ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ûзɵ

һծĵͷ

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[Ҫ] ĶԻһծе飬һûзԺľ׽ơַʽ׻ںһ־߼֮Ч˽ȼÿ£ծ˴ںյûзɵ򡣾ͱĿծԣĬʾĹıҶ˽ȼʡȡǹȨͨ˽ʵƵļ

Abstract: Based on a field study of an informal debt-collection practice, the article describes a dispute settlement without court.The informal mechanism is consonant with economic theory,and is so effective,in short,the debtors are inclined to choose cooperation when the creditors take self-help remedies,and it results in order without law.As for the informal debt-collection I surveyed, state and society come to a tacit conspiracy, and the state tolerates the existence of self-help to a proper extent, which is a kind of the art of government that public power attains social control through private individuals actions.

ûʲôҲɻʵۡҪҸȫѡ ʸ衷

2000ģһλѵѾһǷѾѯܹĴⳡ˾ҪǮ賤ʱ䣬ܷ׷ǮҵĽ޷⣬ƣǽĸհɡżȻĻᣬʶ˵λڷɱԵծˣʮʵʩծȤΪ()ծΪʦͻ׷ծǵжΪ׾;һλʦΪʲôѡѡʦͷԺûзԺľ׽˺󲻾ãһλѧߵ̨˵Ŀ¼ƽĿǡ˽˵Ĵۡ س;Уijһ΢ײԷ˽˰ɡӽԷ⸶200Ԫλѧ߱ҵʦһλоϺ˾ƶȵרңڸո̸ꡰ˽˵Ĵۡ󣬱ڸ˾ѡ˽ˡĽʽ

¼ϷԳҰĿ˽ˡծȷʽ׽ʽն˽ȼϡ˽ȼõоҳԴծ֣һչծ˽ȼõòͨ˽ȼõĹǾ͸Ӿ׽򣬲ӵ˾ͷεĸλ[1]۽ծҰ飬ֻҪ

һ̡Ŀ
Ҫºǿ[2]šĸ硱1965壬ѻ飬źӽˣ1989ծУŹ㷢޳ϰ֣ºǿϰͺѣ꣬Ա٣ºǿаӲУծ⳵˾ȡ鹲Σ2001720-23գ200222-8գ428-30գ55-8գԼ724-27ա鷽Է̸Ϊºǿദۼ20죬̸뵽µ50ڸˡԼˡ̸֤Գºǿ̸ʱӽɡ֡ꡢӲСڳĵҪ漰㷢޳Ƿ׷óԱٵڳijһĿʷ񣬵ΪظȡʴʽһйݽйɡΪԹֱӲ¶ծжǸռĶ򾭼áᡢԼйծ˽ȼõ׵ȡ

ͨ飬ϣ˽óΪѡծͻֶͨΡкƽףίк(ʡṹĻˮƽ)ѡծĶʲôΪβԸѰ˾ȼãΪβծˣνίУǷʹ֤ݣ֤ռ׼ʺۣ֤Ƿϯ˫ͨȡʽǷʹǿ³ͻծǷһϰߣͽǿծΣ˫δɣծΪʲôծijɱ桢ķʱ䣻ծӰ죻ܷЧִнֹծķɣҪֹ𣬵ȵȡҽʵ֤ϸծĹ̡¼ͨ뷨ԺĶգ[3]ʾծжڵ߼(еĻ)


ºǿڶУλ齭޵ش1985곷У3ΪصĵؼУϽ32½2465ƽ˿152.61˿500򡣸ĸ↑Ŷʮž20%ʳΪйøĵ֮һʵũ幤ҵһ廯չλΪԹҵΪɫִijС2001ֵ꣬578.44Ԫҵֵ1308.95Ԫ̶ʲͶܶ125.49ԪȫԤڲ126Ԫʵ18.16Ԫܶ189.89Ԫ˳62.88Ԫ1996-2001óܶȫڻ1458.65Ԫҵ͸廧16.37򻧣ҵ13612ҡӽϵҪأ1998걻Ϊ㶫ʡҵǿ򡱣126.15ƽ˿8.6˿31ࡣ2001ֵ꣬32.7Ԫũҵֵܲ39.6Ԫ˰2.63Ԫʵ1.07Ԫڻ71.49Ԫܶ11.63Ԫ3000ҵУҵ1183(̨ҵ330)Ӫҵ1000ҡ[4]

