ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 





196911£Ͼѧʷϵʷרҵʿѧλ

ɳ

ɵİؿˣصİؿˣ--ؿ˼ܿ

һ ƽ

ؿˣEdmund Burke, 17291797Ӣ17651795μҺ˼ңʷҪĵλ17296ڰĶ֣һʦ֮ӣ1744ѧڶֵһѧԺѧϰŵԣ޵Ʒ1750굽׶صеѧЭᣨMiddle TempleмʦȨѧϰɣüԷʧȥȤѧӢͷڴʱպһԵĺ͵̬˵͵ιܣ 1757꣬Ϊ"ڳĹԴ֮ѧ̽"A philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of Sublime and BeautifulС飬ΪӮһѴ"ȼ"the Annual Registerÿעÿĵ飩1765꾭һ֣William BurkeټΪԸ޽ѫRockingham飨θְֱ1782ȥԺ17601820λܷ1774꣬ѡΪ˹жBristolʱӢڶУԺԱ6ꣻ䷢˹ԱõۣΪԱӦΪrepresentativeȫԵdelegate¡ڹڱֳĸͻϵƪ˵17741775꣩һ˹ж(1777)¶ϵǻۡ1780꣬Ϊ޽ѫƵԱѡMaltonԺԱֱ1794ݣ1783굯ϼܶ˹͢˹Warren HastingsһУȻ棬ֳһ˹壨Stoicism̵IJ黳ͬʱҲ¶ȱƵһ档1789귨ı֮ʧǻ۱ݵͬɫ˺ڷԷԳϷ17977Ӣİ׽𺺿ȥ[1]ؿǻԸлijԱӢڵʱܱȣΪͣδõҪְ

ݹ۰ؿ˵һص㣺һѧϰŵѧͷɵľʹĴһۻ,˼ĹȺȣߣҪһ㣬30֮ãڵʵ˼롣

ؿ˼֮

ؿһĴ󲿷ӢȹһȫӢ˵ˡ˼ȾӢɫʣϵͳ۵ɢڴݽۡСӡźͽʽ[2]˼ݵʮӣҲԴĶԣҪ˼ԢɹۡҹۼԸĸ͸ĿС⣬˼һ¡

ؿ˵ɹǹŵɹ۵ĻϡΪܶȥ£ֻҪַˣȨȥͬʱȨطһķݶ[3]ǰһƺܶһйŵ䡢йζǿȺIJɷָɵζһ໥ιϵڱ𴦽һԣ˵"ɲǹġϵġ˵ġ˽ɣƺÿ˶ɰԼ־ԼȫΪ˵ɣһ״̬״̬УͨƽȵʵֵģһֽṹֽṹУ˵ɡɺ˵ɶҵκƾַκθ˻κ˵ɡֻĴʡɳǻ۵Ͻȷɽõһϵƶϡ" [4]ɴԴͷ෴"ڷ֧֮УȻʵ֮뱻֣֮ͬҪڵΰɣϵۡȻ֮˶˵֧䶼ϵ۵İţô֧ͱܵϵ㷨ɵԼ"[5]л̷壬ֻص˹˵"ɲǶµĽͣҲڷãǵļ̳Ȩ�"[6]ɵļ̳ǵ͵Ӣʽؿ˻ǿƲĹϵ˵"Ʋɾ壬Ҳɵıϡ"[7]ȷһ˵˲ܱ־Ķ˲⴦ԼƲҲܱɡһ֤"һʼָӢϷȡɵΰǡɶҪ˰ϣȨԢǷͬ˰˰ϣıʸ˺۱ĿâľΪսΪ һоʵϱӵдԼIJƲȨܣֱӻǼӵķʽɵӰӶܴڡ"[8]ɴ˿ؿʽ봫ͳܲɷ֣򿴣ɾʷԡ̳ԣںϣɹе˼壬ɴڸĹϵУǿɵΣ⣬ɡƶȺͲƲȨҲɴڵҪ

