ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


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һ һֽܷ๦


ڶ Ϊܷ׵ʥ


ߺ


йѧ˼ʷϵһĻ⡣ѧݽʷ⽣Ӱܶ⡣ΪѧѧУǮѧ˼ֵζⲻΪһѧȡεʽѧɵйѧˣ˼·дͬͬӽνɡˡͬʱǮѧԹ㣬ӰȴԱءǮڤһ꣬عǮܷ˵ʾߣ¾ֻǡΪȴļ


һ һֽܷ๦


ͬһõĿĿĺڣǮǴӱܻĿ̳˼õġйΪʲôҪܷܵĿĺڣ롰й⡱ʲôϵй˵ܷǡ鵤ҩǡ֮񡱣Ͻܣʵδ˼֮ʱȣһ½һ£͹Ҳ˼ܾͨʾִȵһԵ˼·ͬǮܵĿIJˣʵΡȨ塱Լξ桱ܷʹĽΪһʾ󣬿ҲǴ˿Ǯʵ˼Դ֮һǮ갷һܻء


һһǮ


ȣּڡʵΡδ⵹ΪĽǰᡣͨνΣִҵı־յйȻƲִңҪΪһִңҲƵεɡ Ρһ۵ִϵͳǣȷѹؾޣʵֱ߱һЩָꡣǮΪΪؼز٣


һ ʵΣڷһƽȣڹͨͳһȫ幫ĻȨʵͬȱ


ڶ ƹȨ˱һȨڡȨ롰Ȩ֮γɱҪĽţ


һأƽȵԭѡѡ浣ȨѡڸоҪʱʹȨ


ģ дϵලִ


壬 ʵзȨƣƺʹȨ


һУҪʵʵIJȨҲˣҪȨȵѵʹȨѵʹȨѷǡǡʵʹȨʹȨʵн֪ʹɽȨѡ١⡢ƺ͸ΪҪȨҪʹȨ뾭ʱյijѵңҲһֽܷ๦ңеοܼȻѾȨʵнʹȨʹdzΪʵȨΪʵΣ׸򣬿ܷ¸ʵۼȨһ棬ܹҵijɹɹܷζܷεܷΪʧܷܵ ֮εʵΪȣһʵķںһʵ뷨ۺϵijɹְ֮ʣйΪȨܣóǰС


ߣΪǣεġ⡣Ҳ˵еαȫִĹңΪʵζܣɲأңʱйҲûƶȵϰߡϣǽй⡱ľǮȴ˵εıʾдʶټ飬ѹʱֱָΪ˹ѧߡ һ㣬Ϊ۵ڸ˺Ϊһѱ1957Լ˶бһ֤ᷴŴἰǣƽʷˣ£Ȼ֮ѧ¸ͺͷһ˵Ǯһ̲ǹŪ˼뱯ڡҲ˵Ǯ֪ߵġΪʵֵƶȣҸ޴½ŷչһ壬˵Զõһ֡ϲ򣬱ʲôߵĿġڡک跨˹塱ҲΪһ㣬DzŻǮΪʲô˵ιܷѧ䲻϶ΪܹңĶþвʧΪΡ ңʱ˳۵ĴʿǮһأͬԿٶȴģΪһҪʱʲôõãֻҪڵһҪʵ֣ʧԡѧߵĴȻѧ˼ýǣʱĴ󳱴֮߱£ε᳦ٽᣬνϣңǮѧ˼Ϊһ


