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ηչ۵߹ۡйθĸов۽̽


Щйθĸо൱̶ηչԼ۵Ӱ졣ȻڷչйαǨڵķ۵ľ޺ϵȱʧΪʶйθĸоУηչõۼ衢ܡͱϵ뵱ȻڶйʵͽˣбҪЩ۵Ļݺ͹۵ԵԱȽϺܽйθĸ۵ʧͷ۵ľޣѰҸɿ۷ߡ

һηչ۵ȱʧ۵

ϸ50-60ηչۼͼضķܺ͸ߣԼҵķչ飬ȽϷͬչ̬ͳ̶ȵαǨӦ⣬սϵȻŬ˼Ѻսڶ಻ͬʷĻϵIJͬչҾо۽͡ʽͲָ겻ϱ䲻Ժ;šҲ˶ηչоļˡ2070Ժηչ۲ܷۺ;оѾ˴ºηչ۵̽֡о߽Ȥת˵ķչоתضĻչսԵ֣̽صҲηչת򾭼÷չսԺͷչģʽƶȵĹϵξѧĿ⣬һЩбηչҲ

ηչ۵׷Ŀ֮ӵļֵϵһʼηչѧǾ뽨һܹضηչ͹ɵĺۣgrand theoryһ۲ҪܹԳΪһϵܹڹ(interpretation)塣[1] ηչĺͼӶ̬;̬潨ԼϵӶ̬IJ棬ηչΪ̬ӵͼ׶߼׶ΣߴӴͳ׶ִ׶εıǨ̡ǽַչ׶ηΪͳִĶַǴͳִִַηչΪǷѶĿȷͲתִִ̡ͳ-ִķչͼҵͷչйҵ𣬲Щйɳ˴˲ݵ̬ǰߵΪӦ׷ķչĿ, Դ˽ηչ۷ܡһչۿѰ۽ϵձͬʱҲֳһԵġе¼ֵжϵĹ۵㣬߸ȷе˵ӢִϵdzɹƵĿģܺƹ㵽ķչйҡ[2] Ӿ̬IJ棬ηչͼͨһײⶨָضʱڵضηչij̶ȡܸλѧIJⶨָı͹вָͬͬԾϵͳͼֵ۵ӡ磬³ĺηչ׼1ƽԭԷʽձܵij̶ȣ2ЧʡȡҪصִӦҪij̶ȣԼ3ְֻܷ֯֯רҵ֮֯ϵij̶ȡ[3] ŷɭηչ1ƵĹܡЧܺϳ̶ȣ2ܣϹܺ˿εij̶ȣ3֯Ϲܺȶ̶ȣ4ʵij̶ȣ쵼˹ѡij̶ȣ5ӰѡԵĴԼɵij̶ȡ[4] Щ׼ãǽڶϵ֮ϵģ׼Ƶľʵ޹ء

о;ͼֵȡĽǶηչ۸ǽڶԪۼֵĻ֮ϵġһ˼ʵ壬ڼֵȡϷƵʵҪԪԼ¶ԪΪģΪооԵҪ壬ҵЭĸֲͬҪҪ󣬾ܵĴﵽһƽͺ߽άκȶˣ塢ѡ١ϡιԼӦĻƶȰųΪоҪݡһӽͨ˹ٵϵͳۡɵµĽṹ塢Լѧߵ۲γִѧۻͬʱҲΪִƵ˼ηչڶԪۻγ֮׵ĸ淶о;ӰһηչоѧߡһöԪװѧ߽оȤͶޡ޺޵˹ҵķչоʱǵĴ˻Ǵϵͳͽṹϵģʽչйҵʵġһǽչйҵϵͳṹ֮ڵIJ죬ȷΪͳԡϵͳͽṹʧԶӦϵִԡϵͳͽṹáͬʱǵо鲻ڶЩչ̵ľѧֺ̽оҸעľٳЩķչ̣Ԫ׼ֲЩ

