ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


ڽ벻


*


ڽǵϵĻȨ֮һݲȫͳƣ142ܷУ125涨ڽɵݡ[1]ʹԼҲڽΪһȨȷ涨[2]ΰڽ빫ƽǸڽ̶ԪңҪٵһҪ⡣

йڽһֱҲǸΪֶе⡣⣬ҹǵΪרڽضڽȫϵͳĹҡҹķУڽԹ淶ڽڿ͹ϾԵ÷dzҪڡιʾΪҪԭĽˡ Ȼڽȴһֱdzͺȱһϵͳڽҹܷع涨ڲܾãڽʵʵĹ淶áڽ̹ݳɢڸɷصһЩ桢⣬Ҫݵڽߡ 20041130գ¼ұǩԺ426䲼ˡڽ200531ʽʵʩڽļơݹʱ꣬йײۺڽҹڷеڽߵϵͳͷɻҹڽ̷ϺͷչƽҹڽΪҪһİ䲼ҹڽ̹͸ڽɲشӰ졣ˣͼӡʵбҪ


һ䲼ǰҹڽع

ʮ֮൱һʱڣҹڽ͹Ҫݡĸ↑ȻŻָáҪİҹʱڽĻ۵ͻߣ19ļ1982ڽһڽ̹֪ͨ6ļ1991ڼǿڽ̹ľ3ļ2002

һŰ˶19ļУָҪƶʵеڽ̷档һŰ꣬ԺڽڹҪʡӦϵؾƶطڽ̷棬ɵط䲼С[3]ߡ˰䣬С㶫ʡ½άȺ䲼ڽڽ̻ۺԼԵ¡ һŰйʮǿƽΪƸĸҪ֣ڽʼճ̡ʮ󣬹ԺڽֻڽɹӣԺ׼ڽƻȫЭڽίԱڽʿݵIJݰٿ̸ᣬ޸йŸֲ⣬ۡ[4]

ʱйܲšһЩشϣųһЩ˼ϰȡһЩʶڽ̽ʿӳѵȣҲȫ˴ȫЭ飬һŰ˾°ѡл񹲺͹ڽ̷ݰύȫ˴ίᣬϣԾ쿪ʼ[5]ڽ̽ȡеġڽ̷ȴеһЩԭϵȸ

һžһ꣬йڡ6ļٴҪӿڽ [6]һžһ£ڽֱˡڽϵ͡塱ڼڽĿ롷ڽĸε룺

һȫ˴䳣ί䲼һйڽ̵ĻɣϵڽĹϵϹڽȨάڽ֯ϷȨ棬ڽ̻ʱ1.ƶڽ̷2.ֱƶڽɺڽ֯ķɣ3. ƶڽ̷ͨ

ɹԺ䲼棬漰̹ͬ⣬ֿϽȨڽģڽְ̳Աڻڽ̻ڽƷȡ

Ź£漰ΧԽǿڲڲΧ⡣

ģطڽ̷ط£ɵط˴ݵʵƶƶ֧ڽ塢¹۽ýϸص㣬ƶڲĹ³̡ƶȡ[7]

֮󣬳ȫ˴䳣ίƶڽ̷⣬ڲ̶ͬʵ磬Ⱥƶ˼ȫڽͲŹ¡ҪɹԺ1994131ͬʱ䲼ڽ̻͡л񹲺͹ڽ̻涨ŹҪǹڽְ䲼ġڽǼǹʵʩ취19915£ϰ䲼ڽ̻Ǽǰ취1994꣩ڽ̻ȼ취1996꣩

ط棬2004ף21ʡе˴ί½䲼ۺԵطڽ̷棬ʡҲƶۺڽ̹¡⣬Ҳеط˴ίڽ̻ڽְ̽ԱڽӡˢƷƶ˵ڽ̷¡ͳƣڴڼʡй䲼55طڽ̷[8]


ڽƶ

һԸĸ↑һֱϣͨǿ淶ڽ̹

1982й19ļָ,Ϊ˱֤ڽ̻Ľһ,ҽ󻹽շɳ,ͬڽ̽ʿijЭ,ƶʵеڽ̷桱1991,й롢Ժڽһڽ̹֪ͨ(6ļ)ٴǿ,ڽй,ҪӿڽԺڽӦץйڽ档ʡֱϽҲɸݹҵйطɺͷ,ϵʵ,ƶطԵйڽ桱

⣬йʮȷʱڽ̹룬ȫ᳹ڽߣڽ񣬼ֶ԰ԭ򣬻ڽӦʮȫһ룬Ҫȫõڽ̹ΪˡֵڽߵȶԡԣǿɲԡбҪͨڽ߹涨ƶȻ淶ܹԹǿʽ֤ʵʩ[9]

