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Ȩ뷨Ȩľ

CCCCϵı

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廪ѧѧԺ 100084

ժҪ֮Ҫڵ뷨Ժ֮·Ȩ뷨ְȨڳеĶ̬⣬˲ͬϽṹģʽ书ܵIJ졣ӢзٵְȨΪģͣͨӢְȨǿɼص㣬йضԿϼȨձϣͷְȨǿζŶԿս֮ɣʾ˶ģʽϿںƣۼϵıʡ

ؼʣ ְȨ Ӣ ϱ

ͼţ ױʶ룺

ϳеǧ̬򵥵˵׷˫뷨ٵϽṹ[1]̺ϢоϽṹҪӦìܣ֮ijͻƽ뷨ٵĶͳһǺߣΪǰҪʵ巨ĵ롣뷨ְȨƶϳеĶз뵱໥֮ĵλ⣬һƶȵ⡣[1]ˣҪԵ˺ͷڳе໥ϵ͵λìܷһش⣬ǵȨ뷨Ȩķ估⣬Ȩۡ⽫ӢзٵְȨΪģͣͨӢְȨǿɼص㣬뷨ְȨӦֶ̬ľ⣬ʾģʽϿںƣۼϵıʡ[2]

һ뷨ְȨĶ̬

һ弰

1719͹ŵųԹ֮ܵġҹˡʽĹң˾ӦΪԲй֮ܵķԺɳΪھ񣬳ѭԾԵı塢Ȩ塢֤Ϊ뷶ʽ˫ӵȫ֮־ΪͶԿ죬ø־ֶ໥Ͷ

19ĩ20ͳ¢ʱ𡢶ʮ¸ı˹𡢶սıԿ˹ΪۻУŵѽƻ衣޵IJչʾ³ɵսԡȨáʽʵìܡ븣ҪⲻеѭԽγʵԽӽ˾֮ϰȺڳ£޷ӽ˾ΪԶͱԵ˵ijʵϴٽ񡢳ʵ𽥴ӹݱΪƶȡɹԵ䣬ԵķΧ죬߲ްһ·С

ųı仯׷ʵԹƽ塱ȡˡ˾ۡΪ˾֮ڳвóȨϼɣҪ˺ṫ棬ѭʵԭ򣻹編Ԯ׷ʵḣֶεڳɹϵԺСֹȨáʵ˾ʵ֡ٽ򾭼ְ֮ܡڴ˱£Ȩʹüгֵԣʶʷ߼˱ĿijȨڵ뷨Ժ֮·估䶯̬⡣

뷨ְȨĶ̬

20ͳ˹ӵ¶ͨƶȵУ[3]Ȼ˶ʮͳĸĻ20˾ĸḶ̌Է֣ͨңǿְȨΪĸɼٴ½ϵҲȻؼǿԺijȨ編ձ͵¹2070ϷѧʶȨӣͳĵԭ(ʹĻ)һҲΪͬij̶ֳϻӢʵ֤һǺģΪ˾֮ЧʣʹѸҾؽгΪ֮񡣡[2]չ͵˾ĸǿԺϳĿƣҲһ޷رܵĸĸ˼·

ĶԿ(adversary system)ģʽԷرϽӽ壬ȴϳӡø߰Ͻֲȷ˾ײѸϵϳȫɵ˻ʦ׵Ļ˻桢ʦΪ룬ʵʩӡ֤ͻϮȳԡڵ˻ʦ谭ϵΪһΪӦȡǿٳȨĶԲߡͨй˾ӢĴ[3]ȹ֮ʩļ̶Ⱦ˾ѳΪͨϵϸĸһơЩУʼֵطԴԭΪϰһ֪޷˾ƵģбҪж԰ϸԤ˽⡣һ봫ͳĶԿĻ롣ɼͨҵƶҪǾԵģɫʲŨֻҪĽκδʩԿʵʩЩĸʩȴɢڷԺʵ֮УҪͬʱƶΪ⻯ʽԸͽΪʶı仯ʱ뿪ԭʵѺԶˡʱDzŻȻ򣬿û˶ĶԿϣʵϵı࣬еĸĸﻹҡ̣ѴεϽṹĻı⡣ַѫڡӽ˾鱨[4]Ӣ˾ĸﲻǰƽ

