ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

[1]

b־ǿ

The Law of Peoples

Լ޶˹ John Rawls

ڵ˼,Լ޶˹һسձܳϵ˼뱳£Էdzʽϸ彨ԼѧӴ߼ϵΪֹۡ塷͡񷨡һں˵ϺĹϵͳ˵塷ԡۡģЩǴиԵô񷨡ϾǶڡ塷չ÷ΧӹչpeoplesΡ

һ۱

ڡۡУ޶˹һ֡ƽ塱ֹԹѧͳĶ֮УʱǽֹͿһЩ䡢ƽȵȵϵˡ塷޶˹ʶ[2]νƽ塱ֻǴո׵ǹĺţ䶰Ľ֮һ֡ڴ֡걸ѧ˵ij̶ֳԭġͽѧ˵ʶеĵλƽһ㣬ӡ걸ѧ˵ǵġ湲ʶΪѧ˵ƽ̨ʵϣֻӦóΪƽ̨Ϊֻ̨ϵԱŻǶ˶ʣһҶ ȫһ廯̵ļ٣ͬpeoples֮Ļͻ͢ٵijͻؽΪһ־¼ʵԹžе´ͬƽȫµսĻIJͻֶԽģָģ˵߰㣩Ļͳһdz˵ΡǺ͢٣ͼ޶˹

񷨵ĸԴָЩ˶ͬõķɡ۹ͼIJ񷨵ĸʵԽԽûôˡ޶˹ֻȡϵĺ壬ҪΪƶɣֻһЩԭ޶˹ʵһֹʷķѧ

޶˹ԨԴµġʷļҪ棺һǹԼ۵ķԼʵһַѧоΪѧѧ˼ʮԺ𽥷ַľԣеѧоعˡ޶˹Լ˶ijЩ¬ͬǡʵֻǡ衱ǹúƽ˼롣ΪúƽǿʵֵģDzɹģ۵㶼Ϊ޶˹ܡ

˼·

޶˹ƣϵָڹʷʵԭ׼Ȩһθ[3]ʼԭ״̬ԭ״̬ѧ˵漰⣬ǵ֮Ĺϵ޶˹һpeoplesΪ嵥λunitԭ״̬ɸĴƶһԼЩͬһ֪֮Ļ֪ԼĴС˿ڵĶ٣ԼһеpeoplesǴŻԼ

1 PeoplesҪɶҪܵpeoplesء

2 PeoplesҪԼŵ

3 PeoplesҪƽȡΪԼǵЭĸ

4 PeoplesҪز

5 PeoplesҪȨΪ֮⣬ȨĶս

6 PeoplesҪȨ

7 PeoplesսΪҪijЩضơ[4]

8 PeoplesҪڲµpeoplesЩ˸peoples˵μơ

ȻЩԼģҲ񷨵ԭ򣬲ƾ󣬶ǸйʷԭƶģȻ뻯ɫʡ

ƶ׼⣬޶˹ϵpeoplesΪ״״״ͺ˵ȼΪᶼģӦܵݣΪǶȨ񷨵õ׼DZȽ׵ģΪЩķɵԭ򣬲ҴʷϿ֮[5]Ҳûзս˵ȼĽ綨Щ鷳ߵ¿ΪЩȻڵȼǸȼԼڹеĴᡣЩỹҪ㲻ԡȨĵƽȲһ˾ϵ޶˹Ϊᣬǿ̵ģƷʣǿܲͬȷĿǣǻ񷨵ϵϹʺƽһĿǹʼ壩ġ ״ûôˣ᣺ң᣻ʴרᡣǰνָЩΪսǴܲ񷨵ơνָЩʷᡢõƶγûƵ޶˹ȴ̸սȨʼΪκιҶȨսΪ̲ס˵˼սΪʱ˹ڴ̣Ҳ˶Էҵֻ򵥵˵ЩҵпʹҸţҲҪͨ⽻ʹǷ񷨡 ȻǸᡣȻţȴȱĻͳȱʱͼܣȱ֯뼼ԴڸһԭᡣΪЩȻԮЩԮӦǾϵġʵϣһ֯õᲢҪ̫ƸӦϵĺĻϵġμĻϵĸı䲻һҪijЩѧ˵Ҫı׼޶˹̸ķ⡣У޶˹ϾԵȨƽPeoples֮䣬ΪPeoplesȨԭ˵ǴҪġPeoples֮кٷ䲢Ǿ̵[6]

