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SaussureָԻ漰ԵϵԵʹ棬ʹⲢоӢѧJ.L.AustinHow to Do Things with Wordsһв̽ʹ⣬ϵͳоеһ⣬Ǿ˵Ϊξһж

ΪΪ¡ȡЧ־䷨⣬һ漰⡣ˣΪѳΪѧҪ֮һԴ¼裺ཻʵĻλǾӻκαֶΣһΪ磺ʡǸףصΪΪص˵ͨ˵һ仰ɾ仰ִһɸоٵΪңЩΪʵֻܸߴijЩAustinΪ˵κһ仰ʱͬʱҪΪΪΪԺΪܿӢ1986Ҳѧ߰dzΪ˵Ϊָ£the locutionary actжʩΪ£the illocutionary actﵼжȡЧΪԳ£the perlocutionary act

ΪͨһĻʽͨЭIJЭȡЧΪЭģconventionalԪ1996ԺΪᄈһͨﱾȡãDzȷġڡΪϵķΧԺΪֲжߵķӦҲһԹ̣Ǹӵ̣ѧҹȥۡԺΪעڡΪϡֻһЩѧ߲Ž֪ϣдľ߼ֵ£ӶؿԵо

AustinΪΪࣺжverdictivesöexercitivesŵcommissivesexpositivesΪbehabitivesSearleһ࣬ΪΪࡱԣassertivesָdirectivesŵcommissivesexpressivesdeclarations

ڼΪ

AustinΪ۴˴ѧѧJ.R.SearleӰ,ϵͳΪԭͷ׼˼Ϊindirect speech actһΪͨ͡ŬʹΪ۳ΪѧһҪɲ֡ һֱͨʽʵ佻ͼֱӵΪͨʽȡ˻ﱾ֮ЧʱͳΪ򵥵ؽΪͨijһΪһΪԻ1994Ҳ˵ǣͨʩһΪӵʩһΪJ.R.Searle1975

ΪサǷdzձģ䲻dzʹ䲻ʹʾ䲻ʵȱȽǡʱ򣬷˵һ仰˱ʾþ˼ͬʱֱ֮˼Ҳ˵䱾岻ȫһ¡磺Can you

give me the book˼literal meaningnatural meaning or sentence meaningѯǷд֮⣨implied meaningmeaning-nnutterance-meaning or speaker-meaning󡣸ѯʽģҪһΪIts cold in here.ǹԼԵļΪ䣬ͱȽϸˡ߿dzһʵҲԷϴţ򿪵ůʱᄈ˫֪ȵȲЧӡ

MaryWhat I would like to eat tonight is an osso-bucco.

Peter: I had a long day. Im tired.

(D.Sperber & D. Wilson, 1986)

Ȳ˵β³osso-buccoʲôΪeatһʿṩPeterĻǿ1Peter is tired. 2) If Peter is tired, he wishes Mary would make the dinner. 3) Peter wishes Mary would make the dinner. һ,ǾͿ԰Peter˵ĻΪҪMarryԼ

ɴ˿ɼΪıʽǶֶģӰΪҲǶ෽ģʱȡᄈʱȡ˵ݡȣеĻȡ˵ķˣΪѲ巶룬÷롣뿴мΪ䣺

a) I want you to take notes.

b) I would be happy if you take notes.

c) Can you take notes?

d) Are you able to take notes by any chance?

e) Would you take notes?

f) Wont you take notes?

g) Would you mind taking notes?

h) Would you be willing to take notes?

Щ֮ǼΪΪھ֮壬ﵽʹߡtake notesЧ

Can you +VPliteral forceתʾҪļӵindirect forceˣ˵Can you pass me the pencilġܷ񡱣ʩһpass me the pencilΪͬHavent you seen filthy socks on the floor?㡰ûпҪҪ㡰ŪߡȻĻȡƵģġƵߵľйءʵᄈƵۣinference theoryκʱ򣬻嶼ᄈģᄈԼ

Ϊ۴ڵ

AustinΪΪ߱־䷨ǵһƵʱΪʣʱ̬IherebyVP+youthatSһʽʾΪľ䷨ṹAustinΪоָ۴һЩìܡ磬You may comeҲɱʾI permit you to comeOpen the pencil-boxҲɱI ask you to open the pencil-boxɴ˿жһǷΪ䣬ΪʼȲDZҪҲdzǣAustinһΪΪԣexplicitnessԣ implicitness֣ΪһձΪ䡣

ΪۣرǼΪۣڽΪʲôδʹüΪʹDz˽⻰ͽʵݣ˽˵˵ĿġѧĻṩҪָʾȻѧһΪҲв֮һһ۾˼ʽֻƬ﷽棬Щǵڲ̶ͬϹĻ֮⡣ЩɻDZ뿼ԼΪĻȷ棻ܡʺ򡱡𡱡롱άܾ͡ΪΪĻУǸԱϾܵĻԼƱĻصIJ̶ֳͬͬȵIJ졣֮ڻ﷢һ뽻˫صĸˡԼĻڵһ龰УA. Cicourel,1980ˣһۡһԪоDzģDZ漰ѧ彻ѧѧĻѧо򣬲ܸȫ⻰ﺬ塣

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AustinSearleΪΪѧҰоԾӱĽṹΪصתӱ塢ͼṦܷ棬Ӷͻ»ṦܡΪ۵۶оǶӦѧѧѧԼϰоشӰ졣һ棬ʹѧйطо﷨ʽΪת﹦ΪģԵΪתƪΪģԱΪתʹߡԼԻΪģһ棬Ϊʹо֪ʶΪתԽʹΪģҲʹѧʽͽѧΪתԹܺͽѧΪġʹѧϰ߲һĴʻ﷨֪ʶ֪ȷľӽṹһѧʵʹԱôˣΪоʹĻۣӦӡ οף

[1] AustinJ.L. How to Do Things with Words, J.O. Urmson, New York, OUP, 1962.

[2] Berg,J. The Relevant Relevance, 16, Journal of Pragmatics, 1991.

[3] Ȼ͹ءѧ19974

[4] £ĻѧϺϺ磬1998

[5] ΰԡĻѧ죬ʦѧ磬1997

[6] Searle, J. R. Speech Acts, Cambridge, Cambridge VP, 1979.

[7] Sperber, D. & D. Wilson, Relevance, Communication and Cognition, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1986.