ȻԺְȨҲǸĸռĿꡣ紿ĶԿƲܱʵʵ֣ʶӦޱ߼ʵĶԿģʽһԺְȨҲǺƣ磬ϵϱĵȷ˵ĺͽϣٲԼ־ȡ˵˼ְȨϽиԤַ˳Ȩƫ̻һȡڷԺְȨĿ£ȴӵе͹ʵְ֮𣬶ȻҲǷˣԺвϵ۵УٵġԷʵӽҲΪϰڡˣʵеְȨģʽҹԣ˾ĸǡǡǴӢȹĶ԰ӭȥſܴﵽ˾򾭼õͬһĿꡣˣ򷨼ȲӦɷģʽҲǼ򵥵ְȨ忿Ҫͼﵽ˸뷨ʵ̶ȿ֮ĺƽϵijб߼Ȩ뷨Ȩķ⡣

ȻڳУ뷨ְȨηﵽ⣿ڣΪͬҡͬͬʱȨ뷨ԺȨýṹûҲӦȷһģʽ־Ϊ벻ͬҵıԴϵʷĶ̬⡣ˣΪڳ˾ĸҹ㱾ʵʵĻϣdzбҪ˽ⲢеȨ뷨ְȨģͣбҪ˽ģʽϽṹϴͳĻĶ̬⡣Ӣ2090е˾ĸΪṩ뷨ְȨһֵ˼ģ͡

ӢзְȨ빹

ӢΪͨϵϵԴͷһʵеͶԿģʽĹңӢͳϵҪȱݣǵ˺ʦ͵Ϊϳرǰڡǿȣһ̶ԼͥĽչĸĽ죬ӢǿԺְȨķʽͳ̶ȫϡӢķһһͷٷۡ϶ĬȻIJѳΪһƳеľ׽ߡ1920ǰڵӢ˾ƶȾܾ˷仯˶ǿҳȴûʹӢԷȤһٶĽ죬ڷ仯˳½ϵҷ׷׽ԭʱӢȴƳһ걸ϡ䡱[5]Ӣ˾ĸıԿƵĵ£رϷĻ[4]ĻҪʩǿԺϵ˾Ԥ˺ʦԳ֧λеĵλ

ְȨԵ1999426ЧӢϹ֮СϹµƪרŹ涨1.4Ժְ𡱣3·ԺİȨ26°CCCC׶Σ27-29·ֱ涨СϡơƵİϹ򡷵ҲйڷԺ԰Ĺ涨³Ŀ£еְȨҪ£

(һ)ԺһȨ

Ĺ涨֮⣬ԺйһȨ[5]3.11ǿԺһȨԺȨ֮⣬Ժκιָ֮ȨκȨ֮Թ涨ԺһȨΪԺְȨϳУչǰߺ󣬡ϹȫĴǹڷְȨĹ涨ٵȨ޷һһоٵġ

()ڼȨ

1.42g涨ԺȨȷճ̱ư̡3.12a͵b涨ԺȨӳκιָԺڼ(ڼ)ԺȨڻǰ

()ֹϲȨ

3.12f涨ԺȨֹκϳĽлоִУֹijһضڻ¼ķ3.12egh涨ԺȨָκϳһ(練)ϳȨϲϳȨͬһϵ󡣹1.42i涨ԺȨͬһϾܸϵ㡣

()ϵȨ

ְȨȻǿ޵ķʸְȨĻ齹ϣرǿϵĹ3.12ijkl涨ԺȨκϵеȨȷϵ˳Ȩųϵ㣬迼ǣȨԳϵþ󲵻о1.42bcdi涨ԺȨڰڽ׶ʶϵ㣻ȨʱȷгֵͿͥϵ㣬ӦԼ׷ʽϵ㣻Ȩȷϵ˳ͬһϾܸϵ㡣

