ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

Ѱ빫--ִйһ

һҪά֣ҪһΪгԱձܵĺԹ򡣴ͳйһᣬҵṩ˷Ǹʱ׼ĹȻ19ĩʼйһǧδ֮֡ij£ͳйĻȫ壬תʱڵй˵νһƽµ򣬳ΪؽҪĿ꣬Ҳִй˼⡣

ƽȣȻִԵ˫Ŀ֮꣬ȴڵĽšʱȻѧϵijŵȴ޷ʵԲĽ20ϰҶ19͵ʱصΣ۵ĴͬأһΣ͵Ҳ̵Ӱ쵽й֪ʶӶִʵѡ

ִй壬˼ʷĽǶȻ֣Ҫ˼ɡȿ塣븵˹ӢѧһϵСִй壬ûоŵ֪ʶϴ񣬴ʱʼֳԵͼijֵ͡һ򣬲ܵʱ˼֧֣ҲйĻͳıʵʱԶJohn DeweyΪģ40˹Roosevelt ΪġȻΪ" " New LiberalismҲͷΣ" ɵ" Liberal Socialism Ϊһ𣬺˵" ' ׼' ķ' ữ' Socializing ɡҸᡣ"[ע1]

һ˼塣һԭŷ˼ϵУɡй˼һʼȫ̽ն壬ȱͷչĿռ䡣෴й֪ʶм̳Ӱ졣мΪ׵оϵһҪĴ" " ž۽ŶݥԺ¡ƽ˹⵩Ǭһ֪ʶӡĿеʥӢ˼ңأBertrand Russeu ˹Harold Laski˹йΪ˼ꡣΪʵİڶ0 κʱڵĵ¹40սִӢ

϶˼ӪڲĿʼǻһƬûзֿ19ʱΣʹйһʼڽ˼ܡν壬ֻйڲ˼磬֮䲢ϸĽޣͬһкܶ๲ͬԤ裬ɡΡṫȵȣڴƽȲͬķʽءʦӵ˼Լƻõ۵ȵȡȷе˵ߵĹͬҪ˴˵ķ磬ȻػͬһӪ

Ȼ˼ʷǶȿִй岢κγϵۣȻʸӰ˱⣬ѧףϵͳ" ".˼й " " ѧΪܡ˵ִй˼壬壬ɡɣµרоҪ壬ͬʱҲ漰塣 һɷΣʱ֮

й壬һʼ" µ".ѧϰʱͬʱҲͬʱʦһ19͵ʱз˼˵һַ˼ԵȡôǶʱҪأ

ӴпԷ֣йʱҪԵԸΪɷεľƶȡž۽Ĵ֮УʱĶ̴[ ע2]

ƸˣƶIJͳȫֵļƻʣ˽˻ྺ˷ѡ

̴֮Уɷֱأһмӹϵһ㣬˵й󲿷ߵĹʶ˱1948ڡ۲졷־д[ ע3]

ɾھϼȲǴٽĶôɾ֮˵زأΪ

ʱڣйʱеһ˽ƶȣΪʱһʱͲƲ˽С˽дʱɵġ[ ע4]ˣĽҪڸı¡ž۽ڵ¹·߼κܷ" ֮棬ָ֮˽" ϣͨ" " " ˽" ĻϾƶȽ˽ʱļк¢⡣[ ע5]ŶݥӢķѱ磬Ųοйͳ" ҵ" ƶȣ߻ĵ·[ ע6]30𽥸ı˿˼ߴ˽ɷƶȡ1932꣬" " йĵһйᵳԵԡҪ˵ĻУ̸Ļʱһλ[ ע7]

Dzų˽Ĵڡ֪ʱƶԷԼݳڵĻΣʲ˽ƶȣʵڷ״̬ʶ֮˽ټԷΣʼʱ塣ֻ˵ʱ˽ݳȴ˵˽ʱ֮ޱ֪ʱƶȵҡȫ˽Ĵڡ

Ȼ˽ƶҲбײʱ֮Ҫ˽ǷΡйԹŵʱһ˼ͬʱʶһ£Ҳ۱ͬɷƶȣŶݥһЩʷķΪ18͵ĸᣬʷпǰĹ͡ҵǺھ÷淢˴©ʱӲƸҲٳʱijɡƶԡݱ죬Ѿǧٿˡ[ ע8]ע⵽һѧŶݥʱֵϲֵĸ˵ǰԵĻԾб塣ΪʱĿߣ߶С˹˵[ ע9]

