ۵Ȼ¼һˡ22Ƕȣ̩յ͡۸塱ʵϸӽų·߶Թع϶һʹ͹γΪܵԪȺΪβṩ龳ͳʵȺ23Ҳϣ˹ġʽ塱Ϊֻձ彻жʽṹȺضȺġȹʶ˵ƶȵĺϷԣؽ룬ΪֹĽ۱Ⱥ塢ιԼĹӦս24

ۺۣԼ߶Ե۹׺ʵ⡣

ȣ۹ŵ乲塢ִ廹ǵ嶼رĴƶȵĹϣijǰ͹Ļ壬άƽ񹲺͹ϵ˹ҵ͹ѷչ͹ǹƶȲ̽ļʷԽꡣֵעǣھȨĻת֮󣬹ѾֻΪϵն³չ͹ͱ͹壬25ߴ˶ʺβ빦ֲֻܵͬʶҲӳ˶򴴽ιõֲֻͬ⡣ij̶ֳϣǿ԰ǵͬڹ幫񹲺֮IJ졣Ҳǻڶι̵ĶԪԵʶӶʷĽܷκͳε֡

򴴽ƶȹĹ۵ڵйתɾijʾͽáΪɹȵβߡйƱҪȫЧؽУͱ򣬲֮䱣ʵһʶ£ڲԵIJԮܷκͳε֣쵱йƱһġ26򴴽ʾǣһιҵ׷ݵ߾ƶһܷ֮ʱǣĵǡǡ񡱣ޣԱǿҵľ27һϣάĽ̵ϵʵ޴28й˹ĸ룺ֻҪԾ漰ֻǷ˹ͬ֯ʽϷ֯ڵͻδ29ΪǣԽ֡δ£ԽҪŵ乲Ƴͳεԡǻۺ֮䡢ܷκͳ֮Ŀ;

ΣѧĻۺͻIJϣɡƽȡΡݡԡͬڰ嶼չ˹㷺رҪǿǹɹƽͶڹͬƸĴ

տԵ׷ݵ˹ͲֵĹ۵㣬ѹֿǰŷŴ˵ɻɣִ˵ɻΪ顣ֹ۵ڳӹŽ֮ԵͬʱҲʵȡ˹Ŵǻִ֮ԣԷ֮ѱĸЧӦζ֮գһϵδͳȷʽ΢ˡǣȨΪʯ𽥱¶ȺԭʽƲ崫ͳ³֡˹֤ŵ乲ĵҪһߡѧҪؽڸһںΪ֧䡱ĵɸһ棬ֻûи棨ɣԱ֤û֧䣬һ棬֧ĹںΪβȺεĻ֮ҲܻϵȺš30صɹ۱ϿȻƫɣҲŷʿ¹β෱ʢĸҪصĹ۵㣬ܳŵ壬塣ؼ֮ڣɸչһּʷԨԴ־ߵԵҪ󣬴ӶΪƶȹͺͰڵĹṩһֶάġĸ֧š磬֤΢Ĺͬ۾ָĻƳġ

ԹͬƵʺ͹ֹܵȺIJ졣ƣ忴ֻжԪƣûйͬƣʹйͬƣҲǹԵģڵĻ򹹳Եģ?īƣChantal Mouffe˵úãڳĻơ31ԭʽȺʵԵȺϵһģǡȵĹʶӵĹĹͬƹֹ֮䡣һ棬ֻзÿһĶǹͬƣͬҲdzԽ;ֲҳ֮ϵijǻ෴֤񶨻͹ͬƣһ棬֧ΪĹͬƲȺŵһ۵׷󣬶һַԵԼ32֧ɷԵ̺ƽȺ塣ϣĺ֮άMaurizio Viroliȷ϶ߵĹ͹ȺߵȺиǰ߽ĻϣijƹĻͳ֮ϡάǿĺķǷΣǹԡǵǿҲǸǰķ

󣬰ƽȵĹ빲ͬϵһһֶ̬֮еľǵۼǹ㷺ŷһԻĹͬ壬ЪһԳΪĹĶǶԪĹ۵㣬ɭ˹̹ǡɹ͹IJijߣṩһְѽ㼯ƽȵĹ֮ζԻԺ͸֮ϵģʽͼԴ˽Ҫͬʱѭ뷨һʹͼͺʿ¡˹¬ϵ˹пάѷͿ¡鱤ܶҮ˺޶˹Ϊ֮˼ǵ⡣һȡ˹˹ǿҹڡʵ淶20ڵķѧУͼͨȨȨ֮䡢ͷ֮䡢˽֮䡢ɺ֮ڸϵʵӶ͹ֻѧģʽԽ17ԽͲƵġŴִ֮ʵƽͽ⡣

ʱ˵أֵǿҲνĸΪȻ˹ڵĹ۲ȺضȺġȹʶȻǿĿ׷ϵԹʶûгֵλĶԿԺųλе֧ΪĹע㣬ʶγɹеġǶԳԶԿasymmetric counterconceptķܹ33ӦάڹͬƲĽǶԴǵĶǵĶĽĽ̵ӶֺͼĹŵ乫񹲺ʤ;񡣸ΪҪǣһֽȫԹʶδγɣγֹʶĶδּٵġȹʶȻδᄈУDZԣֻܹγԹʶĶ 00ʮ

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1 Hans Baron, Humanistic and Political Literature in Florence and Venice at the Beginning of the Quattro cento, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955ֵһǣDon Herzog1986귢һƪӰоѾָʮҳֵĶԣ˼ʷǶԹ񹲺ͣģ徫ķֺ μHerzogSome Questions for Republicansin Political TheoryVol.141986

2 John Pocock, Virtue, Rights, and Manners: A Model for Historians of Political Thought, in Political Theory,Vol.9 No.3.August1981pp.353-368.