һֽУСĵ޹أȻ˵ҲоԵ˵ԶԵԭɥļ

һҽ޶˹һۣһڡ

Դ൮ս֮ңɽ֮׽ⱱ֮꣬Ҳдϸ͵սĻԸӵĵزأҰԹȻڽΪҡ˼Ƕںƽ׷Ҳûֹͣй˵߹֮ʥ˲Ѷ֮ѱ顱[7]ƽ˼ҡ˺󣬳˼սһֱĶ񷨱սŬ³ɹǣĺƽž޴IJ죬棺

1񷨵ĿIJҪPeoplesɺƽߵĿ꣬һǽPeoplesԭ򣬶ǽΪĹԭеҡйĻ˵׷ƽҪ׷´ֹͬ۵ԴִսԴĿԭ200ʷָɹ֮δҲܷսսıսԼ⡣ǿ޶˹ȫͬ͢ٹͻս˵սιЩ֯òõᣬҲ˵ΪսǸĻ⡣[8]

2޶˹ڽƽ֮ǰȿսԭʹ񷨾ǰδеĿɲԡ˵ǰ󲿷ֵĹƽѧ˵µġúƽۡſԲֵس⣩ǿɼаֻ޶˹أʵĻ֮Ϸչѧ˵޶˹Ŀǣʵ´ܴͬﵽƽܾƺ˼ΣֻҪĻԭ޶˹ϸ֤δһͻ񷨣ͻܵԼƽӡ´ͬĿģͬʱҲƽֶΣĺƽѧ˵Ҫôͳؽһԭ򣬾ڲʵ֣ҪôƲеƣƽ翵״̬֮ϡһϣ޶˹ʷϵˡ

㣬ߵһ޶˹ֳǿҵĵ¹ػ˵һڲе¿ԵĻô֮ȫǿȨ£˿Ҫ˵Щ⽻߻ԭǵģDZЩʵʩȻǿȨ޶˹ʵһڹҼ塢µŬ

ȨȨĹϵ漰һش⡣ʮԣȨĸű仯ҲǴͳǸӡڴٳתУȨҪġ޶˹ⱾֳȨУˣĸңӦƽȵȨDzȨжһǷ֯õҪ׼ʹ˵ЩȨĹҸı

ġ

޶˹һָֻһ񷨣ֻڶеһ֣Ȼˣ񷨿Ҳиɻһҽѧ˵һڣٲΪһֿܵ񷨡

1ԭ״̬Ǵ⡣peoplesΪλʵǽ˿ڡȵһĨɱȫ˿ڷȻҲʣҲܣΪƻ˴ǵ֪֮Ļpeoples뵥˲ͬһʮ˵ĹҺһǧ˵IJڹӦþͬķȨȻӦãǵĴʵβ⡣

ڶ֪֮Ļ⣬˹ָģ֪֮ĻʵϰǵɣȻûа˵Ȩȴ˵ԴʹǸ޻˵Ҿ滹һص⣬Ȼ֪֮Ļ걸ѧ˵εˣֲ֪Լҵֻν£ôдʵ϶һġȻձģֶԵ[9]ôͬӦӦöһģǴǵþǵ޹ˡļ˺һȺӦõóͬĽۡdzΪҪˣ˵ʵʲôֻҪ޶˹һԭˣΪǡߡ걸ѧ˵ĸšȫԴˡ