()֤Ȩ

֤ǷԺһشȨ32.1涨Ժָͨ֤ݽ(a)ȷṩ֤ݵ(b)þҪ֤ݵʣԼ(c)Ժύ֤ݵķʽ2涨ԺݱȨųɲɵ֤ݡ3涨ԺԶԽѯʽơ34.8涨¼֤ԣԴԭ򡣵35.4涨˷Ժר֤֮Ȩ35.7涨߶෽ϣijһضύר֤ʱԺָֻһһר֤˾͸ύר֤ݡ

()ͥȨ

3.12c涨ǿƳͥȨԺȨ˻ߵ˵ϴ˳ͥμϡ1.42l涨ԺȨΪϰͥѸ١Чʵؽжָ

()ɱȨ

ԺϳɱҪķʽȷϷõijеͲ43-48½йϷõĹ涨2000614޶йָ200073ЧйϷõĹָƪƴ󣬹涨ϸ֡1.12c涨Ӧʵȡ밸Ҫԡϵĸӳ̶ȡ˵IJӦķʽνӦԭ (the proportionality principle)1.42h涨ԺȨDzȡضĿɵ棬ǷʵʩɱӦ

()Ȩ

ϹΪٽЧʣںܶй涨淽ʽһ̶Դԭ1.42j涨赱˳ͥȨ12¹涨ȱϯо23.8涨辭򼴿д룻27.10涨δвþ

()Ȩ

Ӣ˾ĸdzǿϢΪĵִƼ˾еá1996ַѫӽ˾鱨棬1997걫١߷Ժ(ͥ)[6]1998꡶˾ִƤ[7]1998.˾CCCCϢʱ˵Ľͷ[8]5-15 Ϣ˾ƶõĹ滮2001ӢԺġ·Ժִ[9]ѯģǿԿִƼظıˡıӢϵijij򣬲ԼٶȼӢϲԶӰ졣1.42kҲ涨İٽƼֶεá3.12d涨ԺȨͨ绰κֱԴʷʽпͥͽ֤ݡ

(ʮ)Ȩ

3.13涨ԺҪһԺ֧һĿԼ涨򲻷ķɺ24ָ5.2һ涨ϵҪ֮һ(1)Ժ֧һĿ(2)ӰIJͬȡйصضʩͬʱֹ涨統˲ȷģɲص˵

(ʮһ)þȨ

40.12涨ԺְȨʱодڵķǹ©

(ʮ)ƲȨ

1.Ʋõص

Ϲ򡷽ЧƲûƣҪص(1)ƲõĿԤdzͷ(2)Ĺ涨Υķɺδпʾĵˣδʾ֤Ϊ֤ݣ(3)ԺָӦЧԶصƲã(4)ԺԵ˵ΪǷΥйع涨ӵɲȨ(5)ƲüʶԭΥij̶ȱ־⣬ΪϸСĴƲ÷߳߳ɱ(6)Ʋʵľȼûơ

2.Ʋõķʽ

(1)ϻ

統ػΥָǰ鶨ģԺӵвȫ򲿷֮ɲȨ3.4涨˷Ժ֮Ȩ編ԺΪδ¶Ϻͽд֮ɵġ÷Ժϳ򣬻߿谭ϳĹеġߡδرָԺģɳ編ԺģΪʵκйطɺ編Ժԭİԭ򱻸֧Ϸãԭ֧йϷǰԭ뷨Ժ֮ͬͬʵͬһߵģԺɸݱ룬ֹߵĽУֱԭйϷøΪֹ

3.5涨編Ժ涨粻趨ĵ˲ģԺȨ󣬲ͥоȻ3.6涨Ժݱ3.5оеĵˣɲоʹ֮14ڣԺ볷йо

(2)Ʋ

統Υָǰ鶨ģԺɸ辭ƲãƲõҪʽϷõķͲ֧⳥Ϣ߼ٻծϢȡ統Υǰ鶨鲻ҪϵģԺȨʱǵδǰ鶨֮Ʋã(1)Ϸã(2)Ϣ(3)ʱЧ(4)ֹ(5)ǷԺ統ػΥģԺȨʱ֧мϷá36.21涨編ԺþеķΣȵ36ҪԼθ󣬻߶Աоȵ36ҪԼķɺԭģԺڲþԭеУеȫ򲿷ֿ(Ϣ)Ϣʲ׼(base rate)10ڼԱ汾ɳŵδŵ㣬ԺΪɱеƽij⡣