ڹҵԴϣؿͬʿ°ѹҿһȻɳĽɼͥٵǰ[9]ֹлĹҲڽͰؿΪʥ˼룻[10]Ӣһѹҿһcommonwealth[11]һcommonwealthУ˵涼Ӧõغά²ڲԼϵƶѹٵϲ(Ϯ弰) [12]ҲԼȨȨǰߣ[13]ÿԱ"࣬λ"ͳ뱻ͳ߱˴˺˫ҪơڵĽɫ"ȨȻԼ"ҲǹһȨĴ֮ݣ⣬Ҳ"ȻĺϷĺʸIJߡ"[14]ý˶ѣæƣϾѵĻ쵼á[15]ɴ˿ɼؿǷģǵȼӵߡνȻ壨natural aristocracy[16]վǰмֹһһȡòƽƣӵƷʶΪҵмἰ쵼ά漰ɡһȻƺǻŷ֣֮ӵǻۼӦΪҵ쵼ģֹǿƲзŵġѽ빤ҵϮ巢Ӱ졣⣬ؿ˵о޵Ĺ۵㣬޶Իļᶨ޵--ƾе¡ǻΪҷò[17]Щؿ˺ģؿ˵İ塢ԴͳصҲһ޵Ӱ죻ڹҵһһ̳еIJƲҲûʲôͬ[18]

ؿҲȻŷߣΪȻϵ۷ijķϰ߷е඼ãձԼκȻΥķɶDzġµģҲЧġһں˹͢˹ĵбֵ쾡¡[19]

ܹŵ估η˼԰ؿӰܴ󣻵ͨӢʷ֮ԼӢʵȴʹ˼Դ;塣ע⵽"е׷ĿĵĹңԸһĿһĿĻȫĿĵġĿǻ˵ԸdzֵʵеԸɣŷڷϵϰ߶ǹҵķɣӢһֱֱĿꡣ"[20]Ϊ֮ʣȷʵӢ԰³ɭؿ˵ʱڵλ[21]ͳϰߡ⽨ϵ̻ҵķӢȴһֱûܲרȨع""Ĵصͬ⣬˰ˡڰؿʱԱָ˾ʱȨ˹ķո̤;İؿһõĶᣬǻ۵Գ¶һ�"Եǰԭ˼"Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents1770棩СУΪΥIJܷ־䡢侫ͬʱλеáβ˹жԱʱԱеĽɫ˼[22]1783ĶӡȵָؿһҪ˼᣻ı԰ؿ˵ӰDZۡReflection on the Revolution in FranceҲܷӳθĸ̬ȣ鲢δȫιʵϣؿ˴δϵͳرԼĻΪδϵͳľԺʽĽֻμҵְҵǶԾӳ͵Ӣ磺עؾ顢ͳԴͳ͹ȥķʽأζѧδ֤ʵijΪĸ֮ߵĽɫͷΧӦܵϸơ

ȻؿشͳάִƶȣƺҲԱı仯ӦǡĻӦ»Ҫڴͳеļֵchangereformation˷Ϊchangeı˶ʵݣ""reformationǶԵ"ָıײֱԲȡ"[23]ķסϰԻʱı䣬ԣĸﲢDzģĸĿDZ洫ͳ˵"ԸĻµԭ򣬵ǻȰǣָȣµı˵ɣ"[24]"̳йܽij׵ıԭij׵ijϮԭ򣬶˿ųµԭ򡣡 ȡáӵкʹٵķʽкʹǵIJƲǵķʽһ�"[25]ҪθĸӦ߱prudenceǰؿΪƳμӦе£˵"ж£Ҫ¡쵼ȥĬijЩ޵ļƻȥļƻҪʵЩƻͱṹ еҪֵҲεָߡߺ߱׼"[26]μҸ˵Զ׼ȷʶǧ̳еƶȡϰ̺ǻۣ¯ΣյġεΪֻЧСĽſٷ󡣵ؿ̵ĸĸһҲΪԵ񣬼ˣҪְؿʽĸĸҪ�"Ҫ"[27]ʹĸXܣиĸܷǸĸijǼԡ[28]

