ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

꿡ʽͥԲߡ˾ĸһ˼·(󱨸)


ϵ򾭼оϺ뾭о˾ƸĸĿձ棬éࣺ͸йƸĸ֮·ɳ磬2005ꡣһԡʽͥоΪ⣬ڡȽϷо20051( CSSCI )2֣ߵѧУĿѧժ20052תءһоμʽͥо廪ѧѧԺ˶ʿѧλģ2005ꡣ򾭼оƸרҵ󱨸ݣĶ֮áɲġȽϷоڸĵı߰


ժҪͥϳģ˾ʵУʽ̶ܴͥΪʽͥġDZĻʵ֤飬ͼʽͥ״ʾƺȱ㣬ӷʽͥĽǶȷ˼ҹ˾ĸķ򡣷ʽͥѡIJǷ١ҡ˲ĵĽΪ˾ʵСӦʽͥʵһַʽƶȰšܷʽͥгɱ͡Чʸߡ䡢ھ׵ĺƽٽ˾ĿɽӽԡϺҹ˾ͳȱȽƣҲһЩ⣬磺ķʽͥᵼʽͥ黯ʽͥ³ϲ㣻˾ܡ󣬱ɶԲԵĸĸィ飬Ҫ1.ַ˻ȨķʽͥԽֹ2.Էй涨νһƶȣ3.һַʽͥϿɣ׿ͥ 룻4.һַʽͥβܡĻעط۵̽жеϷķܣһ˾ʵϷѧ
ؼʣʽͥ ͥ ϵDZ

AbstractTrial in court is the center of judicial process. But in practices, formal trial in court is largely substituted by sub-rule of informal session. Based on empirical materials, the article tries to describe the situation and reasons of informal session, find out the advantages and disadvantages, and reflect the direction of civil judicial reform in china from the point of informal session. As a result of rational choice , and of gaming by the judge, the state and the parties, informal session can be viewed as an informally institutional arrangement which is invented and being practiced by judges who reply to the formal trial in court in judicial practices. Although having lots of comparative advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, constant income on the whole, helping peaceful settlement of disputes, facilitating access to justice, and according with judicial traditions in china, the informal session has some problems, for example, a great deal of informal sessions may make formal trial in court void, informal session has defects of not enough procedural safeguards, and thus may result in judicial corruptions. Finally, the article puts forward some reform suggestions as countermeasures, mainly including: (1)Forbidding some kinds of informal sessions which invade the fundamental procedural rights of parties; (2)Consummating the institutions when the law has regulations of some informal sessions; (3)Recognizing and legalizing some informal sessions, and advancing the legislative suggestions of simple session; (4)Indulging some informal sessions. Furthermore, the author emphasizes the exploration of methodology, brings about an analyzing framework of civil procedure law in action, and advocates a civil procedural law towards judicial practice.

Key words: informal session trial in court sub-rule of civil litigation

һ뷽

ͥϳģ[1]ҲϷҪƶȰ֮һ19ŷ˾ĸ˶ԴΪĸģԼֱ塢֤룬[2]ͬٳԹϯͷֱӡеԭΪִͿͥĵģʽ[3]1980ĩҹʼзʽĸ˾ĸ񡪽ԿͥΪġ޿ɣִϵĻṹУͥռλͥϵȫشأԭš硢֤ݳʾ֤ɱۡʵ϶áֱóսȫ̡ж֤ݽ辭֤ͥ[4]ͥǵʹȨļн׶ΣǷ˽ⰸҪ;Ҳоʽ᰸Ψһķ;˵ͥϳġ
鷢֣뵱ϢҪʽĿͥ˵Ҫʽͥ˾ʵдڴڿͥ޿֮ͥɸΪʽͥ[5]磬Ϊ֤֮һ˾ʵгһݹ淶Ŀͥ¼⣬㷺ѯʱ¼Ѷʱ¼ʻ¼̸¼¼֤ݽ¼֤¼ʱ¼¼ڿͥЩ¼ǷٶԷʽͥԡʽı֡뵱֮Ϊ׽еϢδضأֻͨ˽ʽͥһ֡ʽͥ˾з˼ҪãڵʵȨٻȡijϢԼ׵սԣʱʽͥͥķɹ鱾ʽƶȡںܶʵϲδõִУ˵Ϊʽͥϰϳʵ൱̶ѭŷķʽͥġDZ򡱡
ȻѧԷʽͥĹעȴޣеһЩֻͣ棬ԡϿͥ[6]δйطʽͥרоҲûд˾ĸǶ벢ּṩĶԲ߽ͬʱ˾ʵƵʹ÷ʽͥ˾ԱԼڷʽͥ龳еϵˣԴһԴӶ
ʽͥһϸ΢ƽΪʵϴơṹģʽ⣬Ϊ˾ĸһDZڵĺ⡣оʽͥشʵ壬Ҳзḻۼֵͷ塣
ȣʽͥ˾ʵеձ󣬲Ծ׽Ҫá˾۵оӦԹ㷺ڵ˾ʵӶԷʽͥ״ơȷ˽˾ʵ򡣷ʽͥҲһЩص⣬ǿַ˵ijȨʶԷʽͥĹ淶ߺϷѧ߲ɻرܵ
ڶʽͥӳ˴ͳзʽں̶ܴΪ˾ʵϮְȨȻǿǿռλĶԿƸĸЧѣڡʽʵλʮ˾ĸչ˳˱۵س֮ΪʧܣʹDzò˼˾ĸķǷҹ顣иĸ˼·ǣֲȽ˾ƶȺϹҪǶԿƣעϵƶƣ׷ϵ걸ǡʵйעիб쳵ʵĹ˽̫٣޷ʺϹƶȻֲƶҲˮ֮Сصй⣬ص˾ʵصʵ磬κоԲооԽıؾ֮;ϽõġƶԶԶģӦֻʵʵĽˣӷʽͥ̽ʵĸĸィ飬пΪҹ˾ĸṩһȫµķչ
Էʽͥоϸ΢ֲƬϣ˾ͷ۲ӦԵ塣ͷ۶ԣһ·ǽ׷ķѧоʽתͣνС´Ұġġķѧоʽ[7]²ϸ£ǽȴҪԶ˽ԷʽͥΪġۼſҰһѧоȥͨʽͥ˳Ȼ˾ƶȺϵĻ⣬ʵ϶˾̡Դԭ򡢷뵱˵Ϣơϳϡϻṹȡ󻹴ʹǷ˼˾ʵУþΣʵĹϵ޶ȣʽľޣɵʽʵԣԼΪʲôطΪʲôз⡣
֮йʵ⣬˾ʵͼձڵΪ˺Եķʽ֣ͥÿۿܽʵ֤ϣӡӵĶ԰۲ʽͥ޺ǰ΢ҲۺҰʽͥ뵱ǰ˾ĸмԿǣۺѧѧȿѧƷ̽֡ĵֱĿ꣬һͨʵ֤ͷʽͥҹ˾ʵе״ƺ⣬߽飻ǴӷʽͥĽǶȹע˾ĸٵ˾ĸĶԲߡ鱾ϵķ͡жеķ֣жеϷķܣԷ֡ͺͷΪϡDZ򡱵ķʽͥݲͬҳӦĽ취Ļͼı䵱ǰ()ѧڸѧ¡ֲ顢˾ʵйķѧ˼·ͨһⳢԶۿܵļ顢ܽ͸Ľּ̽һָһķѧоʽһ˾ʵϷѧ
ԣĵоҪУ1.ѧáжеķ֮ۿԷϵġDZ򡱣ͼֵּ[8]ԷʽͥκμֵϵġǰȲ䡰ʽΪҲԹֳСԷ򡱵Ĺ־裬оʽͥҲڳͥķʽͷdz򻯡עʵ֤飬ȫΧѡȡһЩԺв۲졢Էٷ̸ʾͲİ[9]һǣѱ¼Ϊʽͥ淴ӳڵе򣬹ע¼ܷӳķʽͥ2.ѧ˳ɱƶȷDz۵ķ3.ȽϷʽͥʽͥԴԭԭ򡢴ͳִũ塢й˾ʵȽԱȡ4.淶зйʽͥĹԼԷʽͥӰ죬ʽͥĹ淶ƶȻĸĸィ顣