ǿڽʵ

ͬʱŸĸͿŵڽ̹⣬ѾӦµơȣԺƶȫƽʵʩҪ͡ɷȺ䲼˸ߵҪ

Σڽ̽ʿŽڵķʶǿһֱƶڽ̷ۺٽάȨ档ڽ̹ɲҲΪɲ걸ĿǰӰڽ̽չҪԭ֮һʴٴκƶڽ̷[10]

ƶڽ̷вʵ

ƶڽ̷ĺԼжʮ֮á֮Ų֮ԭҪ㣺

1.ڽ̷Ŀijֽϴ磬ܴɹʶڽ̽Ҫġڽ̷һءȨλġڽɷʹͽڽᡢɵõʵķɱϡͬʱһȷڽ¡ȷȨڽ̽ʿǿڽ̽ڽ̷ĻǡӱڽһȨǡڽ̵ĹӶڽ̵Ĺôڽ̷ͱ˶ڽ̵ķֶΣڷǰ´ȨɡӶһڽ̡ǿķ[11]ڽ̽ʿһΪڽĿǴӼǿôƶڽ̷Ȼһơڽ̵ķɡ[12]Ҳڽ̽ԡл񹲺͹ڽ̱л񹲺͹ڽɱΪڽԭȻ߹ǵһԱڽΪּҪֱڽɣΪڽ̵ķչṩϿɵỷٽijЩڽ̵Ŀٷչ[13]Լڽ̹ģʽɼս

2.ζڽǡڽ̷ƶһش⡣ڽѧԺΪڽûһµĿҪн綨ʲôڽ̣Ȼ¡ԣҪ漰νϷڽ̵⡣йҪϿƶڽ̣institutional religionйĵλɢڽ̣diffused religionԷǷ⽨šھ֯Եڽ̽ɣΪȡޡ[14]ʮڹڽֽ̾Сڽ̷ݹʱйزżڽ̸бСϷڽ⡱һйطͼĺϷλ֮롰⽨š𡣵ǣǷйĺϷڽڽ̡ڽ̼ڽ֮ڣǷȻйѡڽɣǷԸȫţſƣйڽгøֲͬڽ̾йչһ棬ΰڽ̡ڽ롰⽨š֣ڿڽгͬʱηֹŻ˿֮ҸȼڽΣҰȫĸҲйطעĽ㡣 ֮ھ߹ǵڽгĸֲȷأڽͽӡڽ̷ͻĿܡι淶ֲ̬ͬڽ̵ȵȣЩ仯Ʊضеڽ̹޴սáڽ̷ݹȫΪڽص㡣[15]

2000꿪ʼԺйزžʽˡݹ2001꣬ˡ()ݹύȫڽ̹ۡ20023£γɡ(ݰ)ϱԺԺưУȺʡֱϽ͵롢Ժйزŵٿרֻᣬȫڽ帺ˣԼڽѧѧȨѧרңר֡ԺйزŻһЩר⸰ʡֱϽеУȡڽ̹šڽ̽ʿڴ˻ϣо޸ģγˡ(ݰ)[16]򣬡ݰɷưԺ鱨޸ĸ壬󽻹Ժͨ

200477գԺ57γίͨڽȫİ7¹48һ򣬵ڶ·ֱڽ塢ڽ̻ڽְ̽Աڽ̲Ʋķ淶ڽ񣬵·ΣһΪ


Ļ

һڽɵı

1.ڽȣΪȷʾ˹ڽɡ

ƪҪĿǡΪ˱Ϲڽɡһڽɣڽ̻άڽ塢ڽ̻Ž̹ĺϷȨ棬κ˲ַ(ڶ)Ĺ涨⣬ںظֶڽ˾涨ЩʾԵĹ涨൱̶ǵڽʶ

2.ȷ涨˹֯ľȼȨ

޾ȼüȨȻҹϵܰΧdzޡҹϷ111͵2֮涨ԺķΧԭڵΪַȨͲƲȨΪȨͲƲȨ֮ȨַܵģܷߣҪȡڷɷĵȨ[17]ҲȨͲƲ֮Ȩڽɣûзɷȷ涨֯ʹΪܵصַҲȨϡ

ڡ֮ǰ֮УֻСڽ̳ȷ涨˵Ȩڽ硶ڽ̻涨ԼŵǼǹ͡ڽǼǹʵʩ취ȶδ涨ԷľȼȨȷ涨ڽŵΪģ飻鲻ģ(ʮ)ڽΪĿͳһĹ涨Ϊ˽άڽṩ˻ľȼǰڽɵʾԹ涨ȣһ涨ڱڽɾиʵ塣

ڽ̹Ĺ淶

ڡƶ֮ǰڽֳdzɢ״̬棬ҲвŹ£еطԷ桢淶ļɢҵ״ᵼ¸淶ļ֮໥ͻͬʱհףijЩ޷͹ԡڽ̹Ļ˽ΪȫĹ涨Ƚں̶ܴϸıǰֹ淶ļ֮໥ͻͬʱҲһ̶ϼĿհ׺͡ä㡱һ̶ϼٹеԡ