ηչȷΪսҪﵽġġʵֵ趨ĿۼڶԷҵľо⵽ɡ˹ҵľηչǰһض˳еģηչĿҲڷչйضʱںضĻѡĽжԪԺͿԡ[5] ͳִչַԼַηչеҲ෽⡣?߰Ϊִͬʣִ͡ͳҲijֵжϵζ󲿷ηչоףŷʷ飬ˣ̫ĸ顢ƫ̻ԽУethoncentric൱̶뷢չйҵǰľ鲻ء[6] ķͨһЩĹұƶȵо֣һЩΪͳƶȣһѾתijִƶȣЩṩһֱתͷʽһֿʽչģʽġDz԰һζģµġӴͳִת͵һģʽ[7] ϸʮһЩչйҵѧߺ쵼˻ڱչľͽѵҲ˶չģʽ۵ķʡСΪչʱѭ׶δؿԸơʵϣ󲿷ֹҵķչٵʷʱѾͬĽѵ;Щ飬ôӸϽµڹ͡磬в׼νɫְҵ̶ȣũ͹˵νɫԼζԪռ̶ȣЩѧ϶ηչӦȷηչе塣[8] ңһЩչй˵ɫʵηչģʽѾԼԼǹҿ͹ʵϵŤƫĺʧ档ЩΪ¸ִݵĻ߸ɴӦñ߸Ĵͳƶȣ󲿷Ѿ֤ʵвɺӵĵԡԡЩƶȲûᾭñǨӰ˳ӦִijʾӦԡڷչģʽѡУչйҲȫչģʽ˳ͱ׼ȷԼķչԡʷĻƶȲһǷչϰչйпܸԼʵѰҳӦ뱾չµ·[9] һЩִۺηչۿսʱʶ̬֪ʶƵһ֣ĿǽάϵʵķΧųԵķչ̬[10] ǣַչģʽƹѾһЩ˸Ӱ죬չЩҴͳƶijЩ˶桢ľ߼ЧĻƵ߽⣬жɱʵԷչĿԡ[11]

ɴ˿ɼηչСۡвԷչйңһЩѧɡЩеdzʶ̬ϵۣҲdzڶѧоĿĺͷ۷̽֡ηչڸۼͷֵ;ޣԼڼֵȡչģʽƫ̻ǿ˵̬ʹ׷Ŀܵ෽ɡЩɴٳ˱Ƚо۵ij֡

ϸ70 һо޷չѧۺо;ηչۼ۵ĶԱȡԵơѧηչо;ڵһȱʷۡǽҰչξѧ򡢹ξñʷĻIJ档ѧߴ潨Լ۷ϵһΪϵʵϱΪġġҺ͡ͶȷչġԵҡչйҵ൱̶Ĺ׷ɳ;ŵĽǿڷչαǨоҪãΪչйҲڹ͹ⷽ棬Ҫ㹻ȡϵжdzϷչйҵĶԣ𽥵ʶض䳤ڷչеľ塣ηչȽϣ۵ȷΪޡ޺޵ķչṩijָԺͺԵĽģʽ磬ڶԶǵչģʽоУѧɵ۹۵Ӻܴij̶ܵۻ۵Ӱ죬ԶǵȨƺĻͳڱ÷չеø൱̶ȵĿ϶[12]

Ȼھоͽϱηչ۾ƣЩۣķۣȻѰձڹĺۡһֺ۵ĴԽ롢ԽϸӦõķΧԽ㣬ϵҲԽԡ۵ڲķ硣չй׷չʵмгɹʵҲʧܵʵѧɴҲֻΪѧɺѧɡǰһЩھ÷չ˴ӴͳȨɫתʱȴָƶܴͳƶ͸ֳIJȷԡһЩָ͵ֻǷչйתʱڵʵֻһֹɵָۡڵǰĹƺȫ򻯽УйڷչвΡúĻشӰ졣ѱģʽһȫµĵ·һʵβԣ䷢չǰǰġʶ̬IJ棬۵ҪסΪõʵṩжָΪõṩʶ̬۾ݣˣֵֻһҶݵĹ۵ѡ[13]

Կηչۺ׷ĹжȺϺͼֵϵͬʱڸӵĹʵͲֵͬ۵ľ룬ʹϵıʶ̬ضӵĸӻǣɷϵǣ۵ijֺͶηչ۵ٲĽһȽоѰԺһԵԸ档һ治ʹѧ翪ʼչͼֵϵΪѧ˼бҪķ˼ѧĸ塢ٶͼʹ÷ΧҲʹӶԷıĻƶȴͳͷչģʽоַ˼ʹѰһʽηչģʽŬת˶ԾжԴͷչԵ̽֡ԲͬĸʽķչоϸѾµ񣺼жϺʶͬչģʽ֮IJԭνһȷ䱾ձ֮ϵԼȷ֮ƽⷽʽԷչй׷չеѡṩµݡʵϣۺͱչģʽڷչĹṩµϣǿģ˷ʷĻԱᣬӴͳƶһЩصҪԣ˽ַչ·Ĵ۸ӵʵָֿ̽ܵķչʵ̬ѡչսԣٵʵ⡣

Ȼηչۺ۵ı۲ûнҪ׷һԺԵĿ꣬߿˵Ŀһʼܾ;ηչĺ¶ǡǡϵ׷Ҫԣǿձֵʵеľ󡣷չйִвɱҪƵıƵıпƶһķչҲпܴݻټչƶˣؼѡβԣʹαڷչ෴ѡѵĺ͸ӵġѡȲ羭ϵֵǿѹֱ뿼ʷͳԼʵα仯תͿܴijˣչйٵʵҪϸµġкʵʵۺηߡһʵǡǡηչۺˡ