ΣܷȨ壬ҲͬҪ졣ȷݡлܷݰ涨ᡱȨνСǣʵʵIJֺֹֽϵƯְˡˣǮʣֽϵȨٴ󣬵ǣ


˭ܱϹѡ٣ܴ˭ܱϹʹܷȨ˭ֵܱĹܷɣ˭ܱΥ߻ʵƲã


ܷûβʵʵʵ֮ʵʵֽܼ̽ȴֲòֽġϲṹ鱾̳һΡƺⲻйһҵΣ١ִѹǷǹ干ͬеһ൱ձľҲǡŷ޹ܹᣭĻתʹ


ʵϣǮ϶Դλ˵ìܡǶġһìܲΪһȴΪһ棬ڵʱйֻ϶µʵСʩʽԸʽⱾΥһìܻܷ涨Ρʽйʵijͻһͻ֮ʮһγͻĸԴҲǰܷڵһзЧĸԴ֮һңǮ϶дӢйΡ1947ΪֹǮչʽʵijͻ⻹ڡ ΪйᣭĻת͹δᣬֻҪһһδֹ򷲴ΡìܡͻԼΪзķЧ󣬾ͽһղֹϢ


һУԵɣʷҵġʷʾ


йʵ۲ε档ȷ˵йû֯ӭƶȡ˼壬ɱȨҲоõȨ˱Ҫѡڣܹ֧Щƻ÷ɺ;ֶʩСֱǣ浽ԲЭͼꡣ


йʱȱģĵȷȷǡȨںġͼꡱַˮɣ֧ļҪءڴˣԣûй֮ƣڴƻ֮ǰܽĽ衪ʷ˽֣սͻơôΡƺգ


ҲˣŻ˵һ


ʵ潯ʯ⡣һֻֽϻ˶һΪ棬ԤĴϻĹãڴʷ޴ǡʱ޷졣ǿΪطܷճΪͽз治ִСʵϣ޷ǽʯĸԴȨı۷򷨶ҷΥձ顣Щʱ


ǣȲȡʵDzУҺֽܿĺϷԶûС֪޷족·к󲻿ɱĽɻǵðУԴΪÿ㣬ǡǡʾּ֪󣬿ȻˣҲòˣʷ˽֡һңֽرǡܷȵΪִ̬ĵʱ֮£й޷رܵģǡǡһһλѧ˵ijЩضҵֻܷùھܷѧʶʿܹܷܽѧ֪ʶΪʲô󡱹ȴһûʵܷ ˵ÿ̱һ·߹ĸڴȴδûĿЦջͷһ顢Ǯǵ˼ǣҲǻڶһϰɡ


ٴΣּڽΣҪΣȵƲΥĵߵʵҲ˵ĹԳġơرơҪʹȨҲûƲõܷĿȨ޴֮أʵ֮յйοʱûУޣα޴ѭСΪһִ״̬ڹҵķԡ˸񻯵ķǣȷã似Ҫڣһֽܷɱ书һ֮ƶͳԣǮΪʱйһܷصְ֯Ȩ˴˼ĹϵһҪĹ涨򡰹ķΡؽаթǮΡΪ桱롰˽桱֣߽ʵ֡ˣҲҪߡDZйһ̵ܶĽʵʵǷɹ涨̺Ǩʵףʵ淨ѡˣΪζܣһкʱĹ飬ڶҪءʵо⡣ɹʵУʵеķ٣ɵʧзʵУأ뷨θԶ޷11


ˣǮԣ


ϣDZӦᳫΣξǽٵԪ֮һDzſպεĿںţΪɹãзأ˺ʧʵеĿܡԷΣʹԷʧãڿܵķΧڣзΡ̤ʵأǰΪʵзεĵһҪš12


뵱ʱ֪ʶġܷԡ෴ŪܷڹƶдȨ˸ǴྶͥǮΪҵܷѧȴֱڵʱйڹִߣܷDz֮񡱣ʹԬƸܷʡŵŵڹͳӿ֮֮йʵоܣ⣬ȴ޷֮⡣13


ͬνһзףʵüʹЩʵߵͨķӡ14 ЩճĹۻɵģȻΪij볣棬Ǯ۱ҲͬһԤ衣ϸܶƵġڵʱйδжã߾ֱ˵ûʲôãڱַǰ£ˣĿǰƣ 15 ЩַεãֲڵİţڼеĹʹ֮ƶȻƶȻߣǮᄈвDZģЩΪʺϹεİ취ɵİ취ȵɡƶȡɹ棬ɳɹɳ볣档ͬʱҲζŶʵȻ͵ijɹķֺͿϡֽ涨ٺãδܳΪʵʵƶȣûֽĹֲڵһΪɹ棬ġƶȡأ⣬ҲʵȣӳʵĹں˼·ͬʱҲһʵʵ·