ܰؿ˶Ըĸ̬䵭ģԸĸ֧ҲΪޣ϶ص"ٸ""ռ׼"[29]и壬شͳƶϰߣԭϲԸĸκʽκɱĶרУūƣɣԼΪĶ밮ҵ绤ڻԸ񵳹壬[30]һ""塣[31]

ؿ뷨

˵ؿ˶Ըĸ̬䵭֧ޣôԷȴʼճȫķ̬ȡؿ˹α﷽ʽ˼ɷҲ˼ҪIJ֮һԵ

1789꣬󣬾ݵжϣؿдˡۡ189011³棩Լ˹һЩθĸӵţӢ"ٸ"ĺнڣӢμұֳسɡǸ輫ߵۡȻŨīعܻеĸԭͲȡиʩֹʱȫáͬʱŷ޴ͳڽ̡סϰߺƶȣ̾ǵĻʽ΢IJԶӢοͶԴͳֵʶʺ͸˵[32]


ȷѧɴǰ˷֮͹ϵڵ跨ֹϵӢ򲻴ڴ⣬ֻάһϵѣԣ˴ָƶȺѧ˵ƶȵĹԼȥ֮һĺ蹵ѹȥһ"ü򵥶ĴȻмȡķȡͳεĸӵĴͳϰ"[33]ЩڡȨԡжȷ֣ؿָķȫDzƽģҲǶԸ֪оѧΡ շѸָ"ڡȨԡÿԱԼͬʱﶼΪ֮еʹľʵ"[34]ھƶ£߼ʿȼ͹ȼɼһи˰ȨȨĴǷ쳣ҵ׷ƽȵҪԭ򣩣ռݹְλҪ£�""--ҫdz谭ᷢչľ޴׸ࡣ[35]Ϊȼũ񡢳ƽʲ׼Ȩȼ͹תĸָۣȴûκȨ˼ȻûӢʽĴͳԴ[36]רƺȨֻýۣʮ͵ŷ뷨ԶԶ߳͵ʱ˶֮ǰո˺ڽ̸ĸЩ˶ʹԽԽʶָĽĿܷȼһʶԼʵIJΪӦеȨʱDZ㲻ԥȥŬȡһҪᣬҪ�"ɵƶ"Ҫ"ƽȵƶ"ѧɵȨԭʻҲԤʾ޹ǰҮ˹֪Ŀ˵"ȼʲôһУDZѹȵһСûȨȼȼʲôһУɵٵһСûеȼһ޳ɣûȨȼһнΪ˳"[37]Ҳ޹ֺѧҿ֮󣬵һθıӱһ׼ȷϢϰߣ¿""֣﷨�"ԭ"׳١ֻаؿΪ͵"͵Ĺ徫"ܹô˵Ҹڲˣ˶Ҳָؿ˷Է"Ϊ䰮ġ̺е--Է˲˵Ĵͳ"[38]仰˵ؿ˵޴ѷʷͬӢʹӢľƹ㵽޿ɵıεȫ׵ƲƵҵ谮ӵķˣʧȥ˴ͳԴԼˣǻԼˣȥʵԼƣǷΰ ʵϣʲ׼Ҳߵ̫ԶֻҪһ"в"ľܹȨں߾ܾԼȨȨʹ÷룻⣬Ҳŷ޸弰ؿ֮ԴĵӣԼ֧һʹ߳ĴĽƴʹɲòƽȸȻͲòƽҪŸרʱʩij̶ֳȵߣʹ÷ڹȺ϶ǿǰġij̶ֳҲ˵ɷ͵ġ ؿҲ˻Ӣʷǹ¡һ·øһ档ڰؿ֮ǰһͣӢΪɶǵĹεҲ߱һ֮٣ҲûøٵղķʿôЩ䱳泼ԸΪʹòٸʵϵ˻Ը"ϵķ"ӢʵеdzĹͷΣ"ƣpatronageת,"[39]ңңڵδ1688"Ը񵳵ʹԸ岻һַɵʶ̬תΪִ绤һ֧--J.H.PlumbڵĻ--'һʿǵ'"[40]