ִ£´һȻݽĴͳְҵծڶţ˾ƶڵĹʽƶȷʽ׽ƶȼзҲһЩʽƶȰţ֮һDZĵծծɽмӽԺ׽ΪձзԺ2001స21281ڣ20178ڣϱĽ23.2Ԫ¡ð11988ڣ11368ڣϱĽ16.3Ԫִа6569ڣִ6100ڣִбĽ6.9Ԫӽַͥϵ1982齨19851˹3ˣ199221ˣ20001ˣ20022˹7ˡ7λڱԱУԱ4ˣԱ3ˣдѧ2(2002)ר3ˣ㹤7ˡ1996ʹõ°칫¥2600ƽףȫͥа칫ϳˡ1992񣬻ÿ걻зԺΪȽ2001స1123ڣ᰸1103ڣ°274ڣð428ڣִа403ڡ80%ü׳ͨİͥͨҲֻǹʵ20%

Ϊʲôѡծ
֮ѡծºǿ˵

ڹ㷢޳ʱŴ1986꿪ʼΪϰծ87꿪ʼծһжԳЩ¸㲻˰æҲʼշѡ93ҵչ죬5У96Ļߵİ˳ȥ⣬δ䡣䲻࣬Ҫ˼̿ɽеʮˣծδôˣһ15ȥա

ɼծ·ְҵչȻ̣൱żȻԡ

ڶ´ծгء˰ծΪһṩ׷ծҵծʵγһгһȻݽΪҽֹгһ˫ȱϢͨƽ̨ϢֲԳƵIJȫгһ˵޷֮гһծ໥ijʽ׽ƶ(˾ƶ)г1989ծҵһֱܶ࣬г֣Ҫо͵飬ȴǼڴط֪ʶɶԱȡʵϣڶȫծΪƽͬҵſ㶫ծ˺ܶ࣬źӽ־20λȫп300ծˡ[5]ģһ㲻ֻмϴҲ˾Ա׷ծ[6]Ŀǰ֤ݷָõծγɺ֯ŷԺйʾǷֶ׷ծ°ÿֻ23ڣͨйءҲ׷ծծרծ֮Խߡڳºǿծ˻Ͼδծ¼¾ס

´ծҲòŷɣɱСӣЩСζпסծˡȻְҵʱһ֣Ȼ޷ͽΪֶεְҵسĻ̶ȵͣûʵְҵѡ񣬹ʳԴΪҵ

ծĻ̶(μ1)ձϵ͡[7]ⲻӰµ˵ְҵѡ񣬻ֱԼծĿչʽӰ˫صġһ棬Ļ̶ȵͶҵܡ̸СǩȷвӰ졣ɽA˾ǷB˾5.3ԪBίг׷ա20022£´4ծA˾Ӧ5Ԫ˽ᣬ¿֧ƱҪдı֤д˼A˾˵ԣծȨд£ͻA˾ʱû֧Ʊһ棬Ļ̶ȵijΪͨĻ̶Ƚϸߵ˿Ļˮƽͳ³Ұ(ʵ)Ļϸߵ˲мĻ֮˾η֮򽻵ѡ˽ס