2壨ۡ޶˹Ω˵ߣһٱסǾ֪һԨѧĻѧѧߣڱȽΡȽĻҲû̫ɫı֣Ȼ;޿ȫųġ걸ѧ˵񷨵ļԭȫʽġʵϣǽѧ˵ΪԴġһԭ״̬ƶԼĴһܹѵ޶˹ĵȻpeoplesĴô᲻ԼͬĵóʽĽأ޶˹ڣŬ̽Ѱǹͬԭ򣬲ӦģóĽȴӦýƽΪȫĹͬԭġľӦձ[10]

3ڹԹǴӡ塷ġ湲ʶ湲ʶһpeoplesڲʶнDz֣Ϊpeoplesԭ߼㣬ǽеpeoples֮䣬һ⡣Ȼ޶˹ųһЩ˵ѧ˵Ԫ塣ν걸ѧ˵롰湲ʶܽȻֿ𣿲ͬpeoplesԵĽ湲ʶһһԪУȻһϡԪݡ˼ƽ̨

˵ǡ湲ʶһֵ۱ȽϵһᵱУܿܡ걸ѧ˵ǵġ湲ʶ֮Ѱ󹫹ԣڶԪġ湲ʶǶԪġ걸ѧ˵֮Ѱͬԭ򡣵õĽǶԪЩϲݵѧ˵νֺá ҲѰpeoples֮ĹԣDzpeoplesΪһλunitǰȫе걸ѧ˵ͳͳóֱӱȽϣpeoplesڲġ桱һַpeoplesΪλȽϣҪһЩǿҲȫ⡣

ͬ걸ѧ˵йȻͬĶЩڸԵ˼ϵռĵλͬ硰ТĹȫ綼Тûĸɱе˰ԼĸĸǶй˵Те߼ֵ[11]Тֱڽ̡ûôأТֻǶȵļֵТĹһס񷨡չһѧ[12]ͬڸߵͲƽɽϽһãij־ȹ̺ܳ⡣޶˹ļֵ۳һѧҲһģʹijЩضԭģҲһܳϡ[13]

4񷨵ƺ⡣ǰᵽ񷨱ƽ˵ɲԴǿˣ޶˹ȫ˲⣬񷨵ĺԡϷԼһΥô죿ʵ˵ƺǸص⡣

塢 ؽ

СӺεºܣҽؽ̩ɽ޶˹ۣΪ˽ҵѧΪѳϼ䡣ӴϸϵǴҲŪģ뷨д档

1 ߼㡣ҲŹŪظЩԭ״̬ԼʲôģΪΪЩ޶˹ѧȫôȻƽҪ´ͬʵ֣dzϵģô̸̸ͬͬͲǹ⣬peoplespeoplesĹϵ˵ĹϵȻ̸ˣǾҪµĻԭ̸ͬΪҶˣνͬͬṹһģôҲӦһ¿Ϊ棺[14]

1ܺ˵ıܡ㣬ŵξѧǵţ䶰׸

2ĵԭ򡣿ָһȥ֮һ[15]Ծ˵Ҳܺһֱ֡Ƕڵˣ޿ܾȥܷȥ⣬ĻĽܻıܸȴǸĵ׼ԶڸˣĵԭҲǡ츳ģҲԭ

˵ΪӦ1993֥ӸٿĵڶڽͨġȫԡĽΪЩԭݡָЩԭ͹ĵԭ򡢵¹淶¹[16]Ϊеġ걸ѧ˵УڽDZΪͻҲΪص[17]ڽ̽һ£ϾͿΪǵϴ󲿷ֵpeoplesһ¡ЩʵѾǡֻǻҪԾطȷι̵سΪǵ׼[18]

ԭͬҪ˭˭⣬ǷͻǺܳģʱȥδӣǾҪϰ߻䡰걸ѧ˵˵һ£ҵκʱ򶼲ų걸ѧ˵ĴڣΪӦе̬ȡ

2񷨵ݡ̹׵˵ЩԭdzϮ޶˹

1[19]Ȩܺԭ˵ǵľȨȨӦܵϣ͵׼˵DZǿӵĵЩ׼ֻ衣
2ر˴˵ĶĻҲ˵һƽ[20]νʩˡ

3κ£սΪ壬ȨǸһе[21][22]