ʲôǷʽͥ

ǣκζ嶼ΣյġԷʽͥĽ綨Σա൱ѶȡʽͥǶ˾ʵĸϳ˽ſ׼ȷաֻʽͥһļϣڱ߽ЩģʽɹӰӶ̬ϰںӵı仯
νʽͥĽ綨Ϊʵʺ͹ƿͥپ߱޶ȵġϯͷֱӡȿͥĻҪֲȫʽͥӦ߱Ҫ˾Աټ˫аʱδϸʽɵijҪ󣬶Ըַʽṩԭźͱ濹Ļᡢʾ֤ݺ֤֯˶ʵбۡѰͽȣּڲʵͽ׵ϻʽڣʽ֯(ԱֿͥԼǡͥá)ʽĴʽ(編Ե绰֪ͨټ˫Ϣ)ʽͥʽʽijȡʽͥڿͥķ룬ͬ˾Ϊǰ׼ΪԺ͵ǰеΪȴܱʽͥ磬ͥǰ֤ݽǽ֤ݣ漰ʵͷۣȡ˫ģΪʽͥ
ʽͥʽͥԶԵġʽĿͥݡϯͷֱӡԭҪҪ¾ijҪ[10]1.ͥǰʹ2.ԭǰ棻3.˫뵽ͥԭϲþͰʵ뵥˽4.ͨ򰸼ͥʱͥԱȫͥܽɳа취һֿͥ5.Աʽͥ¼Ա˾ְٲԼǣԱֿͥ6.˳7.ڷԺͥ8.ƷۣͥάַͥɡͥСͥʱʹ÷鳵ȡʵеġͥϱ׼ʽһ£Ϊʽͥ
ʽͥ˾ʵй㷺ڣʽʽʽͥɷΪغصķʽͥǰ߱ѯʡѶʡʻ̸顢֤ʡ¼һ֣[11]ڰû¼һЩ·뵱Ϊ׽ϢҪ(粻ɹĵ⣬ɲ¼)(編ͨ绰˫˵̸)򲻿ܲȡʽķٳϣڷʽͥʱԵˡĻûм¼
书ܣʽͥɷΪ(1)ʵķʽּͥڲʵʵͳʵ(2)ɱ۵ķʽּͥṩ˫˾ͷ۵Ļ᣻(3)׽ķʽּͥѰ׵ĺƽ(4)ϵķʽͥ
ݷǷ涨ʽͥɷΪзɹ涨ĺ޷ɹ涨ķʽͥǰָɶԷʽͥıʽһЩ涨翪ͥ¼ѯʱ¼¼֤ݽȣ֮԰вʽͥΪڳϲʽƶȵҪ󡣡зɹ涨ָɶԷʽͥй涨ڷٵľУδ컯ΪƵķʽͥɼʽƶʱҲԷʽķʽ磬һʽĿͥ¼бΪͥʵֻһа취ٺԱָɶԷʽͥʽûӦ涨绰֤¼̸¼̸¼ȣЩǷٻھ顢ͳԡ֪ʶضȡϰԡDZ򡱡

ʽͥ״

ͨԽ㶫ϡࡢӱɽݵȵػ㷨ԺмԺʵ֤飬Ƿַʽͥ˾ʵСڻ㷨Ժ˾ʵ൱ձ顣
ͽij㷨Ժ(³AԺ)ԣ԰飬2002갸гַʽͥıΪ58.8%2001Ϊ75% 2000Ϊ83.7%һ

һAԺ2000-2002갸зʽͥĻ(λ)