(3)֤Ʋ

˲֤ݷйع涨ģԶ֤Ʋá磬δݹʾ۵ģδԺɲΪ֤ݡδȡ÷Ժɣ˲ܲʾ֤Լ˲ĵ֤ݡȼõ֤Σɲĵ˳е

(4)Ʋ

еƲãҪ׷ΥΪӷͥα֤˾ִܲоöȡӷͥ㣬ҲǷپʹáַȨıϳʵеƲ÷ʽ磬32.14涨֤˶԰ʵûгʵʵȷϵ֤ٳٳӷͥϡ磬Բ֤ݿʾĵ˻ˣԺɲþӷͥԷ

3ƲõЧ

3.8涨統δرָԺģԺƲЧĵȡþȼõij⡣Ʋϵ֧Ϸõģĵֻ֧ͨϷߣþȼá

˲Эıڼ䡣3.83涨籾ָԺҪָڼΪһΪ涨˲֮ɺģ˲ͨЭӳʵʩΪڼ䡣

4Ʋõľȼ

ܵƲõģȨ˾ȼá3.9涨ԺԲκιָԺƲãȼõģԺӦǸأ(a)˾棻(b)Ƿȼ룻(c)ǷⲻعָԺ(d)Ƿгɣ(e)ĵָԺԼκǰ鶨(f)ǵ˲񣬻ϴ˲(g)ȼõģǷܰͥڻܿͥڽ(h)Ը˵Ӱ죻Լ(i)ȼöԸ˵Ӱ졣

ӢзְȨص

(һ)ԺĶλİ

1.ǷԺȨǷٵְ

1.4Ժְ𡱹涨ԺƽĿʵ֡νİϳĽ໥ڰڽ׶ʶϵ㣻ʱȷгֵͿͥϵ㣬ӦԼ׷ʽϵ㣻ȷϵ˳編ԺΪʵɹ˲ÿѡ򣬲ٽйسãЭ˶԰ȫ򲿷ֺͽ⣻ȷճ̱ựDzȡضĿɵ棬ǷʵʩɱӦͬһϾܸϵ㣻赱˳ͥÿƼֶΣԼΪϰͥѸ١Чʵؽжָ

2.ԺĹΪ㷺ȨʹȨķʽԺְȨ

3.3涨ˡԺְȨ֮Ȩκηй涨⣬ԺɻڵְȨʹ֮Ȩ編ԺְȨģԺɸκοӰʿг֮ᣬԼйʿģԺɹ涨гڼͷʽ編ԺְȨԼԲþǷģԺǰ3գӰĸˣ֪ͨ顣ԺְȨԵ˽಻ԸйʿȨΪҪӰĵ˿뷨Ժֹδִ֮УԼȨԺ롣

()ԺĿ꣺˾򾭼

ǿְȨĿģΪ˹Чʵؽס1.1涨

(1)Ϊ³򣬻ĿȷԺ

(2)ӦʵCCCC

(a)ϵƽȣ

(b)ʡϷã

(c)ȡӦķʽ-CCCC

(i)

(ii)Ҫԣ

(iii)ϵĸӳ̶ȣ

(iv)˵IJ

(d)֤ƽ

(e)뷨ԺԴñƽ⣬Դ֮Ҫ

˾򾭼õĻĿᴩڡϹ򡷵ʼգΪӢϵĻĿ꣬ҲǷʹְȨĿꡣ1.2ΪԺԻĿĹ᳹涨Ժʹ涨κȨ߶Աнͣ᳹ĻĿꡣԺʵϻĿ;ǽлİ3.12m涨ΪƽĻĿ꣬ȡκγκ26ָ1涨رע⡶Ϲ򡷵½ڣ1 Ŀ(1.1)ԺͨعƽĿ(1.4)ЭԺʵֻĿ(1.3)28¡29ָ1Ҳͬ涨