3񷨵ʵ

1 һǿĹ֯ԽҼ״̬޶˹񷨣һǿƵĹ֯ǽģֻڵϹεġ׼

2 һõĹʷͥһڲķͥDZʷͥӦӦDZأΪʷֻͥȨԸУȨһ͹ңôıˮ׼ֻҪܹԸ˾ˣΪԴǵĸԭջõǵͬ⣬һΥ񷨣ӦĴǿŪЩʶ

֮ܶҵ뷨ǣĿǰĻϣǿϹÿһң岽£

1 Ϲļߡ¹ǿϹȻǰ񷨵ԭ񷨵ʵʼϹ޶˹˵ʼ硣

2 ҪңǴ󲿷ֶϿɻͷϿԭ򣩣ϹĵλҪԼŬһǿϹ

3 ĹԸ񷨲һǿϹϹĵλߣĹңͿ԰޶˹ڷ״ˡ

ؼڣһǿƵϹһ֮ҵһƽ㡣ε·ѧܹʤΡ

ʵԣʵ񷨵ϣԽԽСˡΪϹòǿڼԼ򴿺ɹɣԼȡϹΪ׼ҮҮδ֪Կ϶ǣҵ񷨽޶˹񷨵УʵʽԣһܹʵֵĻ

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]񷨵뷨ԡۺε뱾peoples񷨡֮һ񣬶쿷޶˹ͬģⱾǰΪ񡱻塱Ϊ˵ǿ⣬ŵȵ뷨ʮš޶˹ԭƺΪᡱΪǡָŹͬĻʽ๲ͬ壬硰ᡱᡱᡱȵȡڹҶԣpeoplesķ棬Ϊ޶˹̸۵IJͬĻͳν⡣ᡱںе̫࣬ǿ뷴˼ŪңҾ͸ɴ಻룬ֱдӢġ

ڡʮһ͡дһƪ£˵Ϊģ͵ģѾ仯Դ޶˹ʵ޶˹peoples˵Ѿ˵Ҹ⡣

[2] ν޶˹ʶֻһ˵˵Ҷ޶˹ѧչϤǰij˽ׯӣ˵ׯӿʲôʲôׯ뵽ʲôʲôʮַУ˵˼ôô֪û뵽ԼдҲDz⡣غ

[3] 棬ԡۺ뱾P3г롣

[4] ⲻɵ2600ǰλ幫˵ʱսһЩԭ򣬲ɶ˶ë˺ͺӣȵȣ˳սȫƦսʤ˹壬Եսʤʲôԭ򶼲ˡ

[5]νҺ磬ڱеָһġ

[6] ھԵȨ⡣޶˹ŵ˵һ۽⡣Ϊô˵ȨӦǾԲַģֵΪԵȨ˼ʹϵĶ񻯣ΧĮ

[7] ˿֤˵ѡԭǡΩ֮ս˼͸Ϊԡ

[8] ȻҲ˵Ϊʲô֯òãΪĻ⡣ǣͣȥЩԭԭԭҲûʲô˼

ĻһʮӴĿĻεӰ쾿Σй⣬һֿ˵йĻûӣйʮѣʧܣģʽҲкֹܴͬ۵㲢˵йΪĻͲΪǷԵġĻιϵУϸ˵߲ͬһεĸεЩģʱDzԾΪʽַʽĻӰ졣һںĽнϸĻغ˵ĸ߲ειܲģһھǷ죬ǷʵĻε⣬߸и [9] ޶˹ΪڸԵģԭԵҪȻԵĹ߾кβͬΪǵԭʽǼԵֲԵģ۾ΪʲôҰ۵߼ΪԭһǷԵģһ˵ġ