⣬ڽ̹Ϊ涨һ̶ȵĹ淶ʩ磬ɷҪ󣬡趨ɣȷʵʩɵȨޡΧʱޣʹΪ͸(ڰھʮʮʮڶʮڶʮ)ȷؼ乤ԱΥΪӦеķ (ʮʮ)涨ڽŵΪģ飻鲻ģ(ʮ)涨ҹԱڽְȨְء˽ףɷģ׷Σвɷģ֣ʮ

һ̶ڽķλ׺

ҹڽҪ֮һλ׹ͣߡط䲼йڽļߺʹ취صΥܷ󡱡[18]ǰԭ򣬽ȫ˴ίƶڽ̷вʵɹԺƶ಻ʧΪһֽȻֻ棬֮ǰڽɲŹº͵طԷ͹Լλ׸͵Ĺ淶ļȣԣȲ͵طҪһЩ


ġҪ

Ȼ潫ӦĻãҲơдȶҪ֣̽ڶԡƺδڽ棺 һɱ

ɱǷΪҪ󡣼ָ֮ijЩش漰˽Ȩʽķɣܷʽƶķɣ涨һأرشΪ涨

Ҫ󣬶йڽȻصķԹ涨ңһЩҶڽɲȡǸΪϸܷģʽڴģʽ£ܷ涨ĻȨʹƶķҲƻ涨Ρܷһȷ涨᲻ƶֹ̻ڽʵķɡˣȻ˼ڽ̷ԣҪôδͨҪôΥܶΪΣĹ¾Уܿѷٷ¾ļ⣺ ȨּҪijЩӱĪηгڶɺ͹ԱܼķΧ֮⣬ȷΪɷԺõķԭ˵ȨȨƲȨȨɡͼɼȨͶƱDzκѡ֮[19]

йڰ涨ıȫ˴䳣ίͨԹ涨УᵽڽɡȻ͵ڰоٵ--硰Ȩѡ뱻ѡȨۺɡʾȨɡ͡ǹвƲ--ȣڽͬҪģӦñΪڡȫἰ䳣ίԱƶɵ[20]ˣйڽɻڽӦȫ˴䳣ίƶڽ̷֡ιľ

Ϊڽ̻

ڽ̻ͨҹйڽ̵ļУ京ϰɲ졣ڶָڽ̻άڽ塢ڽ̻Ž̹ĺϷȨ桱ݴˣǾڽ̻ܱDZֹжϱ׼ Ȼ һϸ߶ԣжϵı׼ǣͨ϶Ƿ漰ش棬ͨԤغ˾ضԣжϵı׼ǷϷdzͷִ׹ҵһҪԭ̷[21]ҲΪڽ̵IJߡӡ߷Ժһоԣijڽеȷȷһ׷жϵġ[22]

ңڽ̻ԣܴһͳһȷġ׼ʲôǡڽ̻ν綨ڽ̻Ƿ֡šڽ̻жԳΪڽ̵֯Ƿðڽ̡塱Ӷ߷Ժ߼ԺϷġڰ֯а֯ﰸӦ÷Ľ͡ġа̷֯300͡͡û--Ҳ--ȷ˵Ϊؼǣһңûн綨ȷڽ̵ȻȨ[23]

֮δбҪרųͷΪΣڽڽɵҪּǰѷɳͷĶڶΣΪǿܵΪ--ͽ£ôǵΪǷijʹ֮ڷ׷Ϊ׷Ϊϣ̷ΰжڽ̻֮רŹ涨Ҳܷܲ⡣ڽ̻Ĵ涨Ϊйع涨ͬҲΥܷ33涨ġڷǰһƽȡԭ[24]