()ԺҪʽ

ӢϸĸҪʩ֮һǷԺϱĵĽϵĸԵؽ°Ϊֱ࣬Сƶȡ(the Fast Track)Ͷ(the Multi-Track)Ͻ5000ӢСϰǿԺҪЧʡЧķʽغ͹аϸȷճ̱Ͻ5000ӢİַѫȫǰĺIJ֣ԺиӻְȨǿ27-29·ֱ涨СϡơƵİ26ΪCCCC׶Σйָݣӽ4֡

()ԺҪֶΣָ

ڡϹ򡷵Ŀ£Ժھ׽еҪְ𣬾Ǹݹָ߷[6]ɵִСԺָϻĿ걣ڵͳһ29ָ5.12涨ԺκΰϣͱϳĽ롶Ϲ֮Ŀһ£ȡʩԼָ49Eָ11.22涨ΪٽϹ֮Ŀʵ֣ڸݱһָУΪʵκָ

()ԺҪ䣺ǰϡԾ׺ƽ

DzҪģ׽ռĿġȻǽ׵ֶΣȴһͻƽѡ񣬹ʹ1.42eÿѡʽ(ADR)ٽйسá¹ĿǰIJǰ鶨顷˺鶨顷͹ǰ鶨顷Ȩǰ鶨顷ҽƹʧ鶨顷ǰ鶨ĿΪ(1)DZڵϵ˾йؾ׽ںͳֵϢ(2)ͨǰ;׵ȫ򲿷ϵЭ飬ʹ˱ϵķΧ(3)ϲܱʱ֧ϳЧδǰ鶨ĵ˽ܵԺϷáϢȷƲá

1.4Ժְ𡱵2 ef涨ԺϳĽ໥ԺЭ˶԰ȫ򲿷ֺͽ⡣ͷԺ뵱˵ĺƶԣ1.3涨ЭԺʵֱĻĿꡣ26µָ4.1ǿԺһ㷽Ϲ򡷹涨ϵĻĿꡢԺȨְԼԺʹȨʱ뿼ǵءԺʹȨʱڴ뵱˼ϴ˺ӶڻĿĿ£͵֮ĺƶԣʮǿר֤˵ĺԣ˾õһĹͬרҴЭ飬ҷԺȨǿʹõһĹͬרҡ統ָרҵģԺҪרҽۣŬС첢Խͣɵڿͥʱר֤ݣԴٽ˵רҽнԶԻ35.12涨κϽ׶ΣԺԿָר֤˽ۣĿҪר֤˼ϳе⣬ԼܵĻijһһ¡Ҳɾʹ˴Э顣Ժϸ˵ר֤۵⣬ָר֤ۺԺύɵһ¡δܴһµԼһµɸҪ

ġӵȨ뷨Ȩķ俴ϵı

ְȨŲ޵ģΪԺְȨȻпܱȶԿƸЧʣܱϷʵͽӽ塣ְȨŵ޶ҲϻĿΪƽ׼ģ編ְȨ֮㣣ܴٽ׵Ĺͳ򾭼õģЧʡְȨӢϹҲ˷ְȨ뵱ľԡ

ӱʽӢзٵְȨǣôǷƶϣӢģʽѴӶԿתΪְȨأߵĻشǷ񶨵ġ˼ά֣Ӣڷ١绤ʦļٷֱ֮յĽDZִͳٷı䲻ˣ̸ģʽı𣿵ȻٷǶԿƵְȨҲǴżٷְȨ塣Ӣ϶ԹϴͳأDzܺԵġӢְȨĽṹص㣬ǿԿӢٵְȨҪdzȨڼȨֹϲȨϵȨͥȨɱȨȨȨȣΪ˴ٽϳ򾮾˳УҪĿǼӳٺͽϳɱӢԼͨңȻں̶ܴǿ˷ְȨвܳΪԺְȨ塣ΪڷԺְȨĿ£ԺְȨھʹٽϳѸ١չ˾ƣٲȨְȨʵ֤(֤ݣ)ӵԷݵ͹ʵ֮˾ȨΣְṩѯЭδְȨʵ֤ݵĿΪɡӢġϰȻʮǿ󣬷ٲûְȨϳҲְȨ֤ݵ飬ӵڵ˵Ѱ͹ʵְȨЩӢϵıڶԿƣֻѷǴͳϵĶԿơ[7]