˺ӢֻԱ˸ķһɺӵǣӢֳسֹİȫȺķǹͽǰ;Ǵƾӣǿֳأ󻺽˹ڵѹӢθĸû""ؿ˶ЩŸĸߵƣ²˵ĹĶǿҪҲᷢΪ԰ȨıȡԼ˽ߵͳ߶ԣκαﶼǶв[41]ʹؿŵαҪоμ쵼ΪܣʵϼδʹУҲδгɹӡ˹ָԸصı�"ͳν׼Įӻĸĸ﷽ת˼塣"[42]J.S.ܶӦԼΪһߡ[43]ڷ˼ʹϷεĽܸѷҲºת򼤽һеģ֮辭ɸ־ʿͱѪֳܱࡣ˿һδεĸʹƽȡɺ֮ڷĴ׳ɳʮͳŷ޸øĻĴStefan Zweigһʵƽͼ

ڰ裬˭Ҳڱǰеڣڰ裬˭ʲô塢׼ͳڰ裬ʱڵŷ̴棬һ޲׼Ĺ˾ԼĹһһɺ;صĹһԱڿȹһ˿߾Ľͬ°֡͡ءɾС̫̫ͬһ¥һŮ֮Աǣÿ¥ϺģǵĺӻʻһΣĿһȺŵ׵Ǯũ񡭡߽һҸ߼͹ݡǸ̸ҾƺȵԽɤԽһ߷Цһ޼ɵԼŮ˵βΪũڽβŨʢװ֮䣬ȴһҲе˵Ǹӹε÷dzķԱҲ֮ԱǣԶԴǻ߸ǵͬò̺ܵǣҪڵ¹ӢԱЩĹ˿ñӿˡ[44]

ʷҲδ֤ƾĸʹﵽ´½˰壻¹ձľߴԵӡϿķѵĵ־ڼ³ʿ"Ѫ"˹ĿľӪ»ͳһŷһǿŷоߵĹȡձһʿЧ¹�"ά"ߣʱҲ""֮СʵϣԶδʵɴͳִεת䣬ִ߽ˣҲ˵ɹؼϹȨýƼʵ˸ǿĿ꣬˵ԹӵǶȱ--ȷе˵--ľӪһIJƽ̨ʹǿڹĸ͹ʼĻݺһսսе¹ձĽɫĿáʷ֤ĸһ㡣

ӵЩκִ嶼ɻȱռֵɡƽȡݡȣѪϴĿػDzӱĹңΪǶñ˼񣬰˱ıļ֮DzὫ֮ϣԸ ߵȷ᷸챩Уھƶ£DZֹ񣬵ȱξ飬һЩ⣬ⲻȫǡؿһָһԾƶµտڲ̸ǰDzƽġʵϣƶڸģֻǰߴ󶼷ɢʱжôעĿ[45]Ⱥȱپ鲻ò£ڶʱڣ۵ССԵͻңƽʱڣרɱʿսʱõϿɵĸȨеķdzʩҲDzϷ[46]ҲһЩûдۣĴܵصһ˵Ҳڳĵȴбװĵ--ٹ֮壬ټΣһθҲʵĿ꣬ҲʹȨһĶרУ1815긴λŷǵԲҲһ"ܷ"ļ ĿָȫҸɣµȨɵȨҪȷÿƽȵȨʷҲܹԭ¸ĹʧпάҲǿͳļֵԴмӣ