αǨ۽˵

20 70 Ƚѧ߿ʼоתתαǨηչ۵оȣαǨоƲηչսĿͷչ׶˳ۼ͸ܣоȷϵͳ仯ԭ򡢷ʽ̺ͽȷ档

һԣαǨָһϵͳ仯һϵͳתĹ̡ݴά?˹ٵĶϵͳָάϵһел壬ϵͳ֯ϵͳԱԼ֯ͳԱȨӰҪɡϵͳҪǽתΪٷߡִжֵȨԵķ䡣ΪϵͳάȡһܹضֵȨԵķ䣻跨ʹĴԱȨԼֵ䲢ѷӵһϵͳܹЧĽоߣ߲ʹЩ߰ȷĹΪܣϵͳͽٱҲ˵ϵͳܲȡʵĴʩԸγɻҵγɵѹʱͲܼάȥ

ǣ˹ΪʹصľΣΣһϵͳ׵ؽ߳׵ıϵͳȻϵͳ֮һı߽磬ȻǿԵģܹҪ֧ԼѹЧķӦϵͳͨжⲿӰӦڲ֯ͨγɶԸⲿѹĴơЩʹϵͳ֯ԵԼΪıԼڲṹȷԼĻĿꡣ˹ٷԵʱеľۣΪΪϵͳܵѹʱϵͳԱĿֻͼı价½㡣־ʵڸϵͳΪӦѹѡͬ;ĿĿԡָϵͳӦԲΪѹ򵥵ҵӸϸıڻӦðΪܿⲿȡġԵԵĹ㷺жıϵͳ [14]

ϸϽ˹ٵϵͳ۲αǨۡ˹һֱϵͳȷΪһֹ淶ۣĿϵͳάֺȶΪֵĿ꣬޶ʵּȶֵıҪ˸˵[15] ϵͳӦάֻĽ˵ȴһЩоαǨѧաɵ¾ͽϵͳαǨһĵıΪϵͳ֮ԷǨΪϵͳµͳļڽͨ֯ĿԴȡڽ֯תΪ֯ԭеϵͳ˶ϺͶԱϵͳ˱仯ϵͳҲȻǨ[16] ˹?ϵͳϵͳеһ֣ϵͳϵͳ֮ı߽緢ı䣬ȻҪӰϵͳִйֻҪϵͳִеṦšή飬ϵͳͻᷢǨ[17]

ֹϵͳġѧ˵ʵϳΪоչйαǨ۵㡣ѧ˹ѧ˵Ӱ£ϵͳһ壬뵽ϵͳڲӦĹصбȽϷǿϵͳֻϵͳ֮µһϵͳϵͳı仯Ӱ첻Ӧġ䡱ϵͳĻУϵͳֻӦϵͳԱˣǹĵϵͳı仯ԼϵͳӰ졣ΪоҪ֣ϵͳڲԼͷʽ漰ϵͳƺѾģͼֵ۹۵ѧۺͶԪ۴ͳʵһеġʹôоαǨѧߣоȤᾭñ仯Ӱ졢׼ͽײı仯֯֯Ӱ졢ԼβصغĻصȷ⡣ֻصηչμֵĿ

αǨУ͢ٵ۾жص塣1968͢ڡ仯еһжαǨ۷Ѿ˶˶ҪԵĹǿתչйȶⷽ档ֱ˵μҶڹңƫʶΪʷǿҵķʹμʱ뵽ȨǴȨȨСƺͶȨƱΪһ̸һõĹƶһܷټ֮ȨȨԼƽ⡢ơѡԼ͢Ϊһ׼ֵϵڷչйDzʺϵġΪڴڷչеĹ˵ҪǽȨ򣻡ҪⲻɣǽһϷĹ򡱣ֻеһˮ׼֯ܽѡ٣򣬡ѡֻǿЩַѣҳǷ߽⹫ȨĽṹ[18] ͢ʵ֤һ۵㡣һάĻܿ⣬֮ʽǸʵЧͳεij̶ȣڶսչйҵľûдʹЩҳִۼԤʾηչЩҵҺ˥ࣻڷչйңЩ÷չԽĹңϵĶҲԽءʵ͢ΪչйҪάȶȶȡβƶȻ֮ϵβ뷶ΧԭִͷεᾭõķչִȶӰͨ¹̵ֵģ÷չ໥òۣ໥òβչβչƶȻͺεIJȶ͢ٵȻִΪ㣬ȷؽйᾭõı仯оβ롢βȶͱо֣оصβƶȻ֮Ĺϵ档ִĸֹϵУƶȻβ֮ĹϵdzҪΪֹϵʧ⽫·չʧܣʹαǨ˥ࣨϵIJȶúͱں͢ڷ˥ʱͨԼβ롢ƴýԼѹȺڶԱķƺ͵ڷչḶ̌۷ģʽܵѧߵΪǴȶƽгֵ۳ıۡ