1ºǿծԱ



ʱ

Ļ̶

ºǿ
ĸ
1965
źӽ
Сѧ



1970
źӽ



Ӳ
1973
źӽ
Сѧ



1975
հ
Сѧ

Ը

1975
պϷ




1970


ġ͡뵱
ºǿ14ÿծƽ20ڣ1993-1996ÿ겻30ڣԽ٣20027¹ծԼ290ڡծκּض޷淶ij飬ԽԭԳծδ³[8]ÿ3ڣʽծһ꼴19895ڣ2002117309ڣ50ڣҲ2ڡ50Ͽɷӳծ

ծУ׳ɣ׸ռ10%Ȩռ6%5ڡμ2


()

ϸ


32
64%



5
10%
Ȼ֮3ڣȻ֮֯2


5
10%
Ƿ4ڣ⳵1

Ȩ
3
6%
ܵȨ2ڣַȨ1


5
10%
Ƿҵаҵתý׷ա̡ȡĿͶծ1

׷ա̡ȡĿ[9]ºͽ⣬ͨϷʽ׷ծϷ⣬׽ڷԺܰΧڣϷռ2%[10]ʳ½ܵ뷨Ժ°һɱԡ[11]Ժ°͸㷺ծԵһԭҪǣӾ׽ʵЧԳֻעܿ١ɹΣҵծףлռ˳ϡҲծˡɹϵӡ׷յΣһ㲻ܡ

ܳծӮΪĿģǷͼһŽܡӾͿɼҵѡļ󡣴30%ίСһ㵱ʱһʵ֤ݣʴίеƽ1.5졣һ̴൱ڷԺߡ[12]ܾΣһûеܣթ˵˼ҡɼеνȡڳкԴֱ֮жϣжͨЧʵã±ǽ;ӽ塣ûеݵͨաѶȴIJգ漰ɹϵӼ˵㲻£ҲԷʵǿǮΡ˽1000ծ񣬵Էкᱳ²ҽܡǷеѶȣжϢҪԵ˳͵ݣݡǷͬȡݿԭԸӡΪծϺ󣬵ݽծ˻ծȨˡ

ծȨУȻԼռ40%˺֯ռ60%ծУȻԼռ20%˺֯ռ80%ɼծȨȻƫ࣬ծз˺֯ƫࡣ˱ԹҵǮƺǷǮϰߡ[13]ʵʵIJģȻڶծ˹壬ʸڡϲǷȻծ˱Խ϶ࡣ70%ڶţڶŵˣ㶫Լ25%㶫Լ5%ɢںϡϡϺȵء

塢ծ׼ʵʩж
ΪʵʩծжºǿЩ׼Ҫ׼֤ݺͲϡ֤ݺͲϽծȨṩծҲ֤ݺ˶ԣǻ˫ʡծֻ1֤ݣݡ֤ͬݽ϶࣬ʵĿȣʱ֤ݿɴ50ݡ֤ݶΪ֤50У2֤3֤֤ԣ˳ÿڶУɼ֤ڸ֤á֤֤ԳȨףΪͷ֤ԣ֤˼̸ʶֱжϽΪʵʵҲ֤ˣԷûҪʡ֤ݽΪ֤ծȨծϵֱ֤ݡ֤ݳжԣտѵԭծˣծȨծϵսᡣδյʱ粻յԭծȨˣû