Ҫһ1789ʱڣʱƽɵȰͬռǵ飻Dz뽨ɵƶȣҪƽȵƶȣҪݻٸȨҪȷϸȨʹ֮ʥഺ顢Ժϵʱиִǽǧڳʱڣ븯ʴū۱˵˲ðߡ[47]

嶼ԼصʷĻʹͳһľԱҲ޽棬򲻻жƹֵļθᷢӢӢĽĸﲻᷢڷһ"ɳʥ"ĵ·䲻ǿѡģĿӦͬ뽨--ʽԲֻͬƶȲܱ֤˵Ҹ֤һ彡統һλѧԣſԽ˵һὨһᡣ[48]

ƺ˵Ӣֳصϣؿİؿˣ[49]ڷϣؿDZİؿˡ

ؿ˵ȷǻۣܵй棻Ѱؿ˵йĿǰʵʣָйûȷй󼲣ؿӢİؿˣЩӢʷ龳ĹҶԣؿ˵IJοֵȡҲǰؿ˳Ӣڱһֱԭ

עͣ

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[1] μthe New Encyclop?dia Britannica, fifteenth edition, volume ,Encyclop?dia britannica,Inc.,Chicago,1993, pp.651-53.
[2] һۼ˵ؿʽ˼룬Ҳʧȥ˼ʵʣķǡǡ˼ݡLeo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey edited, History of Political Philosophy, third edition, the university of Chicago press,1987,pp.688.
[3] ؿˣ봫ͳ룬ӡݣ200168ҳⱾ鼸˰ؿ˵˼ݡ
[4] ͬ飬105106ҳ+
[5] ͬ飬278ҳ
[6] ͬ飬105ҳ"Ȩ"¬""ͬǰǿǼ̳ԣƲƲļ̳УһֳġȨ
[7] ͬ飬156ҳ
[8] ͬ飬215216ҳ
[9] μʿ£ѧ룬ӡݣ1996꣬һ¶ؿ˿ܽʹ˵ͬϣϵ򲻱ؿ˽ܡ
[10]˵"ʥģκ˶ӦԹҴëãӦӦе"ؿˣ봫ͳ242ҳ
[11] CommonwealthһͨˣcommonƲwealthɣô˵res populiΪ"һƲ"൱res populi Դϣres publicaΪ"Ʋ"
[12] ˵"רƣ޶˵רƣ˵רƲ˵רơ"ؿˣ봫ͳ55ҳ
[13] ͬ飬223ҳ
[14] ͬ飬226ҳ
[15] ˵"ͷ򽳵˱̨ͳΣҾͻѹȡ"ͬ52ҳ
[16] "ֵĻг󣬴̥ʱͲĿȾκĶλӸԣ֮У Ϳϸɡ򡢲£йעҵϰߡûЩ˾Ͳ͹ҡ"ͬ飬8990ҳ
[17] μޣƪ ƪ֮ƪƽ룬ӡݣ1999꣬һ45ڡ
[18] ޣͬ飬һ46ڣ1ڡ16ڡ
[19] ˵"˹͢˹ģЩΪ޲ŷ޾еĵԣ ôʿǹһѧͼһͼڹ˽еΰ޹أ֧䡣бҪǷ֮ĺ׼Ķɡ"ؿˣ봫ͳ276ҳ ؿ˵ȶԺ˹͢˹ҲڶƤIJΣƷĵٳɡ
[20] ͬ飬190ҳ
[21] ĵλöӢӰԶԸϵҪࣻΪӢرֳһȨû½ʽרҪ֮һ
[22] 1780꣬ΪʵԼԱӦĽɫʧȥ˲˹жʸ
[23] ؿˣ봫ͳ137ҳ
[24] ͬ飬111ҳ
[25] ͬ飬121122ҳ
[26] ͬ飬304308ҳ
[27] ͬ飬121ҳ
[28] 1782꣬William PittԺһίԱԺĴѡԱγһѡȨ͸˿·ϯλ鰸ؿ˴ӷԣѡӦʵΪԵ˿ΪκȨڱϰԵġ飬3738ҳStraussҲָؿ˵ѧһʵܷĺһܷĽLeo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey edited, History of Political Philosophy,p.708.
[29] Trevelyan,George Macaulay, History of England, vol., Doubleday &Company, Inc., Garden cityNew York,1953,pp.273-74.