зʽͥ


2002

51
׳17
о᰸4
2

30

о᰸13
10

ͨ34
о᰸22
8

о᰸12
10

2001

52
׳12
о᰸3
0

39

о᰸9
9

ͨ40
о᰸18
10

о᰸22
20

2000

49
׳23
о᰸0

41

о᰸23
22

ͨ26
о᰸16
12

о᰸10
7


AԺĵʽͥҪ·棺1.ʽͥǰͰʵ;״˫ѯʱ¼¼¼Ľ2.پͰʵ;״˫˵Ĵˡ(縸ĸżƵ˷˵)ѯʱ¼¼¼Ľ3.ͥڷʽϽУһ˴ͥ(ڴίڵΪİ)ڷԺ칫ҡҡϢٿԲ顱[12]4.ͨ򰸼УͥʱͥԱδȫֻһٺԱа취ԼǣͥԱʼͥú뿪ͥԱ²ؼİ˯飻[13]ͥ϶飬ֻга취ٶ԰֪飬ͥԱ밸书ֻڴ5.ͥʱɳа취ٻԱԼǣ6.⼰¼ɳа취һ˲7.Ե֤ͨ绰С֤8.뵱˼ڵλ/֯쵼ȺڿͥǰС̸漰ʵѯ״ȣγɡ̸¼9.ټ˫˽С桱򡰱ʽ[14]ġ˵ʹ˺ͽ⡢ߣγɷٳ䵱֤ˡġͽЭ顱[15]߱¼ȡ
ͬͬԺͬʱڷʽͥıͬɷһЩԹ֮ͨ
(һ)ʽͥʽͥ
аͨһʽͥ(Ҳֻһ)4ΣʽͥĴһ㶼ʽͥAԺһ12Ρںܶ£ͬһʽͥʽͥԵķȹϵǰԽ࣬Խ٣֮ȻܵĽǣΪһijֿͥʽĶʹûƶһֿͥʽҲ⣬еİʽͥʽͥ٣еĴࡣҪΪķײͬ׳򰸼зʽͥͨ򰸼漰ϵУʽͥԱ͵ϸࡣʽֻܹ֮ͥΪСͥ¼Ȼʽ൱淶ǻ¶ˡĺۼ[16]ԭ˾Աʱ׷滯ʱֵġ覴á
()ʽͥ½
ԺԽԽࡱзӳķʽͥ½ļǷ˾ĸƽͷʵߣԺijԽԽ淶ԽԽƶأǿҪԭһǽԺϵͳ˾ĸ˾淶ΪĿ꣬ԽԽǿǷԺڲİ(ҪΪ )һ̶ϡ淶˾ڣȱݵĵطºЩ޲̸֣ٲٶԡ֮Աǣھ÷ƫԶ壻ҲֻͣڷٵġϣһǿںţΪ󲿷ַٸעʵ幫ע⣬½ֻǾصķʽͥԣصķʽͥλд۲졣ϡȾòʽͥǰ̫ı䡣
()뷨ٶԷʽͥѡ
ٵİѡʽͥĹϵͬͬԺͬİԼʽͥĸԡԶͬڰϴĵʹáƵĶλʽķʽͥԸࡣ磬㶫ij㷨ͥ2001స1123ڣԱֻ3ˣ80%ϰü׳򣬶ͨİֻͥͨǹڷͥӣdzа˾͵ȥԼİӡ⣬ڰأ޵ѹǸϣսаİϣڵԣиӽգʶֲʹ֤ͥݽʱ˳ȷʽͥ󡣶Сĵ纣ϡijмԺͥμӰЩԺйصⷽķʽͥԸһЩΪгԣʱ䣬Ը˫˽ӴΪ䷳ط
ǰصĵ֮Ӧķʽ̬ͥķԺҲӦķʽ̬ͥһ㿼ǣѿʽͥĹϵʾУʼѹʱ໹Ǹٵѡʽͥ(76.7%)ش𡰲һҪݰľش𡰸ࡱ(15%)ȡ١(8.3%)Ҫһ͵ԣһв⣬֮IJ첢ԡ ʾϢܱ˵ʽͥ΢ԣҲʾŰľԷǷѡʽͥӰʼѡʽͥԭʱ67.2%ķٻشЩ÷ʽͥЧáѡ񡰱ʽͥЧʡռ47.8%ʼڷʽͥ(ʽϳ)˵һ仰ʲô[17]ʱ෨ٻش𣺾ʵѡǷãʵǣһеƻɼһ֤ǻ۵ġʵġ˾ָ롱ڷٵĹ֮С
̸һȤ󣺵ʱЩƽ϶÷ʽͥķٻƵ÷ʽͥЩƽʹ÷ʽͥķʹ÷ʽͥһܵԭǣʽͥһֳļǷٸԻİ참ϰߣȻܶ෨ٲһ֡ϰߡ
()ʽͥԾ׺ƽĴٽ
ʽͥö԰Ե⡢ͽ⡢ߵȺƽʽ᰸ԵĴٽá磬2001ꡢ2002AԺо᰸[18]İУзʽͥıֱΪ93.5%80%оһֱΪ47.6%38.5%һǰһԸںߡʾҲ֤ʵʽͥڰĵߡʼľ飬ʽͥǷ״ٳɵߡʱشǡĴ74.4%AԺıߴ95%ԭΪҪǷʽͥϵġʽΪ׽ӪһɵķΧʽͥһս
ͬ͵ķʽܸͥвأеΪ߰참ЧʣеΪƣǺƽף֮һijͻڷʽͥеԣַʽͥۺ[19]пܻͻϼȱ֤참Чʣܹƽס
()ʦԷѡʽͥӰ
ʦԷѡʽͥӰǶ෽ġԡʦIJǷᵼ·ʽͥļ١һ⣬شǡ񡱡ʦɵ·ʽͥӣԿʦ·ʽͥļ١ģֱΪ30%44.4%25.6%һǣʦϣٻΪһ˫˲ĵԷ˻򷨹ɡѹı참ԣٵѡʽͥʦ뷨֮Ĺϵ΢Ҳܻ෴ѡӷʽͥʹáʦǡİˡʹõijԻʽЩǡʶЩһУϤʦϿܵ·ٸѡʽͥԡϤʦʱΪһȽѡʽͥĿԸС˷ʽͥһضΧڷ˵ġط֪ʶ滷ı仯䶯ʦԡⲿٴѡ񡰹ͨķԡԭһǡⲿˡܲ˽⡰ڲ򡱣ǡİˡܻͼץסٽзʽͥġѱپԸķһЩʱߡʽĿͥѡ񡰷񡱵ıΪ44.4%Ըߣ˵ѡĿͥʽ̫ʦӰ죬ҲʾҹʦԷٵӰԲЧ
()ʽͥ뷨ԺĹϵ
߲μӵһʵ֤мԺһ°ַʽͥıԼΪ1/3[20]ĵ㷨ԺмԺķʽͥƵ巨ͥķʽͥͨȳеķԺձ顣ɵóۣһǷԺļԽߣԽʽʽͥԽ٣ǷԺľԽ٣ԺԽпܼʽijһ˵Խƶϲ㣬ƶȵԽƶȽߵı⣬ⴴһԲļСһ˵ǣ߷ԺķͨѡʽͥΪԤ㾭ѳ㣬참迼dzɱҲ̫ࡣ[21]
()ٺͷԺԷʽ̬ͥ
ٶԷʽ̬ͥȱȽһǶԷʽͥĽ綨򷨹ٵĽ[22]ԼٵһģԶӰ졣[23]Ӱϲ𺦱ĵķһ棬ٳϵķʽͥҪʵʽеķʽͥ١ʼĿǰԣʱѡʽͥʽ಻ࡱʱٻش𡰽١(27.2%)͡еȡ(58.3%)֤ݰԷٵķ̸Ա෴ΣзӳķʽͥıҲϸߡһȤìܰʾţ󲿷ַٶԷʽͥЩڣٶ֡ᷨЩɻ裬ǷǿԷʽֵּ̬ͥȡƶʽͥǷԺڲеһסҵ򡱣ֻͨСȦˡϤǶһ㽫֡DZʽƶ֮£ҲڵУ෨ٶصķʽͥһŷϡ
һ棬ΪʽͥԾ׽лáʼڷʽͥ(ʽϳ)˵һ仰ʲô󲿷˳ֿ϶̬ȣ磺ع־ʽԺҪĿϢֹʵмƹӦá߰참Чʡʽͥ油䡱ȡ[24]ʾ74.4%ķΪʽܴͥٽߡ83.9%ķΪʽͥӰ˾42.2%ķٳϣСϷ涨Ŀ̫ͥЧʵߣԳҲûʲôʵЧAԺıߴ75%[25]55%ķΪʽͥں̶ܴϿԷӳٵġ참ڲٷٿϸ참ûʲôҪһԭ桢涼ķڷƽףҪе[26]һλʾдһ참Ҳһķ˹˵ɵھ飬߼ͥڣͥ⡱ᷨżʣζŷҪðͥ⻹Ӧڷͥ¹򣬵Ȼʽͥ
ٶԷʽ̬ͥ빤йأѧ١һ˵ʱ䳤ķٸڳϷʽͥĻãʱԽ̣ԷʽͥԽСڽԺ˱׼ƫѧʹʱѧһغϵӡ󡣵1990ǰڽ뷨Ժıѧķ٣Էʽ̬ͥķٲ޶¡ʵϣѧķδӷʽͥȻҲδظӡʵĽǣٵĹʱԽԽḻԷʽͥԽࣻٵķܡͳѧġ඾δ塱ΪʽͥһӦơġΪ(ֹ˾ʵгḻķΪһ֡)Ű참ӣеһЩ˿ܻᷢϸɱߡʱ䡢ûбҪǶԷʽ̬ͥȱת
ע⣬ڷٰðԵֱ棬ǰǨĻҪԴ԰ţʷٰ조áļز㡣˾ĸҪġ淶ʽá˳ǿԿƵı·ԽԽٵ֤ݾһ֤ʱӦݵ˵ȡ֤ʱҲѰҸѣֽϵķʽͥήҲһ֤ݡʵϣԺƶ˾ĸһDZڵĿǷԺ/ٵġж𡱣תƵϣ[27]ѡȨҲֵػڴԵɡ[28]
ͷԺԷʽ̬ͥȶԣȻʱᡰꡱǿϸעسͱϵȨڰѹԼ참ϰߵӰ£ʵ϶ԷʽͥǷġб鷨ԺûаѷʽͥΪһ⡱
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ͥ黯ҹеձǵĵ˱ۼ׳ͨ򰸼϶ɳа취ٰڻ㷨Ժ˾ʵд󲿷ְһȡߡ[29]׳̫ӻ޿쵽ʱתΪͨ򡣼ͥҲֻʽֻͥͥа취ټֻڵһʽͥʱ¶桱ҪƶҪ󡪹ͬ鰸ûеõʵִУܶºͥûкݼɳа취ɳа취ͥԱ϶ǡͬ⡱¼һЩڽ᰸󰸾ʱԱа취ҺͥԱǩġ
ƵĶλƣҪԭжһǷԺʵаĸ˸Ƽ˳аơһλרŵġа취١ˡʼո𰸼ʹȷͥʱ䡢ͥʽ֮ͥĵ顢ѯʻ⡢׫до⡢Сʹγеȡֽ׶δмԺķνİ(еĻϷ)ǹڳа취ٵģͥÿһԱԼ񣬹ʺͥԱг[30]ûΪٳаİʱ;гԵͥй⣬ɳа취֡ͥԱҲԹ̶ģγһĬʾĻݺϵ磬ʽͥʱͥԱijϯῼǡ˵ı֡г⣬dzа취һ㲻԰а취ٲͬĴΪɳа취ٸ˸Ԥа취ٵġȨԼ참ͿܡԤ˳аİֻزͺ飬ܱΪһ֡ԽΪΪʾŸ÷ٿܶ԰ӵС桱ɼͥġDZȻͬʽƶȵҪ