[10] ҶʽĹ޶Уһ˼þɵ߼ϵѾĻֻΪ֤ӦóΪģҾҹͬһǿʱǵľ߼˵ģǺ˵Ȼġѻ˵ף͸ҲеҾDz˵Ϊⲻҵġϰߡ򡰴ͳϰߵоõ֮һ

[11] ТִιĹϵ⡣صѧǴҪЩպ򵹴ͳĻ˸öࡣӡмأһϷӵĵ˴ĸɱˣ˴ĸһţͷɱǺпܵģ˴λϣӦôأһص⣬뷨ɷ˼ijͻϷӼȲŴףû˵Ҫ˽ף˵˴Ӧλĸ֮ܵأʹգ˴˾󳼣Ҳ֮˴ܵı첻ߣ׽ȥˣҲǻáǿ˵Ӧý߾ȫȥԸӡЩЩ㷨εηѧ˵ȻDzΪȻΪһиˣΪӣʲôõİ취𣡣ӵ취ǡӹϧѾ һơˡ

[12] ˵ТҲߣΪ֮죣ҵѧ˵Ϳ˵ТĻϽġ [13] ︽̸һκϷԪ⡣ϷʵȨ͹˫顣һ£е˾ˣе˾ˣرڼֵԪĽ죬ͻˡⲻһϷϷ⣬ϷҲܵս᲻ͳһĹҲʧȥͳһб׼Ҫ̺ϷԾӦúȥδأǰһλѧִϷԣ⣬˵Ҫϴ˵˼ҾǶǡҵĹ۵ǣĶԪҪĻĶԪѧεҪֹʲô⣬ֻеһ֣δʱʱǺҪIJ֣ǽĸġѧϰεĵá˵һ飬Ļϲ㲿֣ͬģͬǵĻԭĻͳϵֻҪ㹻СĻٲ֣ԪκϷԾûжӰ졣еĻƵ̫࣬ʶ̬ɫ̫ŨôһھѣĻѸٷչѣĺϷ̾ͻΣ֮СϷ⡣

[14] ЩԳƿ˷ѧ˵ޡ޷Ǹߡ˵5˵-5콵˵ʵǶƬëӦмֵⲻ֪мֵ0ʲôûСֺϡֶûдôij˵ҵԭҲڹͿ֮ȡһ涼˵ԸҲνԸɡ

[15] ʵϣǵѧ˵ǽڶ౾в߼Ʒʵ֮ϵġ޶˹νԭ״̬ĴԵģҲ˼ע910̸˷ԣ̸һԡΪ߶ǴڵģƫϡǽȨȨƺʲôģ޷ǴԶļΪ˷ִֹԪѧΪԼҲǿסģҪȫԼǣȫͳͳܻɥʧ´ңʳô죿һγ֡˶ǡ״̬κεƶûõġһ˵ҵĹ۵㣺ν⣬Ҳ˸⣬һҲ˵ּ˵ǼٳֵģǾûгֹոǰڵıƼȻãôƵʱҲðˣ˵ƶоǽǵΪĬϣDzԾǰġΪǻдķأѧʵоԵļֵԵָ塣 [16] ľݲý綨ҲûзΧЩ1˺Ͷ˵2ij⣻3˵ϡ

[17] ȻҲ˵صġԲһ걸ѧ˵ΪԶ˵ƶе˶ͬеģƵǡ˵ԭ򡱣ǾĻͳ

[18] ѧѧĹϵ⡣е˼ʷѧѧķ뵱Ǿش¼ǴοѧĽǶȶԵġʵϣѧѧDzֿܷģѧоľε⡣ǣѧеĹִУѧĽѧεķչԽԽش塣ôƶ֣ƪѾ̫ʱչɡ

[19] ġᡱpeoples

[20] ǰ˵peopleԭ״̬ƶԼĴӦþͬķȨֻǾζԣΪзԵشڣԴп˵ϳʶĻɻԺʵУpeoplesȫԱɵĹͬһӦԵģеpeoplesͬȵķȨ

[21]˵ΪеʲôԼȻӦܵءνȨһУ˵ӦĻ͵Ըǰ£ۡ

[22] ҵֻΪ񷨼ȻǷǷѧͲӦоġġԽַ࣬˼걸ѧ˵ĿԾԽ