ԣαǨͼӽСķΧֲηչ۵IJ㣬оķΧСӰϵṹԱ仯תصαǨں۲ϵĽ˵ƺӡǨľýṹ仯׼ͽײ»֡Ӣڹϵı仯ԼңϵݱȶƶαǨԭԭʹϵڲĵڸıϵαǨʵǨλģٽαǨǨĴбȻԵĽȻαǨо˲ѧȥעضҺĻαǨľоǣαǨηչ۵һ֧۲ϣαǨĺʷºձ黯۸Ȼѧش⡣

ڷϣαǨоͣᾭñαǨԽ˵IJϡѧߴữᾭñαӽαǨԭЩо;ȻڷϺܻӭϸαǨķۣһαǨۡЩԽ˵ֻǶαǨеĸϵʵȱӦеϵԽȻṩ˹۵ĻϣǾ۷ر֮以ıʣ޷ضƶȱαǨʵоԽͺͿԤ⡣

ضαǨľоʱ֣ᷢαǨж漰ľԶȺ۵IJҪӵĶࡣձ黯ضµľֲ֮νӣ۵ĽھʵǰԵò԰۶Ҳȱָ塣ҪԭڣϵĽݵʵ޵ģϵڸΧľоʱձ黯۵ָͻɥʧǿĻоУ׷ԸͼֵƫĽᵼ۽ľ޺ƫ[19]

αǨʵϿ԰ı仯һϵͳڲı仯ϵͳ֯ͳԱ֮Ȩְܹϵı仯ϵͳת䣬ϵͳΪһһһ͵ת䡣ˣαǨۼҪضϵͳڲȨ͹ܽṹı仯ԭҲҪоһϵͳǷһϵͳݱ䣬ηݱ⡣ңҪǣӦ̽ϵͳڲı仯ϵͳݱ֮Ƿijϵһϵڲı仯ܷʹϵͳһģʽת䡣Ȼۺͺ۳ģͷ̽Щ⣬Щ仯̽ҪԾʵ֤ۡ

߹̣һθĸов

ͨ徭֮ڵĺ蹵Զ׼ģҪ⣬۷ʽںۺ;徭֮佨вۡѧ޲?Ĭѧоڵͬ˽в۵Ĺ롣Ϊв۵ڼͨо徭֮һֽڳͳһ徭֮ۡв۵ĿҪָоܹ֤ͨˣֻ漰޵ڽ޵ͬʱв۲ų۾۵˼۵۽ԣָձ黯뻯Ϳնı׶ˣٱӵľоǿоӦԡӦԺָԡʵһIJǣֺͨ΢ʵ⣬Ծв۹ͼ裬ʹЩͼܹھľеõ֤ʵˣвʵǶԺ۾оͲ䣬Ѱشռ;۽˵޵ķΧͨʵ֤ķѰԽʵ;ͷ[20]

й۽ڶθĸоһֱǻǰξأθĸоָϳھǶǵĺ²԰Σھоȱ㹻ָ˴ź۲ͺ;¸ֻ۲͵۽ű߼ʵ͹ɣ¸ȱͷ˼飬ֳй۽йθĸоƶں۲ͷ涫ƴյĽԼڸȱָäĿɢʹо޷֪ʶۺʶˣīٵв۹ƶйθĸоͷ̽־Ҫָ塣

ΪйθĸоӦкоָηչαǨҲȷʵΪйθĸṩ˿ɹһЩһԸۼоܡ÷չṹ仯׼ͽײķֻ飩-ϵݱ䡢ֵת䣨ᾫӢʶ͹ı仯ܳΪijԭ򣬳ΪθĸӰƶǣЩ۷йθĸʵʱظ۶ֻдۼ裬ܵȶʵĸݡңηչαǨ۵ϵȻںۺһ㻯޷شľ⡣磬йٵľ÷չṹ仯ͨʲôķʽ;ӰθĸḶ̌ЩغθĸĿݵѡԼʽͷãЩԭʹйθĸֳijЩͬص㡣Щ⿿ηչαǨĺۼͽ޷شġ

ˣ漰йθĸоѰ۽͵ʱ򣬱ȻҪЩĽΪķۡӦöעľоָ壬ͬʱܶԺijЩͺͲ䡣۲Ӧǰġְصرͬȵֻͽģֱܴ֮ڵϵˣ۱һ޵ۣ۲ĶӦǾڵʵ۵ļٶ۾ӦеʵΪݣڹϵԤڣۼӦǽ޵ı˴صʵ֮ϣƽɫʵ֮ϡ