ʾϢܱ



A
B
C
ܼ


ʾ
20
79
81
180


ѡ

ٷֱ

ٷֱ

ٷֱ

ٷֱ

1.Ŀǰԣʱѡʽͥʽ಻ࣿ

0

7
8.9%
12
14.8%
19
10.6%

B
5
25%
31
39.2%
13
16.1%
49
27.2%


15
75%
37
46.8%
53
65.4%
105
58.3%

D
0

4
5.1%
3
3.7%
7
3.9%

2.Ϊʲôзʽͥ(ɶѡ)
AʽͥЧ
12
60%
36
45.6%
38
46.9%
86
47.8%

BЩ÷ʽͥЧ
13
65%
54
68.4%
45
55.6%
121
67.2%

Cʱһְҵϰ
0

0

4
4.9%
4
2.2%

D
2
10%
14
17.7%
11
13.6%
27
15%

3.ΪʽͥǷӰ˾
A


4
20%
10
12.7%
13
16.1%
27
15%

B
16
80%
69
87.3%
66*
81.5%
151
83.9%

4ľ飬ʽͥǷ״ٳɵߣ
A


19
95%
57
72.2%
58
71.6%
134
74.4%

B
1
5%
22
27.8%
22*
27.2%
45
25%

5.ѹʱ໹Ǹٵѡʽͥ
A
5
25%
13
16.5%
9
11.1%
27
15%

B
1
5%
9
11.4%
5
6.2%
15
8.3%

Cһݰ
14
70%
57
72.1%
67
82.7%
138
76.7%

6.ʦIJǷᵼ·ʽ٣
A
9
45%
22
27.8%
23
28.4%
54
30%

B
6
30%
31
39.2%
43
53.1%
80
44.4%

C
5
25%
26
33%
15
18.5%
46
25.6%

7.зʽͥʱЩԵˡʱ˵ĻǷδ¼Σ
A


17
85%
40
50.6%
55
67.9%
112
62.2%

B


3
15%
32
40.5%
21
25.9%
56
31.1%

C
0

7
8.9%
5
6.2%
12
6.7%

8. ǷΪʽͥʹں̶ܴܷӳһٵġ참
A


14
70%
40
50.6%
45
55.6%
99
55%

B


4
20%
32
40.5%
31
38.3%
67
37.2%

C
2
10%
7
8.9%
3*
3.7%
12
6.7%

9ǷΪĿǰϷ涨ʽ̫ͥЧʵߣԳҲûʲôʵЧ
A


15
75%
28
35.4%
33
40.7%
76
42.2%

B


5
25%
37
46.9%
48
59.3%
90
50%

C


0

14
17.7%
0

14
7.8%


ע1. AΪij㷨ԺBΪ㶫ij㷨ԺCΪԺ(ϡࡢӱ6Ժ)