ծ׼˽ծ˱ԱϵʽԵ忼ǣͨͨѶ׼ֻ룬ǰ СֵҵƳ󣬴ҵչֵֵ󣬺֮áƣծûҵõ㡣

ʵʩծһ򣺵һˡ˵һˣؿɴ༸ˣʱй֤ݣеҵծҪծʾ֤ݡծ˸˾ڣʱܣʱýʱ»ǿнȥ˵ȷڣȲŽ棬ҪйԱṩϵʽϵһdzؼΪҵծ˺¿յծյ֡

ڶ̣ҪǰʵνֻDzظǷծǮ쾭塱ծͨʾʱЧ(Ĺ)Ѱҽڣ縺˻򾭰˲ڡʽʱ޷ת޳ҪڻڻȣЩϿծΪҲнһծ˻磬ͺŲԣծ˻Ҫ˻ҲиûǷǮѹ黹½ܵͨǷϳʱ䣬ʹû򲿷ʹãһ㲻˻⡣ծʾ֤ݣ޷ʾΪѡծ֤ݱ֤ȱݣͨծ񣬷ڰңʹۣȻ뾭ծȨͬ⡣˫ּۻۣݰǷ񻹿١ǷϢʽ(ֽ֧Ʊ)ڻƻȡ70%ɴɺͽ⡣ֽ𳥻ģһ㵱ò֣ʹ֧Ʊծ벿ֻʾⲢµ˵ijѡ

ͻʵʩ塣̲ɣͻ֮ڽʮƽµ˴ʱ壬硰ǮҪˣǿŰ죡ҲܷΪͻָָ㡢ӡȡԲЧԴģһǼڰ칫Ҿǻȥͨ绰ͨ壻ծſڣ为˳ʱۣ֮нϼҵгͻʹǿʹǿļƻ׼ծֻйһΣ1995ǰij˾ϰƵ꣬켴20Ԫծ塣ԲãѶȴ󣬳ѡӽƶƺûծҪծȨ˷Ʋծϻȡжծ˻ծȨ˱ҲδծΪ顣ȻδȨ롢ծ˱Σʵϻܴڣֻ¼δǺ͹ҵҰ

ģǩйծļȡյǮ󣬳ծȨ˽ȡԼã֧ƱʽծȨתʺȡá

սἰɱ
ծ˽Ϊ3Σһ1-2οɸ࣬һ׷ȫ򲿷ծν1/5ծ˽Լ15Ρίеսȫʱ䣬Ϊ15ң1ڿɸ࣬󲿷1սᣬѶȽϴο23¡ծ෢ڵڶνʱӽʱΪ10ҡ

սΣͽ⡢ǿծ֮50ͽռ70%ϣǿծ5%(ծʮǿӲIJ1%)޷׷Լ25%ͽָ໥棬ɺͽЭ飬ȫϲʹǿ漰̶΢вǿծָΪծ˲ʹó̶΢ıΪǿȡծ񣬿󻯵ϸذʹΪǿծ㣬ڽǡų⡣޷׷յԭҪҲˡҵ˵˾աԼ10%˴Ӧծˣ[14]ΪȻ˺ͿտҵʴΣͨڵһνʱ¾Ҫ󲿷֧ṩ֤

°ΪСףһ6Ԫң100С12ծѶȴɷȣСծͨһοɸ࣬ʱҲ3000Ԫȫջ(ծʱһò)Լռһ룬ջغ͸ղĸռ1/4ծһ㡰ȥȡծۣ۷ѶءҲծʵǿ󣬲ձϢշѡ޷ջؽ40%ҡ޷׷һ35ȷظ

ͶɱҪнͨʳޡͨѶ˹ѵȡ˹ѰƽʱеĹʡԺֵĿծɹķֳɡƽʱûҵʱҲзЩʣյǮһ2/3з1/3˵ʹǮҲûҪĻҲǮɼ֮ͨĹӶϵծΪһְ֮ҵҪͷ˾С̸߽֮ɡֵܰսꡱڲϵۣҪá⣬ӢγɻȡƽʶЧء׬Ǯܴ࣬[15]ʳ²ûжǮծóһû(ȻҲаȫĿ)ÿ300-1000ԪʱծȨṩծãծȨ֮ͬУȻеµжδյǮͶɱгеΪûа˼ҸࡱӳɱǶҲûѶȴ

뷨ԺͬծԤκηã׷ֳɡշΪʵ׷ijɣѶȴɣɻ͡νʵ׷ʱѴЭΡ[16]ڳУȡԼռս30-35%ڿͻһ㾭ѽܣշѳӸأʱΪѵծȨˡ[17]ʱշ[18]ºǿ񻹰ծӽ˳¶λȣǷ1Ԫ2002428շ̸ʱᵽ£ȥծ˴Ǯûҵˡ[19]һijƵòֱͣвƬƵִЭ1Ԫδշá