屾һ˵壬ֻԵʱ϶ʧꡣָֻ꣬зԷʱ塣

20ϰҶ80ʱй֪ʶ磬ʹ֪ʶм䣬ʼһĸһʵĴܻӭǡǡγһĶԱȡ

ʱҪ֮ɷΣôɷε⾿ںδйԴ˵ɣҪڶ棬һķԻʣΣǷȱƶֻһ漰ṫ⣬ǽڵĽۡҪоһ⡣ ž۽Ŷݥһ0 ɷƶȵɻԵģ1929ȫʱʣΣʹʶɷβڷ򣬶ҲȱݡԵгƶȻŵһȫɵг򣬵ϵͣʱʷʵУȫûʵֹʱ߼ڼк¢ϣھDzȫġȫԷг۸ͷԴĹؼһڳ⣬гʧȥ˺ԵĻž۽ʮѾע⵽ʱ¢϶ɵľʧ⣬Ħ˾ڡ·͹ҵ¢ʱʵǵ˹ŵķѧ˵[ ע10]

˱֮⣬Ӧ֮ԭ򣬳裬ƽȻ͸ƽʱҹӪ߽ѷ¢֮;νɾڣν¢ֺڣ

Ϊ֮¢ʱ֮Գ֣ԴǷ֮ˣóۣŵѧɵɷεѧ˵ѾΪʱ֤ȷ[ ע11] ôνأй߶ϣڹҵĸԤϣ20³1914꣬ѧڼ䣬ע⵽һ㣬ռд[ ע12]

ѧ˵֮ɷ壬ɸ塣

й֮ԴһʼԶŵķ壬׽壬ܵߡܶĹӰйϵ" ˵Ҹ" йΪ塢߼ֵһָ£ʹǼɷεг޷ʵһԭֻͨҵߵȸԤʵ֡Ҳͬʹʹһնļƻá ƻõĻ

ʮĩȫʱΣϯŷΨն⡣ˣͬһʱڵĵһƻڼ䣬նøٷչȫʧҵ⡣һйǿȤž۽Ŷݥ˷ܵ˵[ ע13]

ڿ֮УɼƻľĸԴ̼--мƻľ֮ʵʩھ뷽һ¡"

20ϰҶй֪ʶӶնĺøкͿȣֹܹΣһʮ¸ԺǶնʽһϵĿȡڶ30ǶնƻǿҵȤһǾϵĿȡ

նļƻƶȵIJͽ뼫Ȩκ͹еĹϵȻй忴ƻȴԵһҪĹףȫԵġŶݥ˵" ƻһԵ" 塢ʱ塢˹嶼ԼáֻΪԭļƻǽļƻáΪƻʹߣϴ˵Ҹ[ ע14] Ϊһа룬Ҫʹǵʵ֣ƶȵý顣ýǸʱƶȺһĹ塣ǶһЩ⡣ն˵ʵý飺ƻáҵسն" ȻΪഴһ෽ػضõĹ;"[ע15]

й֮УŶݥDZȽģλδնѧҶնʽرƻáõԵ⡣ʹߣ0 ԼƻҲͬҵȤŶݥһ֮ԵġԵġӦնƣҲӦ˽ΪʱϾáȻɷʧˣôƻΪԵһ¹ףԴгطԴṫҲҪͨҵļƻʵ֡˹սӢߣΪdzɹʵмƻõĽǬ1948Ϊ󹫱дУ" ͳ" Ҽƻϵ[ ע16]

ӢɵžԶԶ߲ӵʮԸƶóסҲ֧Ϊʱ徫ҵĻظˣҲ˵ŨĸɫʡھϣƶıȻ޳ɺͳƣɫҲ岻ǸͨõĴʡԻɽ壬ԻΪ塣

й嶼ͬ޼ƻãй֪ʶĽ֪ʶйء˶Եĸʹй֪ʶձ˵Եȫ֪ȫܣܹʶ͹�" ʵ" һпܴµ" ʵ" 硣оʶƵŶݥ" е˼䱾" " ۵ĸ" ʹĿжϰԺ֯Ŷһƶȡ"[ע17] ǶԼƻòĻǺȻġ