2. *ʾδѡдѡΣʰٷֱֵδ100%Ρ


ġΪʲôʽͥ


ʽƶȡǰ׼֤ͥݹ걸Ľ죬ʽͥΪʲô˹㷺ڣ
ΪʽͥǷ(Ժ)ҡĵĽΧưĻþѧDzǡ͡ھѧ(Ժ)ҡ˽׷󻯣ڸԼԼƫãΪ(˼ж)δԤijɱ仯ӦΪѷ١ۼѡľ˼·жģͣ趨ϣ֧Ľ˵жͬȻÿ˶Եģе֪ʶϢ׷Ч󻯣ѡжʱ뿼DZͬԵġʽͥصӰԼʽƶȣԺͷٵijɱ棬˾ͳĻ˵Ļʡ״ṹҵ̬ȣط֪ʶȡ
ͷҵIJĶԣһ棬ΪӭʽƶȣͨһʽͥһĿͥ¼ⲢԴڶԳغͶԳõϿɣǼϷǿҪδһҪ󣬰ܻᱻΪΥ򡱡һ棬ֹܳڷʽͥʽͥԷʽͥҪǻڳɱıȽϣΪʽͥʽͥͬɱ͡Ҿƶȶԣ൱̶ϻ̽󰸼͹ʵһʽͥڴ޷òijϢοͥΪ֮裬ʵϽ׶Կͥҹ(Լ½)ģʽҪص㡣[31]Թ˵˾еҪɱе˾оܲ壬ÿһ˾оԴ[32]֧˾ɱάһ׳˾Լ˾Ա참֧ȫã編ԺʩάáټԱʸٰ참ķѵˡơ˾ɱҪɵطеҹ÷չ൱ƽ⣬Ժز㣬[33]ЩԺ͵֮仹ΧԴȡĻơ[34]ѡʽͥʵΪҽԼ˳ɱֻҪַ˵ijȨ˾ܣҶԷʽͥ֡ΪǽѡжͨĬϡңʽͥ(õ)ʵֹҸ跨ԺҪĿꡪףֲʽƶھ׽ľޡ⣬ʽ˾ƶͨԡʽ˾Ҵý۵ĵȴƳ硰ȺڡоĹʽ[35]Щͬٳ˹Ĭ̬ȡϷйءͥıʵڴ˱Ȼ˲һ£ʽƶҪϸ񰴹ͥʵֻһʽĿͥɱʵϵ˻ȨʡͥʵݻΪһʽͥ+ɴηʽͥ
뵱֮IJģҲշ˷ʽͥij֡һ棬ʽͥԷԺͷٶԳɱϸߣٲضҪʽܻͥ㹻Ϣͽףʶʽ̫ͥʵϣٶԳһ̬ȣΪ򷨲Ҫ̫鷳ƵСһ棬˶ԳϵҲdz߿ôǿңȣ˸ҪҲʵ幫ҹʵ塢򡱵Ļٹ̣ɭıɱǰް↑й˵ķпԶˣϴӿ󱻸¡ߡ[36]ܽܵĻdzʵ岻ڶУʽij϶ʵײû̫ô(ʵϲٷҲôΪ)һܼӾ򼤻˫˵ìܣ׵ײӰ죬Ҿ޷ʵԡԵػìܡ⣬ʽij򻹿ӵ˵ijɱۡˣڷٺ͵˫£ʽͥΪ˫ĹʶĬʾĹı[37]ʽͥĹܾˡ[38]
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(һ)ɱ
ѡͥģʽһҪԳɱ⡣ʽͥԽͷԺͷٵ˾ɱʱɱ˵ϳɱͨҲή͡ٴʱĿǣһǰβ˳[40]ǷʵֳɱͷգкͷСһ̶ʽĿͥͻҪʹ˳ķѸٳɱ򷨹پͲ̫ܹسɱ߰ʽͥʹò㹦ܸʵõķʽͥ
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ʽͥķѵʱ࣬ʱ߳ڷʽͥ򵥡ݡٿɽʡܶʱ;ʹ˶ԣʽͥЧʸߡʵϣ෨ٿϷ涨ij̫Ϊ˷ٵȻЩܱϳδȷʵ幫Ҳ׵˳ϵ󡣼ϲٷԺѹʽͥΪʽͥԽԽܻӭ
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ʽͥԸγɡǶԿľ׽Χڵ˽ƽЭ̣ٽ׵ĺƽʽͥܡŴ󡱵֮ĶìܣҹĸĶԿƷʹ÷ͥսøвھ׵ijסƽ
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ԺʽͥʱһʽijͳׯϵķͥĹգ߸ϵ̨ķ٣ڵɫȨķ鳣ɾжгʽ永ɡԱȨ(˵ͨʽ;֪ЩϢΪʹʱԺͽЩϢṩ)ЩǺƵġͷķʽ鷢֣˶Կסͷ̫Ͽɣ[41]˶Էʽֻͥӭ̬ȡΪʽͥں̶ܴϴ˸ƽ񻯵ķٺ˾ٽڡӽ˾(access to justice)ʽĿͥȻڳԵøҲһڽ뷨ͥġżʹ˶ԣʽͥϷġ㡱ԭһϣ뵱֮ľ룬ٽڽӽ˾һ棬ٿƳ̺ͽס
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ʽͥ󣬾ҹʵԣٿ׷ʽзʽ[42]һֵ͵ķʽͥķʽͥһ̶Ͽνʽзʽһ׷ݣҹŴ˾С΢˽áĴͳϡʵ塢򡱵ĹʢУûϸԼµԱֵ˾ΪʽԨԴԶʽ롰ʽԶԵģʡʽͥڽķ룬ڸĸ↑źҹν𲽷չʽƶ걸ͥԽԽ꾡ʱ֮ԵķʽͥҲͻսǵҰ˾мĻͳġԡDZںͲ֪ģ˾޴νͳϰߣϰ߳ΪȻʷûԶȥ˾вɱϮžյĴͳִͳһ϶ʱڷ仯ʽͥձڵ״ʷ߼ѧС·ĸҲڶһĽ͡

塢ʽͥ

ʽܾͥȽƣҲһЩԻص⣬磺
һʽͥ³ϲ㡣ڸеͬʱҲܻáǡпӰ참ȷ磬绰֤һ뷨ڳͨ绰һϵԱϢ׼ȷԣҲġϯа취һԼǻԱַֿͥ˵˽ܡķ١ȨʽͥзܵϢӶܵΪ
ڶķʽͥᵼʽͥ黯ʹ֮Ϊһʽ͹ԭ֮һǷͨʽͥȡ˲е㹻ϢӶ˶ʽƶȵ󣬲пʹγɲԴʽϰߡʵϣʽͥĹ㷺ڽҹͥʽĸΪʲôʽǡߣжԲߡһע磬Ϊͥļ˱ֵġһͥĸĸܿʧܣҪԭһǺǰ׼򣬶ûп֮ͥ⻹дʽͥĴڡ
ͥġʽ˾ܡΪһ˵Ϣһ˶͸ȲٸпܽаԼϢƺȨ˫˽ϢԳƵIJģΪѰ⡱
ģʽͥΪṩ˱ϵǷȱڷٱҲʹһֱʽƶ׷DZΣաˣʽҲġʽԺİ൱͹淶ݱķ˵ҪºĽٶԷʽ̬ͥҲ˵һ㡣