Ӣʵͨ緶ΧǿԿĶԿƵȷӦʵ󣬹ŵķ޷ʵ⣬˽ӽ˾ֶʷݱΪԺȨǿ ȨŲһԵ˵ıͻ......෴ǿо׼ȷԡ[10]Ϊ˾𡣵Ȼ˾ǷܴﵽԤЧд۲졣ֵעǣѧ߾ݴţԿƽսᡣ˽ȡӼĸĸʩCCCCе˾ԤرԺְȨģʽת[11]Դˣֲ߳ͬ۵㣬19ڡ19ĩ20ͳ2070ͨСֹζԿ˳ͶԿƵȱݽ˷˼ٽԿڷչеҪֱΪڶԿмǿڵзԺȨǿ½ϵʵ˵뷨ԺȨ໥䡣ԿвδıԿƵĻģʽͶԿбһеḶ́

ԿƼеĸĸشDZʾеڹɣشϵʲôȻĹϵԿƴڵĻʲôΪʲôҪǿְȨְȨǿ޶ʲôְȨǿ뷢ʵĹڣԿǷս᣿

ͨ˼Կƣǿ͸׷ӵı󣬳ԴӵȨ뷨ȨķǶȣϵıʽ˼ΪϵıʿԼعΪCCCCԿͻ˾ȼãϵĶԿԼԿƵĶԿʣͬʱԽ˽ȨΪĿģ¾׵˽Ȩʾ˵һ棬Ȼǽ˽Ȩ׵ij򣬵ϳȴǵ(ʦ)˽˵飬еƽȺͶԵԭʽϵƽȣʵƽȺṫ׷ȻҪԺгȻϵıԭԻ[8]ѧȻݻġɵǶԿϵĻԿϵıԺ˾Ȩеij֡ڳܵƵĿ£ԿƲζžԵĶڶԿкнܷԺǿƹΪȨתΪȨͨзơADRͽĻԳķѣųԻ۵ȷʵϵ¹˼ҹ˹Ĺͨж۽ʷصһ֮ѧ[12]ԿƵͷչԳԻͳΪʽӾԵĶԿƣƶȺĻչ[9]ȫ·

ڹʻȫ򻯡Ϣ˳УģʽںϡԿɫŨĹңǿְȨְȨȵĹң𽥹᳹˵ĴȨҲϷһ廯Ķ[10]ޱ߽ϽǵҰʷ˽ʾ÷һ廯һϳͳһЭΪ缶Ŀ⣬ܵȫѧĹע뷨ְȨлϡ䣬ϵķչһ廯[11]ҹ͵ƶȣҲͨϳе˵Ȩ뷨ٵȨִͶԿģʽΪ졣

 

οף

[1][]Īŵ.ٵȣ˻Ȩδϡ룬ɳ磬20008£53ҳ

[2]ͬο[1]52ҳ

[3]ĴǷɸĸίԱ89ű棬˾ƶȷ˼һ˾Ӵ󱨸棬http://www.alrc.gov.au/

[4][Ӣ]ַѫӽ˾ڱ棬http://www.law.warwick.ac.uk/woolf/report

[5]õġϹԲμ룺 ӢϹ򡷣йƳ磬2001ꡣ¶ԡϹ½ڡãԼΪ򡱡

[6][Ӣ].٣߷Ժ(ͥ)(19979)

[7][Ӣ]ִ˾ĸ﷨ɷҵͷԺĹ滮(199812),http://www.open.gov.uk/lcd/consult/access/mjwpcon.htm

[8][Ӣ]˾Ϣʱ˵Ľ(19989)http://www.courtservice.gov.uk/lcd

[9][Ӣ]·Ժִ(20011)http://www.courtservice.gov.uk/lcd

[10]ͬο[1]52ҳ

[11]ԵģʽӨCCCCƶȷ˼ĴǷɸĸίԱ1997ר֮20134ҳ

[12]ͨжǹ˹ϵ֮μHabermas J. The Theory of Communicative Action. Trans. By McCarthy T. London:Heinemann,1984.