е 򲿷ʾұڽ̻ֶ֮ڽ̻ĽԹ涨ǿڽ塢ڽ̻Ž̹Ӧܷɡ͹£άͳһŽȶκ֯߸˲ڽ̽ƻ𺦹彡ҽƶȣԼ𺦹桢ṫ͹ϷȨĻ

Թ涨⣬ǿԸԭ򣬡ڽ塢ڽ̻ڽ֧䡱ڽ塢ڽ̻ڽ⽻롰ѺáƽȵĻ֮ϡУ֯͸˵Ķýܸӵڽ

ܷѧĽǶϸԹ涨ƺܷ[25]һ¡ܷѧһʶǶƹȨӦ͡Ȼжйڽ̵Ķ⽻Թ涨ܷ涨ġڽڽ֧䡱ȣ֮ӡ⣬ýܸӵڽǷϵ˼κͺͬҲ룬ͬҲá

ڽŵְȨ ǰ̷ִһ־̷жϣ߷ԺLemon v. Kurtzmaṉİеоľ߲οֵڸðУϯ󷨹̷׼1ɱĿ(secular purpose)2ҪЧҪЧǼȲٽҲڽ(a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibit religion)3ɱ벻ٽ־ڽ(non-excessive entanglemen[26]оǶ߷Ժ֮ǰоϣΪжΪΥ̷ԭ֮ݡе׼ֵע⡣ 涨ڽ漰ṫڽṫǵ͵IJȷ˵κΪ漰/档ֻҪǣ湫/Ϳʵʩ,ôʲô鲻ܺ͹ǿԶعϹ?ҹȻǹҸԤ˽ݡ漰ӦɹҸԤձԭҪֻлڱҪشĹΪ֮ңжǷ漰ҪشĹɹȨʵʩԤӦɴͨ̾ȨжǷ漰ʵʩijϽڿһſдġհ֧Ʊ ⣬רڽʵʩģʽҲд̽֡ҶĹģʽɷΪֻģʽۺͳһģʽĿҵģʽۺͳһģʽ֮£ijһĹƲרŵأĹһͨͨķ;ʵʩҵͨʵϿۺͳһģʽάɺͽԼɱһ洦Ŀҵں̶ܴȫҹ۵֡ӱϿƺԣʵȴõĵݣڶȨĹ淶ܣͬʱ׵ڽ֯ȨͿƲ㻯ڽ̻λĿǰֵĿƼУʿƵIJ[27]̷ԭһ£Ҳάڽɡ

ģڽĵǼ

һҪĻȨݸܷԼָȻˣɲɽ֯Ȩ[28]ݸܷ͹ʹԼĹ涨ڽɰԼķʽڽ̵ɺͲڽ֯ɣҲ˹ڽ̽ɡ ϶֯׼ֻҪΪϸ÷ɹ涨ҪϿɷ˳йزҲֻʽѡ֯߱˷ɹ涨ķģ˵ǼǻصĵǼǣȡ÷ʸͬʱзʸûзʸ֯ͬкϷĵλǵIJ˰ŻݣԿˣԼ˺ͳԱη档ڽ̷ؼǷǷĵλ⣬Էʸų񶨷ǷڽΥɺڽɵġ ڽĹƶȣϮ˼еŵǼƶȡУ¼ֵùע

1.Ǽǵij

һڽҲšһǡǼǹءһǡҵܵλ[29]䡰ǼǹءڽΪҵܵλ

ҹȡDZʵɵĹҸΪϸ˫ƶȡһȡƵĹҾصʵ飬ȻڵǼǻؽʽԵǼǼɡҹŵܻغ͵ǼǻȡĶϸʵ顣ʱܻغ͵ǼǻضȡϸĿƴʩŵķչ˵˫һ˫յIJԣԺܺõضпƣ޶ȵؿһµŵijǣڵ˵һشšdzӷʱӣ׼Ͽֲܳͬ(رߵɲȨܴھϼ׷)˴˲㡣[30]

2.Ǽǵ

ڽֺ̾ 1991ϰ䲼ġڽǼǹʵʩ취֮涨ڽǼΪ:1ơ칫ַ͸ˣ2 вΥܷɡ³̣(3)кϷľԴ(4)пɿġҹڽʷظġΥ³̵ľ䡢塢̹棻(5)֯Աй㷺Ĵԡͬʱݵ涨ύڽ̵Ҫ䣨Ŀ塢̹ʷظϡ涨ͬһڲظͬƵڽ塣

ڽмֵã

1ҹеڽʷظ⡣Ҫڽ̴мǧʷڽɱ𷱶࣬˭ʷظ׼жɹжǷ̷Ļԭ

ߣʷظΪǼǵҪǷܵڽȫûȡúϷݵȨԴˣٷʿҲϣ޶ڽڽҹΪʵõɵij൱ѵ顣[31]

ҹǰ״ǣٷϿȫڽ干8йЭᡢйЭᡢй˹Эᡢй̰ᡢй̽ίԱᡢйšй̡ԡίԱйЭȣֱŷ̡̡̡˹̡ڽ[32]ںʡ½Ҳ϶̵ĺϷλɢڽ̣diffused religionԷǷ⽨šھ֯Եڽ̽ɣΪȡޡ[33]

2ڽ֯ԱҪй㷺Ĵ?ij˻ijһЩֻд˭жϣԺڲŽᷢͻνԷĹ涨ij־е¼ֵԭʾǿԹ淶ںڽ̹صĿеļԵĹ[34]