ΪߣǶնʽ뼫Ȩλļƻòûо裬ž۽ڡ֮У̷ɷξõ֮ҲָնʽƻõĶ̴һ�" Դھҵ" " ھӪ".һ棬" ȨԷ".[ ע 18] ƻ֮䱣ƽ⣬г¸ѡ͸ɵĻͬʱ巢չϰԵļƻйġǿ˹սӢִ߱ȽϷǵ롣20ʱʵгõģʽֻ19͵ɷģʽģʽŷгģʽǵĹгģʽȡƻΪɷξõģʽ80ĩѾʧܡΪɷεĸģʽƻõIJںȴڵʱгϵй㷺صõӦáϣǼ޷ҵһ19͵" г" Ҳٴһնʽ " ƻ".˵ϰҶй׷ģȻ֦࣬ܵķδ

ɵµ

й֮壬ǶɵеĹϵʣǵϵУ˵ɾҪλãڼֵȵļֵûһ㣬ҲᱻΪڹϵ塣ڣйĸɣʲôں ŵĸˣԭʽġǡġڵĸˣɴƵһϵеĸ˵ɡȨԼᡢѧ˵ܶ͸ζԹŵ˳˵ԭζ󵭻ĻϵǿҲ˶ɵµڹܴ͡Ӱ죬йߣȻظȨϵԭ򣬵ĸҲѾгдԭʽˣΪһӵġȨصĸˡҲͬӰ쵽ǶԸɵ⡣ Ӣʣliberty freedom.֮£liberty ȽȷŷȪĻ˵ָηıϣԿһȨ嵥[ ע19] freedom Ƚģָ˵־ԣûйϵı׼ŵҪliberty ϵģ԰֣Isaiah Berlin ֣һԤɡܶرǸԺɵĺ𽥾˻ĺ壬סʵֵζôйں̸ɣӦ˵ɵϣй嶼ӡǶ0 ĩȨ˶0 ˶Уʡ¡ž۽ȶرǿһֲѹƵȨҲ־̸ɣΪ" ⸿" " Լ" [ ע 20].ûܹȷ֡[ ע21]

ʵϣй̸ɵʱ򣬼ȷƫɣҲ䵭ɣڲͬı£вͬIJغͽ͡ǵ˼ʶߴûзֿҲδֳڵĽźìܡ෴أǿڵĸͻȡ־ɣںгɷġŶݥѧ֤ϣѧ˼ġ0 ڶ౾۹ɵ⡣ע⵽ɵij뷴ǿйأɳɻɡΪһѧϵΨߣͬʱǿɲǸɵĸһһϵĸɾһָԵԾͨġңһ֮Уġ[ ע22] ŶݥĽУɵͻȫںһìܵĸˡŶݥй˼ʣҲͬ[ ע23]

ףG.G.MacCallum ɿһ漰ҪصĸˡΪν޷ijijȥɵij¡[ ע24] һΪһ⣬ܶ޶˹˼·йܵǿҵİʾӰ졣һڷ񣬲ҪǷܵǿƣһҪǷɵҵʵ֡˵»ʵֻ˵չԣйɼֵĺڡȨһ֮Ҫ޷ΪȨʵֵIJȱٵž۽ڷ˹Ҫε䷶ʱУرָ[ ע25]

Ȩߣ֮Ҫȱ֮ߣ಻ܷչ֮֮νҲ--ȨΪʵ֮֮ϣָ˹עѧ˵иIJɫҲ

νȨڹŵָλȨЩǿơɰɣʼ󷺻ΪһֹġᾭݵȨȨƲȨܽȨȡЩȨɱɵ顣忴ǽɲΪزǿƣʵܹȥһЩʵңôЩᾭȨձ黯Ͳǿп޵ģɵ֮塣˵�" ֵȥܵһֻ"[ ע26]

йγɲܴӰ˹ȨĶҲǹϵġž۽ġε䷶һУ˹ӦܵĸȨ繤ȨȨȨƲȨʱȨʵʱȨȡᵽĽȨͲƲȨرΪž۽أ˵[ ע27]