Χйθĸ20αǨḶ́ǾпܽһΪԵķۡȣǿԴαǨķʽǵķۡαǨԷΪθĸθֽȻͬķʽθĸΪαǨһַʽθķʽűϵIJͬθԴģζԱΪֶΣͨ׸ıеȨƣƶԼƽе߸ԵıŴģξӢתˣθһ־ҵλ漰еĸҶȲγͻθЩص㣬ͷθõۺͷܽγͻIJ档ѧθĿعעڸγɵԭ׼֮ijͻԼЩ׼IJ֮ͬȨᡢɶʶ̬Ķͻۡ׼ۡ-ңϵۺ͸۳ΪҪ۷ߡθĸ漰еͶȳͻλҪ漰еƶȿ¶ƺȨṹе޵ıҪֶͨеȨƶĸߣҪͨеиĸߵʵʩԴﵽθĸĿġ

һʶθĸԱһ߹̣ȨضλϵУضĹѡƶߣʵʩĹ̡˹ٵϵͳֻۣҪϵͳܹϵƶȨԵľʵʩϵͳͻάij̶ֳȵȶij㣬ι̵Ҫһѡƶʵʩ߹̡һУ᲻ͬײȺҪѹ쵼˵μֵۡԼᾭýṹ仯صɻѡƶʵʩӰ죬ЩֻΧƶȨߵIJϼԿDz塣ˣθĸķӦȡģ۵ĺľ߹̡

߹̵оΪǽθĸķṩµ;߹оµοѧڰǰѾʼע߹̵ооǻڶԱȶϵͳе̽֡ά?˹ٵϵͳģʽ߹оķչҪӰ졣ΪϵͳжߵĹԻɵģЩжߵΪСֵȨԷ䡱ϵͳĻϵͳ͸벻֧֣ͬϵͳйЩ֧תΪʽȻʵʩĽӰϵͳͶ롣[21] ɴ˿ɼ˹ٵϵͳģʽԱ߹̵һģʽ

ϸ70ʼѧ͹ѧӶԹߵоԽԽοѧҡѧҽоڹߵĹ滮ƶִйοѧ򣬹߹̵оѾΪ֧о֮һߵľоֽΪͳԺͼԵķӺۺ΢ηֹ̽ߵƶͷչ̡ԺģʽΪ߹оע߻ijڷչ仯˼֯ƶȵȶԹ߷չ仯Ӱ죬Լ߶ᷢչ仯Ӱ졣΢ģʽΪ߹о߹ежߵΪͼЩԹ߹̵ȫϸµĹ۲йɳξӢ͹ŻΪģʽԼЩΪģʽƶȺĻԭ[22]

⣬Ƚ߽оչ˿Ļо棬оijЩضңŷң֮ıȽϣ֮ͬʵߣ籣ߡ˰ߡߡסߺͻߵȣݵıȽԼ߹̱Ƚϡ깫߱Ƚоѧ;ѧķչҪо̽ھ÷չִһУ߷ӦġַչΪŸũҵ빤ҵ뷢ִᣬÿһҶҪͬķչ׶Σͬһչ׶θ߷Ӧͬġָ£һЩѧͼͨȽߵо;÷չһۡ70ԺԽԽܵǵΪǷָͬһIJͬӦľᷢչ׶βһأŷ޴½ҺӢḣϵIJ죩Էչģʽдٽ˱ȽоĶһЩѧͼ֤ͬʷĻγɵIJͬĻֵԹƶִеӰ졣Ҳѧ´ʷ-ƶȵĽǶоͬҵ߹̣˵Ϊ֯ΪضʷضƶȰнп졣ȽоķչͶʹùоͻѧɣԪѧɣԸ¢ϣЭ壨neo-corporatismƶ塢ѡ۵µۺͷѾ߹овӰ졣

ɴ˿ɼоΪȡѧ̽Ѿ漰ѧѧѧЩоۺʵ֤ijɹаڶĻԱϵļ衢۷ܡо;ͷȣΪǹθĸķۺ;ṩ۽زġؼǣδЩزҪijɷָ֣θĸоۡ߹۹Ҫȷоļֵ׼Щֵ׼߹оķͷӦýЩ뿼ǵķΧͲЩֶΡҪ۲ʵ⣬ݻѰصıȻͨʵķҳ֮ϵҳͬϵм߼˳

20йθĸʵֵһҪijԺͽԡ[23] ǴһԽйθĸֳԽθĸijԼʲô;̶ͬȵظıйԭеƵĹɺзʽ⽫Ƕйθĸи˽⡣ˣйθĸ߹оķӦȷι̵漰ĽǸĸʲôļȶʽʲôʵ׼ѡƶʵʩӦȴֵĿơֻеǶʵʵ;˱Ƚ˽оֵĿƲмʵʵӦڷӦȷھԽ͵ʵ֤о棬ǹ淶ֵijǿ档Խ͵ʵ֤оһǶԼȶʵоθĸﵱһȶʵӴ˳ʵĿĵķǰڶijۼֵĿͼֵҪοܶԻʵţǶθĸʵ;鼰ɽоܿ͹۵˽⡣