[30]Eccleshall,RobertָȻԸҲԶϵȨԼȼƶȵĴͳв׼²׼ʵʩָͱBritain Liberalism,Liberal Thoughts from the 1640s to1980s ,Longman,1986,p.17.
[31] ʷ۾֧ԼĹ۵һ㱻Ϊɣ18͵ӢȰɵĻԸǴʷѰ۾ݵĵͣ"ŴӢܷ"ĸҲı"ܷ"J.S.McClelland, A History of Western Political Thought,Routledge,1996,p.421.ָ"ؿ˼ľʵԵ˼Ƶľޡ"p.424.
[32] μBurke,Edmund, Reflection on the Revolution in FranceDoubleday &Company Inc., New York, 1961뱾ۡ 룬ӡݣ1998ꡣ
[33] пάƶ 룬ӡݣ1996꣬175ҳ
[34] Ρ շѸʷ 룬ӡݣ1989꣬131ҳ
[35] "ӢеصĹԱ׼ͳΣڷֱԱ˰ȨΪʧͳȨIJ"пάƶڴ136ҳ
[36] пάҲָ"15ʼԼDz˰𽥲ʳͷ˵ɡ·׹ʱȨﵽ壬ɵȻ޴档"пάƶ136ҳʵϣؿҲʶӢ뷨ηչ죨ע16źǣһͬ䰮Ӣʽαʧȥж
[37] Ү˹ȼʲôӡݣ1991꣬22ҳ
[38] Paine, Thomas, Rights of man, Doubleday &Company, Inc., Garden city, New York, 1961, p.275.
[39]Leach ,Robert, British Political Ideologies, second edition, Prentice Hall ,Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996,p.74. ʵϣؿһƶȵߣΪǰ޽ѫƵѡԺԱ ΪԼѡϲ
[40]Eccleshall, Robert, Britain LiberalismLiberal Thoughts from the 1640s to1980s ,Longman,1986.p.13.
[41]Eccleshall, Robertָ, ؿ˰ѺΪܾһĸĽڣIbid.,p.12.
[42] Hobhouse,L.T. Liberalism, Home University Library, New York, Henry Hold and Company,p.75.
[43] Ibid.,p.115.
[44] 񣺡յ硷Ƶ룬꣬1991꣬140-141ҳ
[45] ˶˵"һʷѧȷţһ֮ڣ·ʮ£600ڼҲԷֱ·ʮĸ̡а񡢸ݶıûԼȨôʹͲң·ʮʱܳʿרаʹŷ޵֪䵽Ըӵĵز"˶٣Ȩ Ƿ 룬ӡݣ2001꣬72ҳ
[46] շѸָ"ֲͳαϾҵһֶΣĿǿȫ׿㺺Ҳ⣬ǿֲͳεʵʡ" ΡշѸʷ 룬ӡݣ1989꣬368ҳշѸݸͳΪֲͳڼ䣬ʵڿֲͳεҪԶоԼ17000ˣ361ҳ·ʮĵרҪöࡣ಻ɱֻС
[47] пάƶǰԡ
[48] Լ˹Ӷ˹᣺˵ļ±ƽ룬ֳ磬1999꣬118ҳ
[49] ڹǷӦ뾭ϣ뵱ʱոѧһؿ˳ȫε۵㡣ؿˣ봫ͳ289ҳ



йhttp://www.cc.org.cn/ 20020510
Copyright?2000 csdn618.com.cn. All rights reserved.
ȨУ Ϣҵ޹˾ ĴѧйĻо