Ϊع֪֮ʶƲԼƽȣȻ֮ƽȣȻߣƣͽɾģ壬ι֮Ωһ룬ڹλ̧֮ߣӡ

ž۽ߺʣ̸ɵʱҲʮǿɵʵʿԡԺʵӰйءΪ" ˵ɲһʵһֿԣеĿһдʵ֡" Ҳ˿ʵָԺҷչĿ͹ӡ֪ʶǻǸҪء[ ע28] ձΪʵɵҪɵĿ⣬ʹúʶһȻ

0 ԺɺȨ廯ԽԽᾭݡȨЭġȨԡӢ˹ġȨԡȨΪȨҪĵһҪ塣Щ仯йߵйע[ ע29] رΪй֪ʶӸ߶ȳ羴˹1943" Ĵ" ˵һν" ѷ" һɵΪɵҪ¡Ƴй˼һ磬;ϲһʱӦ𣬻Ȩʱ١ž۽˵[ ע30]

ʮ֮Ȩۣ硢ڽ̡ƲΪأƹ㵽ͶȨȨ˵ǰΪ壬Ϊ塣ͬһȨһᣬ޳ͻ

˹Ҳ˹" Ĵ" лСڡ˹塷һнõƽͬҪĵλ[ ע31]

ٶΪ˷ɵƽȣȴʱγ˾õIJƽȣǼɺ޵ġûоõƽȣƽǼٵģҲÿġ

ӶɺȨĴڹͳйһƽȺ͹߳ΪϵɺȨᲢ۵Ҫ⡣

ġṫԭ

ŵۣDz壨justice ⣬Ƕԣν壬ֻάһʽͳϵ壬ṩһεĽṹÿ׷ʱ򣬶ܵṹıɵĴڣԤijЩ˵жѡֻĵǣʲô£ǿԱǵϲá岢ЩϲõĽƶʧҵòƽȣųҰ֮⡣ŵۣ˵һ" " commutative justice [ ע32]

19ʱΣ¶˹ŵ۵⡣ΪɷζȻIJƸԴľ޴ƽȣǹģ뾭һ޵·ԭԾҪȡгƶȣԴ˻ͷǣ�" " չΪ" " distributive justice

й߶һؽ" " ۣǿɵͬʱҲʮ⡣壬ڵʱҪΪ" ṫ" " ƽ" ˵ΪйͬҪĺڶ0 ž۽ȷ[ ע33]

ֱ˵֮ˣһ֮֯ԹΪ˴ԭҲ--ṫ֣֮֮ȱһҲ

˵" " ĸĻô" ṫ" " ƽ" ͳΪҪĿꡣΪʲôṫDZģž۽ݵģ߱ߡܶȵĹԭǿһлҸΪǰᡣ19ʱķչͼǿ֮ʶ࣬¶ɽ׼ɹʴս˲ȡҲ[ ע38] йȻʱ巢ҲһȻǿʱIJƶ֮ȻߡЧʵĴٽԲпڹƽΪǰᡣһ㣬Ŷݥرǿ[ ע34]

ڲɥʧƽ֮ΧЧʣٽΪûɣұ㳣ڱ̬УЧʵòûйƽһIJ̬ʵ̬еĽЩ̬Чʡ

йṫ;ƽǿΪʱԷ˼ĽҪڶйʱʵлӦойʱķչ˼׶Σ1895-1913 ڼ䣬dzչʱڣ1914-1920 ڼ䣬ǽһչʱڣ1920-1936 ڼ䣬ʱ廯ʱڡ[ ע 35] й˼պʱ廯ʱڳ֣żȻʵϣйʱķչɴ˴ᾭõĴǨҪ1914Ժ󣬴19141936꣬ʮ˵йʱ巢չĻƽʱõķչ̵ص߸˴ͳйͳһ廯ṹ˶塢غڵصصĶԪṹʱԭʼ۵ӣƸľ޴ƽҲˣһִͳйδйļʽ֣һʱ巢չеõ޴/ ͳμź;¢ʵĽʲ׼һڵغζÿµĵײũͳƶ˵1936ǰھûڼ᲻ƽδȫԱ̶ȵĻô0 ԺΪսԴǰȱͨͶľö񻯣ʹð֪ʶӺͨԱڵľ󲿷ڵձƶһ棬ձƶ֮Уϲ漯ȴ¢ϵȨ󷢹ѲƣصĽṹԸȨռ󲿷ֵϡȱԴĹ--Ĺ;õƽȣͳΪͬҪǸҪ⡣˭ץס˹ģ˭ͽģõײֺ֧ͺӦйĹ˼ϣʱػӦײҪ󣬸߾ƽȵĴ죬ռʶ̬ϵϷ硣