1989ծԼ290ڣÿڰ8Ԫ㣬ƽջһ룬ȡðս35%㣬P=29080.50.35=304.5ëԼ304.5Ԫÿ21.75Ԫ۳ɱÿծȡĴ12ϡ1992-1995ҵ߷ڣ20ϡȻһص֡

ߡծģʽг
ծʽծ뵱˵ĹϵɷֶࣺһΪծȨ˵ĴծΪծȨ˱˵׷ծһģʽծʦΪʦķҵ񣬼ÿλʦͷҪծծ񣬻ʦʽҪ󣬲֮ɵ塣Ϊ׷ծͨծжծǷȡȨͨ磬˶ԵԭծȨ˴绰ҪծȨһծȨǩ־ݵȡڶģʽΪծȨ˹Ա׷ծЭͬծȨծʵΪծȨ˱Ϊ¶ȡһģʽΪծȨ˵Ĵˣһծʱɵͬҵծ˺̸ίгծʱȡڶģʽ1993꣬λڹһҵAǷ۹˾Bϴ󣬳°B˾ְ֤Dz񲿸4ΪְԱν棬A˾ͬ⸶Ĺӡ˶ĿֻǷ65Ԫ1ջء

ծ׽гһ֡гԾ׵ˣгΪ־׽ծΪ˾ȼõDZھߣծ֮ҲоͨԱȳºǿծ뵱طͥ°ɷծ뷨ͥһġ΢ľϵծż뷨Ժͬڷ1982-1989꣬ӽַͥܰԼ50ڣ1990ܰ70ڡ1989꿪ʼծÿԼ10ڡ1989Ƕ;ÿٷչʼ׶Σ÷չͶԾ׽š뷨ԺȣծһԷķʽУڷԺǰӦ1992꣬ӽַͥܰ150ڣ˺ÿ100ڣ2001ܰ1123ڡڷԺͬʱծҲһ1993-1996ÿծ30ڡծܵƺ󣬷Ժӣծ½ȻԺӻ뷨Ժ׽ߡзʽĸСʶѿһ

ծгһǹȫġгҶʵСϢ˫ѽڣ޷ֱɽϢɽסֻһͨ˻Ʋϵзɿ޷ݣֹͨʾʽƹҵ񣬾ɢ˴߿ΣϾǡ»¹йزŹעʾ򷽼ծ֮Ҫʵȴ֪ڣ֪ʽƶ⻹־Էʽƶȣ򼴱֪Ҳ޷硣򷽼׵˾йԣھ׷ճ񣬹İ֮޷ͨ۲ijǷ衰ծ֮ϢͨҲ޷򷽽Ϣͨ¹Ϣɽӽծˣ䲻淶Ըֹѡһ棬ϣôծ˶İίҲз׽ܣºǿˡ

ծ˲ԺšӪҵ˫ȱϢͨƽ̨Ϣ͸֡Գƣʽ״˻ơڷֲծ˵Уͨܽӽծ˵Ϣ޷Ϣֵǰѡ񡣶ծ˻ȡҵѽܣѶҵΪֻͨˡѵѵѡſܷϢʹɽסȻծɹʸߡҲᷴٽҵšֻΪծṩҵ䲻࣬ͨ㹻پͳºǿˡȻ˴ҵ㹻ҲȱչҵĶծְҵǻгȻݽIJֱԨԴһ󣬶ȻչͨҲɱֺ𽥷չҵ񡣹ҶծĹƵһҵΪСģ˽˻ǹ˻ƣծгͬҵ̫ԣԴɨǰѩծ뷨ԺľڹҺͷԺҲԵ޹ؽҪ