ġ߹۵Ŀ

߹ԳΪһַйθĸв۵ĻӦðµоݡһҪָ̽ĸһʲôλ±ƶʵʩġҪֶ̽ԸĸߵƶʵʩӰҪЩЩᾭ֯ͻȺ塢쵼˵ȣЩõġҪ̽ЩԸĸƶõȺ塢֯˵ƫãѡݵı׼߹̵ĸͬ߷еƶĸӦôΧƶʵʩι綨

λԼ͹淶ƶʵʩҪءλ״̬ƿܸܵѹֵ֧ij̶ȣƵϾ߹̲Ⱥ͸ƶпܰݵĽɫͷӵáλIJ콫ں̶ܴӰѡʱȿ˳ͻĽṹԲ߹̲Ⱥ͸ƶʵʩȨϵIJ磬λijθĸʱظĸߵƶоͻף֮߾ͻᱻʱáλijߵʵʩ񻯣εIJȶθĸﲻʱֹͣеҲᱻֹͣʵʩȨƽʹƶȨؼڹȨIJӰͻ⣬˸ȨνṹƵƶȻʹ쵼иľȨȺ֯Խθĸʱĵ[24] ߹۶λĿӦǶ̬ġǶƵĿ죬ҪƽṹĻԼι̵ãҲҪθĸı仯

θĸеЩҪıҪģҪԿ͢ڸαǨо;ʱķܺرֵDzοΪоαǨԴϵͳвͬɲ֮ıϵ֡ϵͳɲֿԸΪ͡һĻ֣йصIJռλļֵ̬ȡȡڶνṹ֣ε֯ءغ͹Ų㣬Щ֯ƶȨԵľ丳ʵʩȺ岿֣ʽĺͷʽ;Ⱥ壬һʽΣλҪ󡣵ģ쵼㲿֣λеĸ˺ͼţȷֵȡиӰѡƶҪá壬߲֣ͨλƶʵʩξĿľʶӰڲͳͷķ䡣αǨȻҪ漰ı仯ͨ£Щɲַ仯ٶвģ˴˲Ӱ죬γɲͬصαǨʽͽˣӦעоЩɲֱ仯֮Ĺϵռ֧λļֵ仯ṹݻ֮Ĺϵ쵼˸߱仯֮ĹϵԼȺβı仯ṹ仯֮Ĺϵ[25]

͢ɵΪо߹ṩ˿Խķ;ֻЩоϵĿԣûнһı໥֮Ĺϵǰʲô߼Ϊġʵı߹йأҲԱ߹еı߹ʵΧضеһϵλιҲǸα֮䲻ϽлḶ́以һ£һιеġǽλǰĸߵƶʵʩλĽĸ߻ڲͬij̶ϸıȶƣı˵ƽΪһλǰˣȷ˸ĸĻα֮󣬻̽ƵĻ״̽֯Ⱥ쵼ʲôʽ;ξߣѡݵĽɫӰ죬Լ˭žԵá

߹УѡΪƵԼҲͼֵ۵֧䣬ͼֵ֮еϵղķ˹?ɭΪ߽ѡʱȻܵᾭѹƶȵijԼʱƵصӰ죬߱˵ļֵۺѡDzɺӵġЩֵԹΪ͡һμֵ߷ʱȡα׼߾˵߱ǷչʵĿֶΣ˴߾ߵĻֵ֯ƶж֯ĿĿǣֵ֯Ϊ׷֯Ż棬չ֯ļƻжԼά֯ȨȨȡ˼ֵڱͷչ˵ʷλԼʱѭļֵ׼ģ߼ֵξ߲Ρֵ֯׼Ӱ죬ǻܻԼԹߺԵʶȷߵѡ壬ʶֵ̬͹Ȩȷһ߼ϵļֵۺȨжͺϷҪֶκͱ׼[26]

ɭӰ߾߼ֵ͵ķΪṩ˾нȡƫõֵּʶֵ̬Ƿйθĸѡʾ塣ɭʶֵ̬ĸȺ͢ٵĻڷθĸ߹ипȷԡĻΪڻھγɵĶȨȨɫȵ̬ԼصļֵȺΪۻ[27] Ļʲô̶Ϻʲôʽ߹̲ǺȷġɵºάͼͨʾķʽĻģʽ˵ĻξƵʽһֱܵǵɡ˹ʼĻĸĺԺͲȷԣüֵĸĻĸΪηĻһġ߹̷Уʶ̬ĸиȷԺͿɹ۲ԡڶ£Ȩеʶ̬ȨȷģΪߺΪĺԺϷԱ׼иȷǿԣһʶ̬ģѡԵã˾зϵĿɹ۲ԡй쵼1978׶Խ׼Ϊʶ̬ϵΪиĸ↑ߵ춨˺Եļֵһܺõ֤