3ͬһڲظͬƵڽ塣Ź19涨ķ֧߱ʸ񣬶ŲûԵķ֧ͷ֧ҲһӦסǼǵػַڵءˣйػػΪҵظûбҪڵ賷ϲ

Щ涨ҪҪƱ֯˸ĿѶȡ涨ڽľſչͷչDzġ

3.ǼǵЧ

ͬʱ1998䲼ġǼڽĵǼֻз˵Ǽһʽ2004ġȡ޷Ƿ֯취ûȡ÷ʸ񣬶֯ģӦȡޡڽ塢ڽ̻֯ڽ̻ýڽԵľףڶʮҪеӦķ[35]

Ͽ֪йʸ׼뷽ʵϲȡϸƶȡûоɶǷǷţǵĻܷɱӦȡޣɵں֮һȨѡŵ֯ʽǷѡǼǣǷͨʽʵԼڽɣȫѡȨΪ֯Ĺ淶ԣҿԲȡһЩʩڽз˵Ǽǡǿƽз˵ǼƱ֯żɼڽͻ

ģڽ̻Ĺ

ڽ̴ͻϸĹơݡڶʮ涨ʡֱϽогڽ̻ɹģĴڽ̻ڽ̻дڽ̻Ӧڽ塢¹۽յ30ǰڽ̻ٰصʡֱϽڽ룬ͬʱڽ̻Ӧ׼֪ͨҪڽǹУΥйع涨ڽ̻ٰص硢ؼϵطйزӦݸְʵʩҪĹ⣬ʮ涨Ӧķ[36]

ڽ̻ڽɵıȻںͬʱҲDZɣҪǼɣӦ֮塣(freedom of expression)Ǹܷ͹ʹԼ涨ĻȨ֮һ[37]ҹܷҲӦ涨[38]

ɹȻҲҪܵӦƣͬʱҵͨƱһӦĸԭ[39]1ֹǰơԭ򣬼ΪԱΪڷ֮ǰԼͽֹԭ򣬵º顣2ȻҵǰΣգclear and present dangerҪԱɵƱжϱΪشΣվԺͽԡ3ȷԡԭ򣬼ҪԱɵĹ淶ȷĻ׼ʹȨΪ֮ǰƻ򾳽Ч4ϵֶΡ(less restrictive alternative)൱ڱԭҪɶԱɵֶڴﵽĿϱ߱޶ȵͿܹΥܡ

Դڽ̻Ĺ¼Ҫ֣̽

1жڽ̻ı׼ʲô2ǰƶǷʵ3ʵʩƵı׼⡣ڽ̻δһԹɡȻҵǰΣաʮ涨δдڽ̻ϸķǷʣ4ԭ⡣磬ʮڶ涨ֻҪڽ̻зΣȫƻڽ塢¹۽øεģһɵǼǹسǼǡȻϱԭҪ



ͨķѿ෽涼һģҵӦƶγɽϴ졣ҹڽЩԣҹڽҪ֮

κһƶȵγɽԻܵĻӰ죬ڽƶˡڽǺɡƽȨȸһIJƷ֮ԲȻȻȨĴͳܲɷ֡Ȩ˾ĹϺͼֵȨԺͲɰԣɴ˾ڵĺϷԻȨʹ޶ȡܸѷڡڽɷָ:˵ȻȨ,ΪϵڴͬʱԾ,Ȩϵ۸˵ȨҪȨ˻ʶʴ˴Բ׸

ͳ⣬ڽɲضĻԭ򡣵һµ˽˻ά߸˰¹˹ȷõĻͽԸκκùϵ֮ǸڹεĻȼ෴άùԸںûͽ⣨ijǰڰ꣩ͨάǵʵάĻ·ߣѺùɾԵһλ⣬Ѻûͽ˵ⶼֻ˽֮¡ȣһҪѰ涨ùĹ׼Ϊ׼Ⱦͱκڽ̵µġáı׼˽򡣾ʹ˶ԣ޶˹˵ȨƣǡǡԸ׵ķʽ涨άùߵ⡱Ļ[40]

Ϊߵƻƾǰƶûй˽˽򣬻̵ơ̵̫ơ˹̵ƵȵȶǡáģǶǡù񡱵ı׼ùı׼ǶЩƵġȨ塱ȵȡΪߵƣߵĵ£ΪܹƽԴеƣеĵţߵĵ¾Dzز˭ҵĵǺõģҲѵµķԸڽ̶һͬʡ[41]

ڶ֪ʶ϶ԣţäĿһԵԸΪ˲ܻùھԺûȷ֪ʶ(genuine knowledge of what is intrinsically good or right)Ȩľġ˱ڹڡûԡݣеƫúеͬãֵͬصġ[42]