ʽͥĶԲ

ڷʽͥ״⡢ơ˾ԵȿǣһЩĸ˼·ЩΪ˾ĸһ˼·ƶƵĿҪжһȷ޶ȵijϣʵ˾ֵijʽ壬[43]򻯳򣬽ϳɱ(˾ɱ͵˵ijɱ)ЧʡʽͥıֶݲͬͬԲߣһַ˻ȨķʽͥԽֹʽͥʽijȡڶԷй涨ΣϷʽͥ⣬һƶȣϿضµķʽͥͨһϵļ׿ͥƶȣģһЩʽͥҲҪȫ뷨ɿܣɷβܡ
(һ)Ӧֹķʽͥ
Щʽͥδϡϯͷֱӵԭ򡪵Ҫ󣬻ȻһҪ󣬵ֺȨζӰӦֹ磺
1.ķʽͥ編ٿͥʱԼǣ߽ԱͥȣΪǷȱڲල߲߰ڡķ١Ӧֹ
2.ж֤ݽ辭֤֤ͥΪݶûϸ㡰ͷϯֱӡԭķʽͥӦֹἰġ绰֤ȡ
3.ϼ˲ʵķʽͥͥijԭӦڷԺҲijУӦijЩʵijϣƵͱݵȣ[44]Ϊ𺦷ٵĹң뵱˵ĽʵɱۡԺ⡪ͨӦһ˵ijУܻ𲻱ҪIJɣ͡ͳIJͬڵƽȺͶԵԭ򣬵Ҳһ˴С
4.뵱˼䵥λ֯йʿڿͥǰеġ̸ȣΪ漰˶ʵ;׽ʵ컯Ϊһ֡ȺСӦֹ
5.ֱӶϯ·뵱˾ͰʵĽܻᵼ·ΪԭӦֹ[45]⣬簸ͥڵȷ˵׷ӡ֤ʱ޵ӳƲȫȷȡ·һ˾ͰʵнӦԱй¼֪ԷˣȷзĻᣬºġϯ
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й涨ԴӷʽͥĽǶȽһƶȡ磬ѯʵڽ϶¿ɹڷʽͥϷʽͥǶȿֵܳ⣬Ӧϸ涨ѯʷΧ򡢷ɺȡ1.ʽ֮ͥⷨٿɸݰѯʵˣѯʱԭӦ֤ϯԷ˻ڳ2.Ե˵ѯӦѯʱ¼˿ɲİ3.ԵѯԭӦij(編Ժ칫)У4.ѯʵɷٽУԱμ¼ٲԼǣ5.Υ򽫵ѯЧ
µķԺɹڷʽͥڵУ˻ʵͷ˱ۡӷʽͥǶȶԣԺƶƵĶԲ߰1.ԭӦжڳٸ⣬Աμ¼ٿɾԵѡ񣬿ԡ桱Ҳԡ2.ԭӦ¼ⲻɹģɲ¼3.ԭڷԺҲϽУһ㲻Ӧһ˴У3.˿ɲȡ׷ʽš绰桢ʼȣ[46]ɲʹﴫƱڵ¼ע
֤ݽȷķɶλǰ׼ΪԺӦϸ֤ݽΪʽ֤ͥݽɷ١ԱԺԱ[47]֣֤ݽʱӦ⵱˫ʵ֤ݡۣӦй۵ݼ¼ڰΪڷʽͥ
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൱ֵķʽͥ뷨ɹǰ׼ɹһЩڵ¹ձȹеġЭա׼աͽաԼġǰ顱ƶȡӿͥڱϵ˻Ȩǰ£ͥм׻Ŀܣһϵļ׿ͥƶȡֻͥ㹫ƽȡϯͷֱӵԭ򣬱ɲȡּеʽ׿ͥۺϿͥ׳ĵϡͨİУݷɹ涨ͥòȡʽЩҲڼ򻯿ͥ󡣶󰸼ȫʵкҲDzԼ򻯿ͥڼ׳£ͥȽϼ㣻ˣԿϣӼ㡣Щͬٳ˼򻯿ͥҪ󡣼׿ͥʵгֵġͨ󡱵ƣͬ
1.׿ͥʱ䰲űֻҪ˫ͬ⣬ٿɾ簲ţڱտͥصȾ֤ʱɺ30ջ60֮󡣼׿ͥҲδϷ122涨ڿͥǰ֪ͨ˺ϲˡɸݵ˵˼Ƿ񡰹浱ɺͿͥʱ䡢ص㡱
2.ʽͥԭڷԺͥУеķԺûͥͥáΪԭ򣬷ٿڰ칫ҡһԺصֿͥ£׿ͥһڵػص㿪ͥƫԶķͥҲԡϿͥ߿ִͥƼķչƵͥҲڲõĽ֡
3.ͼ׿ͥԣ˵ͥɲȡ׷ʽš绰桢ʼȣϸĴƱ֪ͨҲɲȡ֪ͥͨķʽ¼ʽͥԴҪϸʹﴫƱ֤˵Ĵ뵱ͬ
4.ͥáҹ˾ʵеձ󣬰Ҫɳа취ٸϺ顢ʵ϶ʵ׳ûֱӲȡ׿ͥ[48]Ҳӵİɺͥк顣ʽͥҪͥԱȫμӣڵһʽͥ⣬ɿһʱĶ鷢֣㶫ϼԺķ˫ͬ󣬽ͥͥΪа취һ˿ͥҲֻɳа취֣ͥԱμӡ׿ͥʱڳͥɳа취֣Ա¼а취ٲԼǣԱ޶ȵij
5.ȱϯе⣬ڵһδͥʱͥԱϵˡϯУ𺦵˵Ȩ
6.׿ͥľԼ򻯡磬ɲϸءϷ123йؿͥǰԱӦ˺ϲǷͥͥɵĹ涨Բ֪˵Ȩ(ƶ֪)ͥϸաϷ124127涨ķͥ顢ͥ۵˳Уͥͷͥ׶಻أδŷٷάͥδʹ÷鳵ȡ
7.׿ͥҪڻ㷨Ժͨİ㷨Ժİͨ׳ġԵڶηͨ򰸼Ŀͥɸֱȡʽͥ͡׿ͥʽҿɸʹúߡǷӣʵɳа취𲽷ֵģһΪ鸴ӣа취ٿͥ׿ͥʱʽͥת⣬ԺضҲü׿ͥõͬ⡢򵥵İһü׳İȡ
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ʽͥڲ뷨ٸ˵ľ顢֪ʶϰߵأͬͬԺͬʱڵķڴͥʱķʽҲ˴˸죬˷ʽͥʱ൱һֵطԡϰԡ[49]ЩĹ淶ȷdzѣҲδҪֻҪ𺦵˻ijȨңʽͥʽͥĻϵ൱ԣ䳣DZ䶯ģʽƶȵĸĸеʵߡ֪ʶˮƽĸĽְҵķչȻᵼ·ʽ̬ͥı仯ˣһЩʽͥ󲻿ҲҪȫ뷨ɿܣҿԷΡ
ϵĻṹΧƷʽͥĶԲߵȻ漰ģʽת͡ʽͥƵһԭҹϮ˴½ϵ׶ģʽĴͳģʽԵ¹ձΪ͡ձĿͥͷաɸͬɣʵָһпжοͥңǰοͥʱܻһ»¡۾ٴοͥӵһοͷյһοͷսΪһĿͷ۹̣νͷһԡԭ򡣵ֵעǣձ˾ĸҲڽӽӢԼģʽ磬ձ1996ͨ19981ʵʩ¡ϷϹȷΪ??֤γ(֤)Լ֤?֤׶Ρ[50]Կҹ˾ĸһҪ֤ݹ򡢼׳ظĸʩʵԼ˾ĸƽҹģʽͿͥʽӽ׶ԿͥԼпͥһУʽͥΪʽij(ǰ׼ͥǰ)ա
ԿƵĸĸ﷽ǡվ򶫿վйϽй⡣ʮԿͥΪĵ˾ĸﲽǴ桪ʽͥ˼͸ĸпܡٿṩһµĸĸ˼·ϵƶȱ˾ʵIJһҪʵע˾ʵк塢÷ϼԺͻ㷨ԺǷͥʵ[51]ǵǡۻӦäĿֲȽֻ˽й˾(Ȿǹ)ſй׵оΪṩмֵĶԲߡ