The Equilibrium Between the Rights of Litigant and the Powers of Judge

CCCCA Preliminarily Discussion on the Essence of Civil Procedure

XU xin

Tsinghua University,Law School,Beijing,100084

Abstract: Procedural Liberalism is more and more limited so as to require a new allocation of procedure control power between litigant and judge.The article argues to keep a dynamic equilibrium between the rights of litigant and the powers of judge in procedural progress on the basis of analysis the improvement,structure and characteristics of judges powers in British civil procedure.The article reveals a trend for two procedural models to be mixed together each other,and discusses the essence of civil procedure preliminarily.

Keywordsprocedural Liberalism powers of Judge self-control of litigant Civil Procedure in British essence of civil procedure

 

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߼飺꿣У廪ѧѧԺѧʿ

[1] Լ֮ĹϵҲӰϳвɻȱҪأϽṹķ룬Ҳ뱾󣬹ʲ漰

[2] ͱ֪ⷨѧûϱʵ⡣ΪϱۣһʮҪĿ⣬۵ηչģʽĻ֡ԳĸƽŷdzҪ塣ϱۣһѧ⣬߽׫Ľdzε漰

[3] ˹.ӵ½ԿسΪ˾(the sporting theory of justice)ȻΪԱ......ĿеķʽвٲиԤӵжѰ͹ʵ֮񣬵ʱͨ罫ӵµĹ۵Ϊۣͨϳǡɵġǻ۵Ŀѧƶȡ˹.ӵ£ڶ˾в֮Եɡءշۡ(BAYLOR L.REV.)8ڣ1956ꡣ

[4] ӢߵȷԺԺַѫνӢʷƶ˾ĸĵһ19943£Ӣ˾󳼼Ժ鳤ѫίַѫӢʿ·Ժйͳȫӣַѫ19967Ƴġӽ˾鱨棬ȫļhttp://www.law.warwick.ac.uk/woolf/report

[5]Ȼз䣬ʵǷ䣬Ӣ˾ڡϹҲ˵

[6] Ϲƪ涨˷Ժָе23Ժһ涨ɷԺҪԱɿԺְȨǿ֮һߡ

[7] йģʽۡԼ뷨ԺְȨ֣μƽϹʽ廪ѧ磬20006µһһ¡

[8] Ȼ䣬֪ûκԭƶȻֵۿʷỷı仯СԶشڣȻֻΪϵıԭԻûг󡢴⡢ij壬ֻһʷķ룬Ѳ˶ͱ֮ˡ

[9] ĻݽȻϱоҪ⡣1719ʢеɷȻķ֮ѧ20ͷְȨţӳǿĸԤŷҲϵȨܾṩ֤ݣνɡ񶨵˺֮ӳ˼˵ĸѧ21µǧ꣬Ļηִ˼ĻӰ죿߼顢Կ򡢷򡭡ִֻĻΪĻĻݱ⣬ѵֵ

[10] Ъ.˹ķ(Marcel Storme)ڷġŷʾ䡷ĿԼѧ(ALI)𡶿ϹĿϹĿּƶ¾׵ϳʾ䡣ͳһ˽ѧҲ벢ΪͬˡϹ״η1995꡶ζʷ־30ڣ޸ĸ1998귢ڡ¿˹ʷ־33ڡ룺Ϲ򡷣ءٲ뷨ɡ20002ڣӢıhttp://www.ali.org/ali/transrules.htm

[11] IJδȨ뷨Ȩľ䡱ṩһ͹۵ı׼ҲûΪ䵱˵Ȩ뷨ȨṩһѧģͣΪһޣһ棬ΪȨ뷨ȨķͬҡͬͬʱڶͬȨ뷨ȨķǷ⣬ͬ˿ҲһʲܴڻһģͻͳһģͲʵ塣ĵļֵֻ⡣