ʷͳϽпڽȺڽս͵ŷޣڽ̲ǿֲֶΡҹܲĥͬʡʹĽѵʹҳʶڽɵҪԡԴˣEverson v. Board of EducationһУ˴󷨹ٵоľߴԣ

һ󲿷ڶߴŷΪӱЩǿֺ֧ͼֵ֧Ľ̻ķɵֳͬʱһͺʹǰһͣǹ̾ıǵľκڽȨĶҡսȺڲͬʱ䲻ͬĵص㣬ֵ֧ȨͽȺ½ͽ½ͽȺͽһЩ½ȺһЩ½ɣijӰͽȺͽЩʱʱȺ̫ͽЩֲ޲ʼ賤Щ˾ռߣʹЩȰɵֳ𾪶еΪ֧ʦнꡢάúͽ̻Ʋĸ˰ּǵߡڵһ￴Щı [43]

Ļضƶȵγɾشáҹйڽ̶ִܴԴĻ͹IJ졣Ļ͹IJյʶ̬ϵijͻˣӰйڽĻ͹ضйڽڽIJ죬ͽҹڽеش塣

һ Ļԭ

ͬǣйĻͳҪǶij羴ǶԳij羴ӳֹټ־棬һΪ˰һΪռػãī䣬ׯڽټѧɵĽϣγνʵԡ--鲻㾭ֻ࣬ش˰ر˰˼άơ[44]

ΪйĻӰΪԶĻɣеһ˲ġһάӽѧ ˿޽Ұ֮ͽκΡꡯûȷijûгϵ۵֮ĶţûжԱ˰Ŀ׷ҲûмĹ[45]

ѧһʼԽ汾Դ뾭磬ֱ۾֮׹ϵأӲ֡ҡ֪Ի֮壬Զ֮ν֪ӣ˵δˣ¹δ֪֪ȵȡƿһ˰磬Ȧһ˰硣[46]

ݹйʷʼТ׼򲻷ڽȫҪԸĶӦйᡣʹϵķͽȻּڡصΪһʶ̬й½һȱȡˣ̣ҵĽ̻ϰףȻӰй˵Ļͳ[47]ش˰磬ȱ˰ػйĻӳʡȻйӲȱЩdzһĹռļֵ[48]

20ʮΪµʶ̬Ҫɲֵ˼ۣΪ˼뷢չĿѧ̬׵սΨ壬ƺͷԸŵ˼[49]־öϵͳؽ̵Źڣֵ۲Ź㷺ԶӰ졣ͬʱʼ2080ĸĸĸʱļͬʱҲѹѾõĺûıܣھýĺУʶ֮ʿ»¡ľʵӳȱʧûжԱ˰Ĺգֺڽɵӣ

ߣͳʶ̬Уִ߶ΪгԽͨ˵ĵԡǻۡ͹ʴȵΪִ̬Լʥĺģ֣ԼĿģȫͬʷĿı[50]ִ߱ΪΨһȷᷢչĿ͹۹ɲмʻȻйϤġ˶ʤ족Ϊ֪ƲˡʷչձɡΪչʾδһƵ״̬

ɴˣǾܽ䵱ҹˡӦسеԡָ̻ķչʷʹȨ쾭塢ԴġͳֵԼ൱һڿڽĴʣǸ졢Ķڴ£̸ڽɺ

⣬йʷ֮һйԹȱڽɵĴͳԨԴڽһֱڵ͵Ĵλ[51] ˺һȨڡʵǣϣ죨֮ӣߡԡԣͳDZɴˣڽ̲ǻȨĸӹضĹԱල̺Եڽɮ涨к͵ʿг£оģҲŻԵͳֲʩ[52]йʷϣڽ̴δĽ̻ȡڽ̶Ȩĵλһ棬йʷν̵֮[53]Լ¼ϻڽԭĴģսȺ̷̲һΪԼйڽԲڹ̬йء

֮ؾڵйڽδγձǿҵģӰȡһټ֮ȨʶȱһĻ൱̶Ӱ˵ǰҹڽ״

ҹߵڽɹ

ҹڽʵijĻ⣬߼Ҳݺӡңҹ֮£߿ܸžԵáһΪͳʶ̬Ҫɲ֣Ȼڽָáһ棬Ȼڽ̾䱾Ͻ˼ۣۣ[54]ҹֲڽɵĹ涨ΪʲôȨĹ۵㣬㣺

1.Ͻڽԡ1ڽ˼뷶⣬ǿʹֱѹƲܽ⣻2ڽ̴еԣԡԡȺԺ͹[55]ԣͼֶȥڽвͨ[56]ڽὫǡڴڡڽ̵ǡһʷ̡ܱȽ׼͹ҵҪԶ [57]ͬʱҪʶڽ̵ġԡܵ͹ڽ̿ܲãرжڽʵʩֻսԡ[58]

2.ӻϽڽӦӦҪڽͽ۵˼ڽҪȰӵƶȣӵ쵼ͬʱĸﲻӦڽƶȺڽ̽ڽ̽塢ڽ̹̽ڽ̵еijЩΪ񡱡[59]֮ҪһȰŽȺΪ桢ΪԼˣ[60]