* Ϊ򾭼оϺ뾭оƸĸоĿ˾Ƹĸоɹ

** 꿣ѧʿѧƸڣ˾оΣɽѧķѧԺʦ

[1] йпͥõǿоǣͥƶойѧ2001档
[2] μ[]Īŵ?٣˻Ȩδϡ룬ɳ2000棬116-117ҳ
[3] 1877꡶¹Ϸ䡷ԼӸµ1895꡶µϷ䡷νһ˶̱ҵϷԴΪ1911꡶Ϸ䡷1915꡶ŲϷ䡷1916꡶Ϸ䡷1929꡶˹Ϸ䡷1933꡶Ϸ䡷1942꡶Ϸ䡷1947꡶ʿϷ䡷Լҹ̨Ϸ1991꡶л񹲺͹ϷЩȷͥΪϳġ
[4] ù±Ժ֤ݵɹ涨47֤Ӧڷͥϳʾɵ֤δ֤֤ݣΪ϶ʵݡ֤ݽϿɲ¼ھ֤ݣԱͥ˵󣬿Ϊ϶ʵݡ
[5] ¡꿵ȣмԺһ״ĵ鱨桱ȽϷֻ棬20028££ʵеСĸмԺһִѧ200356ڡ
[6] μͷ硷йѧ2000棻ǿɡʵġһµⰸķϵ¼жԺͷɵ¡[Ӣ]˹ࣺ򡢹Ȩйѧ1997棬488-541ҳ
[7] 꿣˽ȼá廪ѧѧʿѧλģ2003ꣻ꿣ҵ̬ȣծ˽ȼõıʵⷨѧ20041ڡ
[8] ȻĬ˵ֵۡѧʱѿѧ߿ȫֵ޹صģ߿ȫֵܼľǴġ[]޲?Ĭ٣оߡ־ε룬꣬2001棬76ҳ
[9] ĵʵ֤鷽ǰһоļ۵ĸμоijɹ¡꿵ȣмԺһ״ĵ鱨桱ȽϷֻ棬20028¡
[10] ǽͥΪ塢塢ʱաʽĴҪأμǣͥƶойѧ2001棬һ£½ͥΪ㣬μ£ʵеСĸмԺһִѧ200356ڡ
[11] ֪ͨ˫Ժͥȴֻһˡ¼ѯʱ¼еһҵԺҪӳھ¡̸¼Σ˺ʵʹЩ벻ڳĵ˼棬ȷлЩݷģΪʽͥٽ֪ͨһ˵µѯʡѶʡʻ̸顢֤ȱ¼Ϊͥμ£ʵеСĸмԺһִѧ200356ڡ׷ֱ硣
[12] 磬鷢֣ijԺʯԲÿԲ4ʯʣṩϢijʱٻЩطͥdzƴ࿪ͥΪԲ顱
[13] 龳ʽϷʽͥҪ󣬵ʵ뷨ͥׯϡ뷨ɶԿͥҪԶɹΪʽͥ2000ڱijмԺͥʱٴ˯δĹΡ
[14] ټ˫˽еʱԭ湵ͨܵѹԭġҪۡ뱻湵ͨ߱ġۡ˷ԭ뱻治ԷġߡνġȻ˫ˡϯһֲȫϯ
[15] 磬鷢֣AԺмдһɵ˻а취д˫ǩ֡Ϊ֤ǩֵġͽЭ顱һ·ǣٷ˫ԸЭ顭 Эһʽݣ˫˸ִһݣ浵һݡҲɸЭ飬ʱЭݲʺ飬磬һб桰֤ʹǰǡసһԵ߽᰸
[16] 磬ڹ㶫ijԺһݿͥ¼Ƿ֣ͥԱԱǩʼͬ
[17] һδʾϢܱС
[18] оʽ᰸Ҫͳߣ⻹ȡ͡սʽ
[19] νġеֲͬķʽͥͬʱһãҲһʹãʱΪǡΡʽͥҲΪǡһΡµķʽֱͥѾҪˡ
[20] μ£ʵеСĸмԺһִѧ200356ڡ
[21] 㷨Ժٺ;ѳͬʱ߱Ҳǵзֵһձ󣬴Ļ㷨ԺʵͨϷѷάھ÷ķԺ侭ѳ㵫ѹBԺ
[22] 򷨹ٽʲôǡʽͥǵһ⣬ǵҪǾ˵
[23] һλپʾдʽͥں壬޷ݡ
[24] 180ʾ15λٳ̬ȣָʽͥصĺ ʽͥһֹɣֻһϡʽͥĺϷдȶӦýֹʹãƷΧȡ
[25] һЩʾдͥһʽʽȻֹȻҪԻ㷨ʶʵʣ÷ʽͥӦڱסȡ
[26] νеijֵּ̬ȣΪֵᳫҲӦܵС
[27] һǣֻҪʽϡУ١(磬Ȩơ¹족ʵֻڡˡ)ҲΡЩ˷λеһش⣺αֵɣβ/壬ʹִڹ֮䱣ƽ⣬ָܱ֡εĴۡ
[28] Ȼ˫ѡü׳򣬾Ͳϲ⣻Ȼ˺ѡ٣̨200365հ䲼ġϺѡ˹涨档Ӧѵѡи
[29] ڵע⵽̸ʱ˵ߡ׳ͨ򡣴ЩʿԷֻ֣һʽ߹ǡһߡѡݴƶϣܷԺϵͳʮ˾ĸ򷨵ĵλڷٵĿʵϲûеõߣʵ塢򡱵ĹûʵԸı䡣
[30] а취ٻͥгһ£гһdzа취١
[31] йģʽıȽϷ
[32] շѿйѧ19993ڡ
[33] ڹݵʱijطԺоֽһİֽ˽⣬÷ԺѼţ2001ز2ԪֽţԺϼԺ쵼쵼Σδ
[34] £еϡйƳ2001棬167-196ҳ
[35] йͳһ硣
[36] ӿۣա꿵ȣר飬ѷԲ200310ڡ200312ӿ߷ԺдִУ˳Ϊۡɱ֪߿ӿhttp://www.lawsalon.net/main/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=2152004220շʡ
[37] ڿͥʽͨûѡȨν˫ָȡʽͥ˽ܻĬϡ˱ʾԣһλԵķͨͲȡʽͥ෨ڲȡʽͥʱ˵ҲеҪ󷨹١ЩԺü׳°ɹ涨([2003]15) ע⵽Ӧ㵱˵ijһ㣬ȷϵڳѡӵһȨ
[38] Ȼһ㲢ԣе˶Ը⣻ʱ˫Ը⣻ҲǵʼնκʽķʽֻͥӭĬ̬ȡ
[39] ٷڵʾдʽͥй顱ʵǡ
[40] ˴˳ĺ壬簸ʵʵ幫ƽ̫鷳ܴٳɺͽ⣬ʹ˫ìСڵ˿ǹĵȡ
[41] 磬2002ijԺͥʱλͥǰϷۣͥʱļӡҡ̵ͥͥ·ۣͥȥ÷۵ꡭЩǼ˶ԡͷᡣҲΪٵ˵ɡŵľľ
[42] ʽзʽϣ£зʽɳ1983档ʽзʽɸΪ͵ذ참ȺڣоΪʮַ롣
[43] ڳʽʵ֤оУSimeon Djankov etal, Courts,Quarterly Journal of Economics (May 2003), http://rru.worldbank.org/documents/lexpaper_aug_22.pdf2003210շʡ
[44] ʵ֤鷢һ⣺ӱijԺһڼϰʱֱӵԭסıֳ⡣
[45] پмϵķԺԣֹٵӴ˵ԭӦõõΪϸءμ£ʵеСĸмԺһִѧ200356ڡ
[46] Ժü׳°ɹ涨ԭߺԺԲȡӿš绰桢ʼȼ㷽ʽʱ˫ˡ֤ˡ
[47] ڹ㶫ijԺ֤ݽڷԺҽУԺΪÿ䱸һ֤䣬ԭͱ澭ɴҹԱ֤ݣԱ֣Ҳ漰Ժ֤ݵ飬˫Ҳͬʱ
[48] Ҳͨƿɷֿļ򻯽顣μ֣ϡѧо20031ڡ
[49] 磬ڸ֪ȨʱͿܲȡͬķйũĸ֪ͼ޷ȡʽƶȵԣȨۡ˱ԵؽΪȨܣˡ
[50] μ£ԿжձϵĻṹ廪ѧ2002棬125126146148ҳ
[51] ƶӦDzͬͬԺIJйһΡáĻչƽĴȴһҹͬٵļѵļ⣬ݲ漰