3 John Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment Revisited: A Study in History and Ideology, in Journal of Modern History, 53, March, 1981.

4 Quentin Skinner, Liberty before Liberalism, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

5 ˹ɵֲͬɹìܵһķμ壬˹뵱֮䷶أ̨壩ѧ200215ҳ33-59.

6 Scott D. Gerber, The Republican Revival in American Constitutional Theory, in Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1994, pp.985-997¹ڹܷѧֵزմġ

7 Bruce Ackerman, We the People: Foundations, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University University, 1991, p.231.

8 Frank MichelmanLaw' s Republicin Yale Law Journal97, 1988.

9 Cass SusteinBeyond the Republican Revivalin Yale Law Journal97, 1988.

10 Jeffrey C. Isaac, Republicanism vs. Liberalism? Reconsideration, in History of Political Thought, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1988.

11 ǰΪ˹ֻǾܳⲮֹȨ޷ݵţδӦֹؼ⡣Ȼ˹ɲδعֻǴһ֡ʷѧĹǣ˹Ϊ˱ɶ׷ŵ乲ĹԻԲεķʽ֣ʲôķʽֵأ 12 Quentin Skinner, On Justice, the Common Good and the Priority of Liberty, in Dimensions of Radically Democracy: Pluralism, Citizenship, Community, ed. by Chantal Mouffe, London: Verso, 1992.

13 δʵȨĻתͣҲ͹ŵ乲巨ɹ۵ľӢɫʡȻʹת֮󣬹ҲδȫɥʧӢɫʣһָ˾ǶԽԽһרҵļܣһ棬۹ŽԽƽᣬ;ӢĴþԽӦķۡ 14 Skinner, On Justice, the Common Good and the Priority of Liberty.

15 Ackerman, We the People: Foundations, p. 10, p.15.

16 Cass SusteinThe Partial Constitution, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1993, p.21.

17 SusteinBeyond the Republican Revival.

18 ˵ķΧ޶ڴֵ֮ǹľӢɷ֣ôšΪֱӵذݵ֮Ϊ˻ӦУȺ󡣹תʹлѺԹɡ⣬ôǴ𰸣׸Ⱥߣ⣬ȺôǴ𰸡

19 ȨIJﲢζŷȨ䷨ακضᄈеҪԺȶԡ˹һʵϱ¬Ϳ¹ֱرΪȨȲΪڵԼǿߣҲΪ׷ĿĹߡ͹ҪڣΪγɺ־ý飬ǾչȨȨ֮ϵϵǣһ棬ֻй˽ܵƽȱĻϳֶʱDzܹʵ乫һ棬ֻڹǡʱDz˽˫ͬĵڡμ˹ߡϺ磬2002ҳ300302

20 Michael Sandel, Democracys Discontent: America in Search of A Public PhilosophyCambridge: Harvard University Press1996.

21 Michael Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, preface of second edition, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

22 Charles TaylorCross-purposes: The Liberal-Communitarian Debate, in Liberalism and Moral Life, ed. by Nancy L. Rosenblum, Harvard University Press, 1989, pp.159-182.

23 Stephen A. Gardbaum, Law, Politics and the Claims of Community, in Michigan Law Review, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp.685-760, here p. 749.

24 ˹ߡҳ161

25 ά?ն£ģʽ磬1998ҳ56-57

26 ȫϲܷΡڡۡڶڣ2005

27 Frank MichelmanLaw' s RepublicCarl SchmittΪľаһУμAlbrecht WellmerΪMenschenrechte und Demokratie˹ŵɯݣ룬Albrecht WellmerζѧִԡӦ棨ࣩϺij缴

28 תMaurizio Viroli, Republican Renaissance and the its Limits, ָ壬ѵ룬롶񹲺塷 Ӧ桢ѵࣩ磬2005

29 ˹ߡҳ162

30 Philip Pettit, Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

31 Chantal Mouffe, The Return of the Political, London: Verso, 1993.

32 Philip Pettit, RepublicanismOnce More With Hindsightin his Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government.

33 ǶԳԶԿɵ¹˼ʷReinhart KoselleckģָͬγȺĽ޵õȷ֮󣬰ԼȺͳ̬ձ黯ѵжԵȺ滯ַܿ˵ԷǶԳȨϵչĿִԴȪʹڸݡԴ˵۲μ壬ִΡء͡Ⱥ빫񡷣磬2004

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