ˡΪʲô˽ȼã
ΪʲôѡծΪʲô˽ȼã䶯У(1)治ʵЧԣִѣ˽ȼøʵЧԣ(2)ϳɱ̫ߣԤϸ߷ã(3)ڳЧʵͣ(4)ȼƶȰŲЧʡϳӣǿȷضࣻ(5)˾ձڣ˾IJ㣻(6)ȼùޣ(7)ϿӰ쵱֮Ĺϵ(8)޷յ˲ͨ˽ȼʵ˸ˬ(9)Աͱ嶯ȡǶԾ׽ǵ͵ʵ߼ַʽЧáɱ͡ݣͻᱻѡ񣬼жѡĹؼڣǷ֮ЧжĻΪʲô˽ȼãȻԴʵԤ֮ȡڲͬȼ÷ʽ桢ɱЧʡơܵıȽϣǵѡپ󲿷ѡ񣬶ΪijЩ˳ԵġҰˡͽбͽԣڱ˶ﷸҲжߣͬ׷󻯡˽ȼжһ־߼ֱԡԡЧԡԡһ̶ȵʵЧԡĵԡ˾Լӽ˾ϰڣҲʹһת˽ȼá

Ƕ˽ȼõѡ񣬻ʵЧծ˺ܶ»ѡºǿծԽΪͽսռ70%ϣǿծ5%ЩԺδʵȼõĸȴȽ׸㶨5Ժ޷ִеоʵΪʲôͨ;ףծڶԿΪʲôծ˽ծ˺̶Ҫߵö࣬ܳЭ

һʺԲ͡ӰծȨˡծˡծ˲ľ·ҪжһծΥԼԤڳɱܵĹͷ˽ͷʧȣdzͷĿŶȣȡծȨծȨծ׷ծijɱΧծȨ׷ծγɵϢṹԼϢ֪̽ͼijɱ˽ȼÿ£ϢԳƵص²ľƲծˡծ˲˽ծ˵жԣֻܻڶծ˵һͨݽӴжϡ䲻֪ΪϢԳơȴɹжйծ˵ġһϢʵԴڸȺʹñֶζʧܵˣҴڴýϢ˹˼ӹծΪȷʶ̬ȫΣ䡰βȷ´ýDzϲеծ¶ظͬһ衱ҰǷҡʡȾŵ޴Ƿծ䱾ĿȵġԡӶ͹ծ˵ֹծڳµľжУý˵ȴĵذҲĬڴýծԡϳʤ׷ծ˶ݽӴһǿͷ֮Ӱ־塣ΪʹͷijŵжţծͨʵʩһЩơսԣһڵ󣬱ظУʾݣڳһå˭ǿӲͷ˶ЧӦԼʱʹԱΪ͸ȨʱݡǿӲչʾ³ı(鲣¶书)ȡʵϣֻáӰ֮ʵʩꡱ壬ԷϢԳ޷֪ϤֽϻĴʣ֡űòյת[20]

šҵ̬
1988199319952000꣬йزֹծ˾Եɼ֮һ³⣬ȨսҴν⡱ᣬȶѹһУծ(ծȨ)ծҵIJУծͨƿҵġ⡱Ϊ败ɴﵽĿġʵ˭սȨDzѡܹҶծƣʵǽֹǷծҹҽֹҪΪĽֹֻҪԷDZʽѸٻ׶ȣʵϲ˽Ϣ֪ϢȻ漰в΢ڿ̵ķΧڡΥȶҲĬϡΪҴеõ˺ôծķѹԴȴΪ䡰ƽסʹҶծʵһֻ۱һֻۣû͵֡⣬Ҳػֻ㹻ش󡢳ͻ൱ҡΪɷӰ찲ŽʱҲſܽԤֻ֮Ҫһ⣬սȨҶʵϷβܡģԱĵծΪ˽ȼöԣʵϴһĬʾĹı