ڶڡΪܷ׵ʥ


ôһʵġʵ·Ӧأ


Ȼһִֹ֯ʽˣֱ䡰֮һܵ;Ǯһ֮DZģ͵ʱйɴӡΡ롰Ρ֡ӡΡִ֮Ĺ񵳶ԣάֹΰЧʣչ񾭼ãӶɹĸⲻ桰Ρ֮ϷԵԴ⣬ңڡĸɹˣΡȨУȻ˳ˮۣ֮Ӷǣ浽һϷԵȷ֤⣬˵κͳζ޷رܡϷԡĿʵĻˣ߲ҪڡܷɣӦŬκ;õĸĽṩһƷκ;õĸĽȻε뷨ƻڡһмΪʵƣΪʵķʽгʩͷƣȻڵ뾭õĸĽӶΪʵҲǮŻ˵֮ߣܷɣŬμõĸĽ16


ӡΡ֮һ˵ʱҲûҪܷıҪ˵ܷпޣ˵йִεܹȱ֮άΪ͵ʱйʣִȷСɵȷʹȨݵʱġԼɣȨ뷨ξ㡣һֽܷĿģȱЧıȻܲμȨˣܷûܷܼȷʵ֣ҪܷҲԡ˵ʱܷʲôõĻ˵˸ΡԺϷԵķΣڡΡ֮ȨԣʵϵڷֽˣóĽǣݲãҪܣҲҪףֻǽܷ壬ҪкϹ飬룬Ҳ󡱣17 Ϊҵ֯٣ͬһܷԷļȽεļӴΪԼһµķΧ


ɴ˿ԿǮУܷôİвǡεĸĽȻڡõĸĽܷİжʾεĽȡܷȨϵʾ⡰һưӶԺϷԣǮͨҲͨЩƭһں֪ʶӣƭܷѧҡҲΪˣڡ˶ܲһУǮϸһдһ֣


ܷɾΪݣٲɹеΪѡΪμΪεһǷá


塱֮ʽΪöΪɴڡΪ񵳵ĵ壬խĵɱȡǼӦõ¡֮⣬Ӧе֡18


ȻΪ֮񣬸ݵеġԼͷɣ뷨Ȼ㣬ؼһôˣشβܻáʹȨһ⡣ǮΪһȨ¢ߵġ͡Ȩ¢ԺԣһȨDzԸöȣȨһԣԲҪȨʱշΧָȨʹȨǵڷȨԡְ֮ʣƾ״ܽˮ׼ƶ־壬ȴӸıȨϵľʹ񡰲ھͳν׼ȫȻεı棬ôؽܵζʵһװõʹȥȡϵķȨҲֻеֶԼλлʱDzõֹ˵ĻֻΪ˷ʱǮ˼·ܡϣˡˣDz仰֮Ǯ½