֮߿ڽһ˫нDZָӰ죬ҲȶȻܡʵǵؿ϶ڽлأҲأҪأҲҪء[61]һֱڽߵƶע⵽ǣһһֱڽ̵üȹעӣڽ湦ܵĿ϶Ҳӣһӡеõ֡ѿҹߵָ˼ڹƣڹʵ涨ڽ[62]ں̶ܴϾҹڽĻƷ

Դڽ

ܷϣĻضԸɵʵŲɺӵԼãͬʱҹߵڽɹҲԡȻͬʱҲҪ˼ע⣺

һȨձԡȨȻһ̶Ļͳԣֿܹ֮壨RelativismļˣΪѹɵĽڡ϶ԣ󷢹ҸӦߵȨձ壨UniversalismĻԭ򡣼Ȩ֮ΪˣΪ˶еȨȨ֮ġձġĺͲɰģκεطκ˺еȨˣձȨֵ͹ͬȨ׼ÿҶӦִֵּ׼Ȼйǰŷڽ֮ɵԶԴλΪˣminorityȨӦܵغͱ

ڶɹԡ˶ٶԣɲǴﵽĿĵֶΡɱĿġڸɣֻʵԻ򹤾Դ֮ϵһǣDzɰȻȨڹҲ˹ҵĿġʵ,һ̶Ѿ,ΪҹܷĻһ,Ϊ2004ܰȨΪҵ涨ˡȨdzĵȨ,ٶ˵ĵλ,־λ,ԲԹȨΪǰ,෴ȴ˹ȨĻơDzٶϴɹʶ,ôĸ↑ž޷ھõ淶֤,ֻЧѰԣͬʱҲ޷ΪΡȨϵ춨ۻҪôǰɽʵʵЧֶΣҪôĮɡ[63]

Ҫ֮ҪõرڽɣصĹìʳͻһҹڽĸʵбҪ

*йѧԺѧоʿ

_________________________

עͣ

[1]ɣġ¡ܷıȽо룬ij 磬1987棬148ҳ

[2]1948ͨġȨԡмһۺɲڿ־ѷ٣ҲΪͨԸ 18ֽһָ˼롢ĺڽɵȨȨıڽ̻ɣԼ塢ܵԽ塢ʵݺͽɱʾڽ̺ɡ

1966ͨġȨȨʹԼǰţ18ָ1 Ȩ˼롢ĺڽɴȨάֻıڽ̻ɣԼ塢ܵݡɡʵͽڽ̻ɡ2 κ˲άֻıڽ̻ɵǿȡ(3)ʾԼڽ̻ɣֻܷ涨ԼΪϹȫ¡˵ĻȨҪơ4ԼԼеظĸ (ʱ)໤˱֤ǵĺӰԼڽ̺͵µɡ

⣬Ϲ19811125רͨġڽ̻ԭһʽIJ̺ԡֶڽɽ˸ΪȫĹ涨

[3]Т㣺ڽ̷ƽļ⡷ڽѧо19983ڡ

[4] Ժڽ̷Сı----̸ڽ̷ݹʱһЩ⡷й̻ᡷ66ڡ

[5] ɣڽĿ͹ڽ̡25ڡ

[6] й롢Ժڽһڽ̹֪ͨ199125գʱڽ̹ѡࡷ 216ҳ

[7] Т㣺ڽ̷ƽļ⡷ڽѧо19983ڡ

[8]ڽȨձ20041219աμhttp://www.people.com.cn/GB/paper464/13656/1222219.html

[9] ڽ١http://smzw.zj.gov.cn/node2/zwxx/yw/userobject1ai524.html.

[10] ֿգйڽ̷顷ڽĻ19991ڡ

[11] άִѧ̸ڽڽ̡198915ڡ

[12] ɣڽȷϵڽ̡199018ڡ

[13] Т㣺ڽ̷ƽļ⡷ڽѧо19983ڡ

[14] 󣬾ݵָʾ͡л񹲺͹ηͷصķ֮һȫ翪չ˴ģȡ޻һֱࣺż顷Ⱥڳ磬19852--3ҳ

[15] Ժڽְ칫20034¾Эʮһλ飨ڼӿڽ᰸ĻظȫЭ᰸ίԱࣺԸЭʮȫίԱ᰸ѡ20032004棬685--687ҳ

⣬йʵγɵһǣڽΪлӵȫ˴˴ίֱĻôһɹԺƶԺزίƶŹ£߲ȡΪصɵطȻɹԺƶӦ档ڽѭ˵ڶ·

[16]ڽ١http://smzw.zj.gov.cn/node2/zwxx/yw/userobject1ai524.html.