Ȼ˽˽¢ϵľ׽񣬶ԹҺ˾ȨһӰ죬ΪЧӦΪ˽˶Ծ׵ġƽһǶؽ˹ȨͨĬ˽˽׶ʵֹȨ͸ͻõһ⣬õһά͸ǿҶծʽ׽ƺһ֡ص󡱡Ͻֹծ˽ȼãʵȴɳ²ֶ֡˽ȼʡȡߣһֹҵͳβԣͨ˽ΪʵƵļһӽǶԣ˽ȼò빫ȨȫΪЧ䣬ɹȨĩҺ졣ֹȨ˽νһֹͨ˽ʵֹĸ߳

ծ˲ϣͨծȡ棬ծȨϣȨԱϣծ˺ҪԸ̫ðաһУʵ֮СˣֺαؽֹծأǣҲԸȷѰծ˽ȼáԭҪDzԵģΪȷ𺦹ȼȨƶԵò̫Ҳܵծ˽ȼóһ޶ȣշ򶯵ʹծ˽ȼñǡ޶ڣҲǹһ֡

һ棬ծҲҵ̬ңӦͳºǿԣծͬһĻϷݣֱĻĹĬʵΪծȷһ߽磺òȡ֯ʽʹñȷǷֶΣ򡣳ǡһ߽ӯߵġҡծʹԼ˺׷ԷǧͷСһͨҹעڸָӵĻϵУˮծʵۻ֮èϷĸ߳IJһ֡⻯[21]Ϊжֻг֡⡱ſܽèҰֻèҪġ̫࣬ʡ⡱㹻ش󡣵ȻҲծԽɵĽ꣬Ȩ

ʮûзɵ
ɶҪǶԴŲɡ˹ƣһûǿƵȻһ˷һ˵սûзɣ¶ƶ̶ۡ١[22]֤ݱûзɵ򲻵áΪ״ִ̬ûзɵ״̬ںǵУѺ֮ͬ䣬ڼͥĻȺڣ·ˡˡõԼԵУҲΪռ֮͸СǴҼ䡣[23]ҲֱӵһЩûзɵֳ뷨ɺ󣬱ӡ[24]ɭڡ跨ɵһʾԶûôҪƶЩٳɷʽȱǾͿһɸ൫ٵ硣 [25]

˿ծ˽ȼûᵼ±С첢ûһȻᵼԷĺƽ淶򡣻ڶԳºծ˵ĵ飬ɹɻһծһЩڡء磺

һǷծǮΪɹҲһ淶Ŀǰй״ǣծǷأԭ֮һǹȼȱݵǷծǮɹ黯ʵУծȨ˴ծЧʱȻѰѡΪȡʽ׽ֶεġϰǰó򡱡

ڶ˱ӡԽǮˣԽϲǷǮ֮Ǯһ̶Դھϸ㣬ǷҪԭͨǮɻծһʾͻԸѭǷծǮĹ淶(ڸϲ޳ͻ)ֻծȨ˲ϴ(һ̶ǹؼأȲߣҺαػ)߿Ҫķѽ׳ɱծȨ˵Ľġһ˵ģ˲Ҫһ㡣ˣרҵı£߿ʵҪݻɶְҵһЩרŴծۻծǷծǮĹ淶вͨ߼仯ִС

ծ൱ʢСծ˾ծͨծ˱֪ĿģҶծǿΪܵծֶжšʼծʵδծ(ºǿ)ȴͨ㳵ѻ㹻Ȩծ˼ǷǮƣծʩѹ£β˳ˮۣҿּۻۣȥϢծ񡣴ǸȦе˽ֹ֪ͬ

йȼþЧծȨծƶȱԷݽƶȴ¡ʮծʵӾ׽ʹáת̡ծǷȨȨǷ롢ծǷ񷴱סӰ⡣Ϊծˣί׷ծй෴ծȻһЧƻƺ;µծƶȰţʵγϰDZʵҵΪѭʵһƶȵ֯Ǩһ֡Ĺ򡱿Ϊִϰ߷лɲ֡Ŀijºǿծչһ˾ûзԺľ׽˽ȼûƼһķʽƶȰţݻγһϰߺ͹淶ûзɵ