ǽ£ΪѾھͳν׼ǵ潫ָȥ£Ϊ½õľõλֻάƶ19


ɴˣΡǷھľƵȵȣΪǷʵС⣬ΡߵȨڴתΪڡΡƹΡúͽ״Ȩš20


ǣǮ߼Ƿ񼴵ͬھ߼Ӷ÷תΪʵʵкܴۿۡȣ߼ͼɵñʵ·ҲΪԲƸĻΪݵġϵĸơϵġ˸ԣǼ˵Ĵƴɡ͵йᣭĻתۣ輸˵ĽŬΣӶھȡͱȫ뷨ķȨ˼·ȻǣʵеһȴǮֻͼӣΡһ̬Ҳdz飬ֶ˻Ǻˡ˵ĩ˳εIJ⻹ǼڴˣκͷķȨȨѡĸҷԵ⡣dz֡ͬһΣεıǹķ䣬ǹĺƽġʽġܵķ䷽ʽDZ̨ȱֶԪ漯ţұ˴֮ƾУȫӲˣǻѡսԾ߱ߴ֮·ԸҲԼֱѡַԡˣתΪβУӶĻ⡣ɼֱѡ񣬹ȻһַʽһʽЧҹرᄈģȴνᡱķ־ǸҵЭͷ֯ij졣ԸҵЭͷ֯Ϊγ֯ɵ漯ţ桢־չʵֹԡƽ̨һУͬǰϵġ˸ԣͬǼ˵Ĵƴɡʱ䡢ɾıȫηȨȡķάʵǮ·ĹзʣҲǮδչ˵֮


ܣǴ˼ػأǽһҪ⣬ҲǵйһѴΪ󷢡ķңйҪǿл沢չصþ߱ʽһֻ϶¡СһȴУ˵һʱУ˵֪һʱУȴȻҪУҷǵвɣǿдƽ֡ǣڴˣʷ˽֡ҲãҲգԴص¿˵ȻǿСĽᡱʽȣĽں󣬶Ҳһʽں֮һǣйΪյ㡱Ľڲ֪䱻ûΪ㡱ʵ֡ᡱһǰĹߣִᡱһ˰Ķۡ˵ãɴΣҲֻ˵áһãϣʱڼ̼ЧνġᡱķȴǶʱɣĿ֮ʵ֣DZȻɴ˻ĿıԣӶ;硰·ͬһִơֶ֡ΣȻδѡɴˣ֮·Ȼ


ܷ֮ΪֵԨԴĽǶйIJС񡱡ס⣬ʵIJġͨ⡣ƱԼʮʼĶڡ˹ʽʶ̬δζŲд飬ұʥԴȪеġšϵйرڹġĻͻһ£Ϊйǰһֳɵʽйֲ֣ܷķе̬ȡȵȴƥ䣬ܷʧȴ׵ĻʥԼֵϿϵ֧֣ϵĹ޷תΪжСͽ߿Ķѡջͷһġ˶ʱʵڡ˶ĿĹˣ˹壬ܷԼеżȻѡʷۼơȻ壬ܷΪִ𲽵Ƿǹңһ⣬һѾ֡й⣡


ܷҪܾ涨ľ幹Ȩʽ淶쵼ĽɫϵĹϵԼ߳ͻĺϷ򻯵ĻңΪҪǣܷȷضķΧͬʹȨ÷Բɸѡ϶ӶΪضṩļֵĿ꣬Ҳ˵ġʥԴȪ⡣ʽεй˵ʱֻDZ־šִҵij֣ȨϣζʱνġĿȱʱף䡰ļֵĿꡱԼý𽥱ӶΪʵε갷ṩһԽԵı׼ԼʵȨڡ⡱Բڡ⡱롰⡱ȨʵΪȨķδȻļܹԼءԼԵķ䡰ཫۼΪһʽεܷĺϷԣӶʧȥ䡰ʥԴȪ塣йδһԵĶͣɫ˵ȵĽɫϵ䶯ӣ²ṹγɣסһ޷ΪʽĻ˵йˡ˸һġ˴ĸʹһûСͬ⣬Ҫ󡱣Ӷޡ21 ⡱һγɣҲΪεšһ棬˵ܷʵִ˶ߵġͨҳɹܷǡͨĽй̸µйȻصԶһ棬һΰţʱգһֳɶʵ֤СʽεǻʲôϲѡǸеΪѵģ¾ƲŰɣ