[17] ࣺϷԭɳ2003棬177ҳ

[18] Դ1994ڽ״½ѧաࣺ1994-1995йƷԤ⡷йѧ1995棬259--260ҳ

[19] West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624, at 638.

[20] ǧͨԻdzйڽ̻ܷ⡷йѧԺڽоĪѧѧԺʥ·˹ʢٴѧȫо¹ѧŷ޷оϰ죬ڽ뷨Ρѧֻģ2004101719գ

[21] ӢǸ⣬䱣Ĵͳйء

[22] ·˹𣬰ءJ ɭࣺȨ֣룬꣬1996棬125ҳ

[23] ͬעǧġ

[24] ǰǧġ

[25] ܷʮ涨л񹲺͹ڽɡ κιһء͸˲ǿƹڽ̻߲ڽ̣ڽ̵ĹͲڽ̵Ĺ񡣹ұڽ̻κ˲ڽ̽ƻ𺦹彡ҽƶȵĻ ڽڽ֧䡣

[26] Lemon v. Kurtzman 403 U.S.602(1971).(Quoted from) Wojciech Sadurski (editing), Law and Religion, New York: New York University Press, p.xviii.

[27] 壺ڽǼǵļ⡷ڽ뷨Ρѧֻģ2004101719գ

[28] ͬעġ

[29] ⣺תʱڵйšءʮ·ڵйũйо2000꡷磬200110--12ҳ

[30] ǰġ

[31] ڽ˼ءйڽ̡20038 ڡ

[32] μйȨ״Ƥ页ѧϰϡ1991棬23ҳ

[33] 󣬾ݵָʾ͡л񹲺͹ηͷصķ֮һȫ翪չ˴ģȡ޻ιһֱࣺż顷Ⱥڳ磬19852--3ҳ

[34] ǰġ

[35]ʮһ涨ڽ̻ģڽ̻ѱǼȻڽ̻ģڽԺУģڽȡޣûΥãΥݡģɽܲΥΰΪģΰڶֽһ涨ڽ塢ڽ̻֯ڽ̻ڽԾ׵ģڽֹͣΥõģûΥãصģԲΥ13µķ֯Ž̹񵽹⳯ģڽֹͣΥõģûΥãԲΥ13µķ

[36]ڽ̻зΣȫƻģйؼʾķɡֳúʹڽ塢¹۽øεģɵǼǹسǼǣʮڶԾдڽ̻ģڽֹͣΥõģûΥãԲΥ13µķУڽ̻ڽ塢ڽ̻ԾٰģǼǹؿڽ塢ڽ̻ֱӸԱʮ

[37] 磬ܷһ涨᲻ƶᡭۺͳɻƽԼƽԸԩȼȨķɡձܷڶʮһһ涨ϼᡢһۡһбɡͬʱڶ涨ٷöԱΪǰ顣

[38] ҹܷʮ涨л񹲺͹ۡ桢ᡢ硢Сʾɡ

[39] 󣺡ܷ淶淶ܷɳ2001棬137--139141--144ҳ

[40] ʩ˹ŵ䱣ѧĸˣа¡ʩ˹ѧѡԣ49--51ҳа¡ʩ˹ȻȨʷ룬2003档

[41] ͬעġ

[42] μа¡ʩ˹ȻȨʷ룬2003棬5ҳ

[43] Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1(1947)

[44] ѧڣռػ--ĻĻȱݡ֡19893ڡ

[45] ˹Τ̡츻룬1995棬258ҳ

[46] ͬעѧġ

[47] 塷ѧ1993ѧʿġ

[48] 磬ݹعΪƣݹΪӡ [49] £˼۵ΰġءо 19998

[50] ʡ˹٣ִ˼롷ι⻦Ĵ1992棬915ҳ

[51] A.κط򣺡ר塷йѧ1989棬119ҳ

[52] ͬעAκط飬119--120ҳ

[53] νָ֮κТۡۺʱڶڷ̵ĽֹȺԭΪ˼ǷϣиӰ죬ҲΪΪ̣˽صȵȡ

[54] ФεƵܷѧۡѧ2002棬206ҳ

[55] ͬǰעФε飬206--207ҳ

[56] μ2000ȫڽ쵼ӭ̸ὲձ200021ա

[57] 񣺡ȫͳսϵĽ2000124գйұࣺйɫ壨רժࣩ׳磬2002371ҳ

[58] ҶСģΪʲôҪСڽۡйڽ̡20035ڡ

[59] 񣺡߶幤ڽ̹1993117գʱڽ̹ѡࡷ254255ҳ

[60] ҶСģڽ̵ʷ±ࡷйڽ̡20021ڡ

[61] ͬעҶСġ

[62] йʵɹ۵IJɣμ·˹𣺡йȨһֱȽϿ졷ƤȨ漯йȨּ֮Ȥࣺ1ɳ1999档

[63] ¶˺飺ɡѧо20045ڡ