 

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עͣ

[1] 꿣˽ȼá廪ѧʿѧλģ2003ꡣ

[2] ΪIJABCĴŷʽ淶˼

[3] ҲμһйطԺĵ (³ƷԺ)ڱ棬μ¡꿵ȣмԺһ״ĵ鱨桱ȽϷֻ棬2002ꡣԺծγʹҴӱȽϷӽһЩ̽ԡԶԱȡ

[4] Ÿſμ־վͳݣԶͳƾ֡

[5] ͬҵſҪԳµĽܣҲ;ʵţͱĶԿ˵һ⡣

[6] һAӽɳBC׷ծ20ԪBյ3ԪA2ԪCȴ˵20ԪȫB

[7] ֮ƣҹ㷨ԺĻˮƽҲߡӽͥԱ1982-19923λٽΪѧĻ19922λרҵ20001λר2002¼ñ2ˡ

[8] ǿ¡ծҲҪԺҪʽ¼ֻƾ¼Զ׼ԵɣһǼ¼ܶ䲻Ǽ¼ޱҪΪDzԺϼල㱨ɼʹ˶ǿν참Dz߱¼֮ΪжߣͶɱȴ桢ҶѲ֮ΪνҲָ¼һϴȷĸһͳȡ黹ȱݣ翼ǵ˽޷ʵȡˣͱĿĶԣõ˵⡣

[9] 1995꣬ A̡B͵3ԪһͬȥBϼҺ׷աBļΪǹֵģ˵ûBˣA˵ʾB֤ӡ棬B黹ǮA1ԪAϵ֮õܣδշѣ8000ԪΪղ͵Ρ

[10] ֻ׷ծ2ڣҽϤ˫ʳЭ

[11] ӽַͥ2001ľðУǷӹѾ׳80%ⰸ80%Ҫ۰̨һҵͼծͬ

[12] ԺԺ710521226

[13] ǻ˵̨ϲǷǮDzûǮͷԣͨǷռʽ

[14] ABǷ5һδBίг׷գҵAAӦ컹ǮȴҲҲòǮ

[15] ҪڳԺ֣ЩҲгɱأΪûЩ޷ޡֵܡծֵܡ֧֡

[16] AB㶫Cڶ忪ִD޹복󹤳գǷ15Ԫ˵Bڱ20024£DͳҵAC ACͬ5ڸ2֧ÿ3000ԪǩЭ顣շ1ԪɵԼ׷ա

[17] 1993꣬һ۹˾λڹĸҵףȫ׷65ԪϰϵƽʱͳԷǮϰ10Ԫá

[18] 20023£´ӽA׷˳B̳3Ԫһȥڣڶȥ˵Ҷ³ȥծɹAϰԭԳºܺãַdzѣʳδշѡ

[19] ҵ¶ºǿץסȵϼһ㡣¶塣δκηáڼִ³˫ʵԱ⣬һDZݸҿ

[20] 꿣Ϊʲôйѧۣۡ20032ڣ395-410ҳ

[21] һӦǵũϷõġ⻯ֻз㹻شġ⡱ũҪſΪϼӲ㡣ӦǣϷõĹ¡2001档

[22] μ[Ӣ]˹ά̹˼͢룬ӡ1985棬95ҳ¡

[23] []ˣɵΪԽ룬йѧ1994棬144-145ҳ

[24] []ˣѧҰе˾ǻ룬ɳ2002棬87-88ҳ

[25] Robert C. Ellickson,Order without Law:How Neighbors Settle Disputes, (Cambridge,Mass: Harvard University Press,1991),p.286.

Xu Xin,Order without Law: Investigation and Analysis of an Informal Debt-Collection Practice in Southern China