Ȼɭ߼ֵȡķҲDzȡеķʽûнһ֮һʲô߼ϵӦָǣЩֵȡ¿໥ìܵģμֵ߼ֵʶ̬֮ìܣʶ̬߼ֵ֮ìܣֵֵ֮֯ìܵȵȡЩìܲʱʲôһֵּռĵλֵܹơ彲ʲôμֵ淢չʹȶʶ̬仯򲿷ָı䣬ʲôֵܹ֯ŻIJ棩òԼЩڸĸ߹̷Ҫһ̽֡
ǿѡʱҪߵȡͼֵۣһбҪѡеIJȷءٶ߾ܹȡͼֵ׼ѡ߷ͬʱȻ߽ܴڲȷԵ⡣ϣܹԤڵĽʵ֣ǣ߷ǽԤ;Ļ֮ϵģʵʩĹȻ޷Ԥ֪Ӱ쵽ߵʵʽԤ£߱濼һʧܿܲĺֿǶԸĸ˵ǷdzҪģΪθĸߵʧϵغˣ߽ѡӦʧܵ⣬⽫ʹԵľ߱еѡʵ߲ԣ߽IJȷԣ֤ĸ߻Ŀʵ߽֡ȷȡIJֶνĸ߻ȡʲôķʽ裬ԼߵݺʱijֲԵظʹýʹ߷ʽԼݺʱѡγijֶʽγθĸijص㡣

ΪֹѾԶ߹۷ܽܽˡȣǿԼٶйθĸеĻƶ¶ȨṹеĸĸάֻƶȶĻ϶ȨеĵĽְתˣθĸԿһ߹̣һͨߵѡƶʵʩʵֶȨϵƵְܽĿĵתĹ̡θĸIJ룬ƶеijЩԭͲֿܻв̶ͬȵ޸ĺͱȻάȶʵе߸ΪĸĻĿġ

ǽ۵ӽǷ߹̷IJ֮Ӱѡƶʵʩĸֱͱ֮ĹϵΪǹעĽ㡣ǽ߹ΪߣؼѡҪ߹̵Գ̶ȶһ׼ǽθĸ߹صΪҪĿǰʶ̬쵼㡢еĸ֯ȺߡͬʱǼ裬Щ֮ĹϵǶ߹̲Ӱõij̶еȨϵģȨϵͬıʲôͲ̶Ӱѡƶʵʩһ裬Խһֵ̽¼档һ£ʶ̬ԸĸߵĺԺͺϷԵãԼʲôʶ̬ᷢ仯Ȩ쵼θĸߵѡƶаݵĽɫԼ쵼ȡƫúͼֵ׼ѡ߲ԵӰ졣Ż֯ƫúͼֵ׼ԸĸƶʵʩӰ죬Щ֯ʣƶȻ̶ȺӦ仯θĸѡӰ졣ģȺ¶߹̿ܵIJ뷽ʽͳ̶ȡ壬θĸߵݡʵʩʱҪء

߹̷ܻйθĸеijЩ⡣йθĸijԡԵĻʵҪϻشУΪʲôйθĸǽĶǼģΪʲôһĸܹڳֽĸܹڶij̶ʵƵƽȱԼֱǷѭij߼еijЩ⣬ǿԼ裬йθĸijй쵼ȷĿͲȡ߲ģθĸһϽѡij̣佥ѡݵƶȺƵľء߹̵ۿܶЩʵ֤Լ齫ԵóµĽۣ⽫봫ͳĺ۷ĽγĶա

ԣ߹ΪойθĸһвۣΪθĸᆳоṩָʵ֤ۡηչĺȽϣ߹ۣҪΧθĸѡƶʵʩչۼʵ֤顣漰۵ֵĿ֣̽Ǵ۹淶ֵжϳθĸʵĶͼйθĸĻͷʽԽͬ͡ʱ߹۷ȫųֵѡһ۵Ĺʵβά߹ƽΪֵԭģΧһֵصĸ⡣߹۳ϼֵĿ꣬ͼ޶ʵּȶĿıҪϽ߹ۼԵǹ淶ԵġҪָǣֹ淶ԲͬڴͳۣΪͳۡͼ֤ѡȷģΪκν͡ [28] 彲ȻйθĸͿѧ߳Ϊ쵼ѧ練۵Ļ⣬߹۲߿ѧΪ۽Ļֵԭ򣬶ǰǵɹ۲ʵԷ֮Сѡߵ޹أǴ۹һԿǵġ˹ٶǰָΪƫһϵͳѾΪੲݡִ˲ƣһĻ⡣ [29]ֱڣΧε֮Ȼڡ߿ѧڰǰԺͽȻѾƽϢ弴ͽ弴ȻڡˣЩ޷׼ȷ綨ļֵΪ۵ļֵ㣬Ȿ߹۵ʵ֤Ŀ겻һ¡ȻθĸоӦúǶͼֵѡҲֵĿʵֵ⡢ƿѧԵԼѡ⡣ЩͬⲻӦûΪһ̸Щıֻ߽۷ϵĻңԼȶֵ޲⣬ֵĿֺ̽ƵĿѧ׷뿪˶ʵεʵ˽⣬ҲֻʹĿʵʣΪһֺÿ޷ʵֵĿ¥