ߺ


صǮǮڷ󣬷绪ï1924ʮִ廪ɳУ֮ӳΪйѧĴƽڡ˺ĶʮУԵҪԽΪҵҲԽΪ22 սꡢɽ֮ʣڵ֮࣬ǰΪ˳ʹ̬ΪƽǫӰ켰ѧʣԶԣ˶й֪ʶϣ书һ۵ĽͼרҵʵУǮжİսĻ£ԸտƾļźԸΪŪƵĵɶȨϷ׵Ūһ˵Ϊʵ֣ܾ뵱ߵĺͬʱеǮϵĻ켣һ׵ְҵ뷨ѧһҵĽŹϵšļ֪ʱij˵仰һѧҺܷѧҵרҵ֡һʱǮϣٹһھýθƣΪˮǴߣҵİĸƶһһʵ书һۣΪһܷ£ûС


Ϊһרƶܷѧ˵רңǮ׫ӢίԱ᣺ȽоParliamentary Committees: A Study in Comparative Government1923꣬ѧʿģйΡThe Government and Politics of China 1912-1949⣬¹͡ŷ½ҵ׫ġȽܷרƪĩԻܣƽµʧ̽ǰġʷһһġ֤Ǯϵһرǰ׫йģִij˵仰ķⷽԲԣмҵĴֱʡ˵һľй½ͬҵгߣδ֮


ЩѧпѵǣһλԶܷѧңڡͷ˴족֮ȴҲ棬йСС֣׶ֵò֪һ統ʱĴ֪ʶ羫ӢֻҪҺãԼôСһ꣬ڱѧԺԺϣDZȽˣ༴ɡˡġıҡ뷨ѧϷΪɽࡱĺͬԡɡΣˡƿʷʹӴٶʮءԵļ֣ΪҵС23 ֮ʹڮ裬˶Լ۾ڵʱȴdz̬ߣԼĵӡԸ塱ϴ߳𡢵֮£һй֪ʶӶеٶȸˣػ٣̨ijϣϾӦѡһ߶꣬ʣ˵ܶİţǮ㣬ԡѣйڽ5000ѭ˼塱24 ȴij˵ȻԲڷˣɼͿ궩ġǮѧѡ׫УȻƤ˾ʵġѧԺһζϣ˵µúǣйѧϱңǮϡƺͬԼġѧԺһɼһѧԵѵǹӵӡĻղܳΪ԰ʵϣһŰ˾ףһλѧݡ˾˷ܵ˵޵٣Ǯߣģʱʹ򣡡ΪĿţΪĭӺųм첻ԸԷġʦ˵ġԱνǮġһǡǡ۷չͿнͬġˡ25 ԣڱ߶ʵᣬᶼС´׵ᡣ


һŰ˰꣬ԡעشͳĻ˳Ӧ糱Ϊ徣Ȩȴ磬ɽ⣬26廪ͬǮڰӭ٣ȥҷġ꽲ʦǣףεķʽԼġѧഺʱִΩֲĺףϼУ̹ԡʵε桱пʵIJࡱƽǰհ󡰶Ϊ䲻ɺ27 ȽԲ෽ˡ


¼ŵʱʱǮļǻ۵èͷӥֻڻƻ轵ʱչᡱ仰н֮̾˹ּĦŵʱ⣬ܷѧҵӦʣ䡱ߺΣ


19982³ī


20006ٸڱ200310¶ڱ


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Ǯ˶ܲ ԭء־1934꣩3119ţӡڡǮѧѡ׶ʦѧ磬1991ҳ460ǮԸüֻעƪҳ롣


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S˹˼ΡŦԼ湫˾1959ҳ457 (William S. Stokes, Latin American Politics, New York: Crowell Co., 1959)


顰ʲô桱աȫϣɽ磬19936ҳ463-8ɵǰ̸ܷɺͬϣҳ729-36׾ģܷʵء顷19983ڣҳ102-7ռ׾˵棩廪ѧ磬2004


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22 Ǯҵҳ696


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24 һڣ½ڵ롢¾УԻ¼Ϻ֪ʶ磬1991ҳ507508


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26 ΪȨ̨ҵ˾1982һġԡ


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