򾭼оƸרҵ󱨸


Iӹתʵ


ҹоһͳƶȡԭȹıȽоʵʵ˾޶ԡҳ֮ΪоĴģʽǣһʵ⣬Ѱֳɴ𰸣DDżҲDDƶȽбȽϣȻѡΪȽкҹʵķԴָҹ˾ʵѧṩЩʵΪ쳵Ƚϵ͵֤ϵ֤ѧƵµ֤ݹ򱻷ٺʦΪʹһһҪԭѧʵȱӦе˽⡢ͬͰաȴӹб̬ųǰ֮Ծܿ͹ۡо顢ж˾ʵеDZDDʵŵġΪͬΪָŵʵ
оͨϸµĵУ˴ĵһϣӶ˾״һʵ׼ȷİաֻʵΪ磬ʵ粢⡣һϣоǵĹɼ׿ġо治Ÿ飬Ŵͳݡӵ棬չʾ˵й˾ʽͥһDZʵ״۾dzֵģ͸ģķġоϴҿ˾ͨ͸ĶȷָʵϣԺƶ˾ĸһDZڵĿǷٵġж𡱣תƵϡһ۶ȻĶǣ֪ʵġʦľҲ֤ʵġ磬ָг⣬dzа취һ㲻԰а취ٲͬĴΪɳа취ٸ˸Ԥа취١ȨԼ참ͿܡԤ˳аİֻزͺ飬ܱΪһ֡ΪΪʾŸ÷ٿܶ԰ӵС桯ɼͥġDZȻͬʽƶȵҪ󡣡һʾ˷Ժڲ˾ȨһڡְӪĺģʽһаӪȻԴȨȷͬʱҲķְ
Ȼʾ˾DZΣһ棬ͬʱʾDZڵĺһ档磬ʽͥɱͣЧʣά֮ƽϵһ----򣬻DZ----ֻҪУڵʵɡһ֤ʵһ㡣
˾ʵţҲȤΪһƪҹѧоԶĺġ
¿ܴڵźǣDZ֮ĻϵϷ㡣֮䣬ʲôתһܹȥʹ߸еζ



IIй¾ģʽзеġͥʽ
ڡʽͥĿڱ


һʵʵнϺ۴ʵ֤о档ʶо˼·ȷ棬൱Ĺס½һһطڵIJоĿڱѳӺ˶ڱĸɹؽ˽/ƣεѽëˡ
һʶ
1й⡱ʶ
ѧоὫԼоڶйоȻоdzɹ֮ڣоߡĵءעʵой⡣ой⣬ζŰйľᄈȥ۲졢Ѱγԭ򱳾ͬʱѰ;ʱҲҪǺйеľ屳Եġеĸʩ༴עͳйʵǨʵ 磬ڿ졢ͽĸʽͥʱھ̬Ϲעйرdz޴ıڶ̬ϹעйᴦڴӴͳִתʱڵʵڵͷԺʶʹо߰˷Ǵ˼ˡҵĵһ˼άģʽ˳Ԫְֲִܷ򽨹˼· йתʱڵʶʹоûʣҪô󽣵ִұ׼ͥģʽرģʽΪͳһйͥƶȣҪôִҶ˾רҵķ˼ϷdzʽķĿΪγ׻׽ϻԸݡ
߿ڴͳִ֮䣬оƺƫڶʵ༴ڴͳγɵ״أִĿѭ򽥽ĽԲ㣻ͬʱڸ조ʽͥʱûгϵ俼ʾijͲͬԺƶIJۺơIJһ̶ϼйʶļֵ
2ʵ⡱ʶ
о߶ڷƶʼպȷų⡢ʵȴΪ(custom/routin/institution)ⶼмڹעżĺҲıƶΪĿָ߲꣬ءɣ뿼֮ԴΧءءڵԭʼձԹ۲еƶ䡢˼͵ıƶȵ̬ȡĿо߻ʵ񱳾ƣ׼ȷذһ˾ռߵġΪʽͥƶȣйеƶȻеδƶȣȴÿ춼ڼӰ/ʴʽͥƶȵġʽͥ⣬ĿӹƶͶƶȡıƶͶʵƶȡʶȫ˱쳵о⡱ķգעʼͶоʵ⡣Ϊڣͨԭ͸ıƶȵȱԼƶ֮IJࡣ߸عע˹ƶƶ֮IJ뻥ϵڷ˼͸һйƶȣıƶȣԵò㣬رǵ߽һĵ˶ԷʽͥĻ֮ʱûгǿҹͳеǰ׼ʽͥڵֱ׶˶ڷʽֹͥγͻӰ졣Ȼ綫ѧҴӲͬǶȷˡ˰úƽϡѰȨϡжһ ǾܺԷĻ뷨ƶ֮ĻϵԼȽȫƶȶĻǿشͳʵͬʱ֪ܲط˸촫ͳʵ缲Ŭ
о
ֵ͵DZ˾ʵʵ֤ϵѧоڻʵ֤ҪоͶܴӦúͷϺϢҪо߾൱۴ͷо֪Ѷˡʵ֤оҪDZо󣩵İйϢоУʵ֤оԾ޴ͶòϢdzĹԡʵ֤оijɹǼ١ʵ֤֮Сܶϡ֮ʵֻ֧ϺͶȡϢΪԼԤԤṩһʵֶ֧ѣо۳ȱ쳵ƭԣƬԡԺΣԡ
ʵ֤оں̶ܴϿ˷⡣оͨʾ̸ľڵȶַʽԲͬʽͽǶȻϢӶ޶ȵؿ˷Ϣ׼ȷȡԵȷܴڵȱݣʹԷʽͥӽڽΪ㷺ʵϢĻȡڵչ˵ϲͱк壬ϸǵͬķԺͲͬķ١ϵʦڷʽͥƶIJͬӰ졣
IJûнеijɻݣΪʲôȫԺҪѡȡ⼸ԺѡȡķԺǷзٶʾͷ̸˵ȵȡͬʱڲͬϢķܽ͹ҲЩۡڷʽͥʵĹϵʱ߽λڷͬʱҲ϶Ĺ㶫ij㷨ԺλڲͬʱҲٵĹݵķԺͬһ갸ͷգ֮ԶԷٵķ̸óΪԽĵöƺͼ׳ıԽߡ͵˷ʽͥƼ׳ĸڶڱУѼָ߶ڷʽͥδӽ綨dzģڱϳ˷ʽͥĸͷΧδҹ͹ģķĶƼ׳򡢶λͨ򣨶ͨĹԱͨǰ׼򡢷ʽͥķʽԡ˾ĸֵ֤ݽͳʽȵȣϵһжշԼʱƫԼԷʽͥĽ綨
ͬʱڷʽͥʵĹϵʱߵĽǣͳеʽͥʱȲũҪߣôۺ永ڷʽͥʵӰ죬϶൫λڷͳеĹ㶫ij㷨ԺʽͥʾȰٵIJĹݵķԺߣǵͣϸ߻ϵͣôжܰӰ죬̶ܷȵӰ죿ɼԼķѧһʵھв֪¶Լۼٶġβ͡ʵ֤обȽٱԼǰԼۿܡԤڡоȱ̹׵طÿε鱨ǰ棬ʹȷߵ£ױϵĿɿԡ ԣҲ߽ͬһԺ֮䰸ʽͥʶԱȹϵı仯ͳƺͷóҲΪɿ
ԲߵĻ˼·
ĶԲߣ˻ͬСԷ򡱵ĹڶԷʽͥһDZ򡱽ԭͬǰ£˼ĸʩرǽʽͥΪͥ˼·ֵ濼ǡŵĽ׳ֿʵжͨͨ򲢴ƶ֮һ˼·ļֵܵ ΣʹڶͨУҹеǰ׼У߰մ½ϵ׶ģʽ֤ݽµĽ֤ȷϣϻ/Ͷ֤ʵԵϿɣķЧ/⣬ȻҪڡʽͥķɽ綨