עͣ

[1] ڹ߲ѰʵľȷͽͣһҪѰصЩĿĵжɡΪĿģڹҪһֱֿӽĹ淶׼ȻЩ淶׼һ֮佨ϵܵؽijһʵжʵʹͳ֮ڵԺͿԡHarry Eckstein, Case Study and Political Science, in Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson W. Polsby, eds.: Handbook of Political Science, vol. 1, Political science: Scope and Theory, Reading, Mass. Addison-Wesley, 1975, p. 81; and Donald Moon, The Political Inquiry: A Synthesis of Opposed Perspectives. ͬ, p.173.
[2] 磬ġˡһΪִܲɷ֣˴ศɡһﵽߵʶʣγɸǿиĹ㲥͵ӣͻḶ̌ˡӡݣ1993꣬33-40ҳϣ˹Ϊʷչݽִͨԣͨ˹ҵ뽨ƽ֮ϣִԾѧԣִԾ, Edward Shils, Political Development in the New States, Paris: Mouton, 1966, pp.8-10.
[3] Lucian Pye, Introduction: Political Culture and Political Development. In Lucian Pye and Sidney Verba, eds Political Culture and Political Development. Princeton University Press, 1965, pp. 3-26.
[4] Marvin Olsen, Multivariate Analysis of National Political Development, American Sociological Review, Vol. 33, No. 5. October 1968, 703-704.
[5] Alfred Diamant, Political Development: Approaches to Theory and Strategy, in John Montgomery and William Siffin (eds.,) Approaches to Development: Politics, Administration, and Change, N.Y. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966, pp. 108-120; Leonard Binder, National Integration and Political Development, American Political Science Review, Vol. LVII, Sep. 1964, pp. 622-631.
[6] Howard Wiarda, The Ethoncentrism of Social Sciences: Implications for Research and Policy, Review of Politics, no. 43, April 1981, pp.163-197.
[7] A. H. Somjee, Parallels and Actuals of Political Development, London: MacMilliam, 1986.
[8] S. N. Eisenstadt, Post-Traditional Societies and the Continuity and Reconstruction, Daedalus, 102 (winter 1973, pp. 1-27.
[9] 磬ӡѧ÷ʽԪ۾ӡȱչģʽһԶIJͣVrajenda Raj Mehta, Beyond Marxism: Towards an Alternative Perspective, New Delhi: Manohar Publications, 1978.
[10] Susanne J. Bohenheier, The Ideology of Developmentalism: The American Paradigm-Surrogate for Latin American Studies, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publication, 1971; Teresa Hayter, Aid as Imperialism, Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1971; Ronald H. Chicote, Theories of Comparative Politics; The Search for a Paradigm, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981.
[11] Wiarda, Ethnocentrism of Social Science, ǰ
[12] о[]C. ԼȣģʽʾСξ÷չо۾룬й㲥ӳ磬1992棻֣۶Ƿչģʽԭ򡱣ִеѧ磬1998ϲᣬ144-162ҳ
[13] Tony Smith, The Dependency Approach, in Howard J. Wiarda, ed. New Directions in Comparative Politics, Westview Press, 1991, p.125.
[14] ά˹٣ϵͳij磬1999꣬ڶ¡
[15] ͬϣ16-17ҳ
[16] Gabriel Almond, Political Development, Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1970, pp. 166-168.
[17] Nicholas Berry, Political Configurations, An Analysis of the Political System in Society, Goodyear Publishing Company, Inc., 1972, p.49.
[18] ͢٣仯е򡷣ڻ룬顢֪꣬1989棬7ҳ
[19] ֣߿ѧ뱾21ͣᡷ׽죺̳ļѧ磬2002档
[20] īٶв۵Robert King Merton, On Sociological Theories of the Middle Range, in On Social Structure and Science, edited and introduced by Piotr Sztompka, The University of Chicago Press, 1996. J. H.ͣѧ۵Ľṹϣ룬ij磬200123ҳ
[21] David Easton, A Framework for Political Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentices-Hall, 1965, p. 110.
[22] ߹оɹ򣺡߹̡ձ1992档
[23] ֣ȶΪйθĸս2000꣬5ڣ16-26ҳ
[24] ֣ëʱľӢתԼŵ𡱣ս2001꣬6ڡ
[25] ͢٣±仯ı仯ִչΡ?࣬ȽִϺij磬199682-83ҳ

[26] ղķ˹ɭߡij磬199019-20ҳ
[27] ᡤάͶĻľ䶨ǣɵԾźͼֵɵϵϵ涨ΪɷۻοĺʽɫԼӦ֯šֵʲôLucian Pye and Sidney Verba, ed. Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965, p. 513.
[28] ˹٣ϵͳ16ҳ
[29] ͬϡ

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