ڻӦ" ṫ" ϣй뼤Ĺ弸ͬһϣʱڣ빲δֻʱǹͬ롣0 ֵ˫˹" " սȻ֮ķ粻йҪҪʵ" ṫ" ǴﵽһĿķʽ⣬նȡĸʽأӢķѱ¹ͨº͵ʽԽ[ ע36] ʱڶ0 йʱ廯ոտʼʱŶݥȻ֮ȻضйĿΪйʱչԶԶ廹ǽ飬ĿǰֻܽһЩͶḣĸ[ ע37] 0 Ժʱ廯йŶݥž۽ԽԽӶؽ" " ⡣ڹᵳĸԡҪ˵ĻУ˸͹Ϲ˵İչȨơ˰ȷܽ˴ﵽľùƽš[ ע38] 0 IJƽȡǰ֮ʣߡ߶ṫΪһҪۣΪ֮塣ǬƪΪ󹫱׫дУر̸ָ19͵ѾһˣԴҸΪǰᣬ뾭ƽȲأƽһܵĵԣΪͰȨߵļȵ档ǬھϹҵУڲʵпθĸ˰ߡ[ ע39]

йڵʱץס" ṫ" " ƽ" ģǿҵʶ֪ʹйۣܵҲΪǵۺʵԭ򡣶˼ʷĽǶȼ֣й߿̫" ʵ" ˣǵ˼·عעṫľ巽ϣСƻáᱣϡձ۽˰͹Ȩʵȵȣȱѧ֤빫֮Ĺϵֹͬ۵һΪɡƽȡõļֵǡġõģһͬʱʵ֣Щüֵ֮Ľźͳͻȱ֪Ǵûпǵ޶˹⣬ڰһʱ򣬲òɡƽȵȼֵǵʽСʹǶԹ۽ͣʶ̬ȱѧϵ룬ʹʱһ˼Ŷݥž۽Ҳˡǽ»عͷǵ˼ŲʱܲΪ˸еź νṫлںһ壬һɵġġ򣬲ϣʵϹ˶йľ޴սйߣӵ̵ʶʶڣȴѧһ⣬޷ʵʵԼ롣ִйʵʧˣѧҲ޶࣬Ȼǽعͷ¼֣ȻòǶԹŵʱ˼�" 빫" ǿҵʶʶ棬˼վͬһˮƽϡǵĻϣ󺣹0 ̨һ֪ʶӲ˸̵˼µ˼ŲģǸģʹԺȻֵǷؽףΪ�" 빫" ⣬Ȼһδʵִֵ⡣

עͣ

[ ע1]ʣŷεм顷Ʒ11.

[ ע2]ž۽֮ӡݣ1938棬228 ҳ

[ ע3]˸㣺;۲졷5 8 ڣ[ ע4]μž۽֮弰¹úзݰ졷3 11š

[ ע5]μž۽¹¹ܷ졷2 11š

[ ע6]μŶݥһ˵졷3 6 š

[ ע7]ߣҪ˵Ļš

[ ע8]ŶݥϵĻϵ塷۲졷4 1 ڡ

[ ע9]˹꣺˹塷졶󹫱19454 29ա

[ ע10] ž۽֮176 ҳ

[ ע11] ž۽֮177 185 ҳ

[ ע12] ʣѧռǡƷ35146 ҳ

[ ע13] ͬ[ ע7].

[ ע14] ͬ[ ע8]

[ ע15] Ŷݥ塷Ϻ۲磬1948棬4751ҳ

[ ע16] ǬߵϺ󹫱19481 8 ա

[ ע17] μŶݥ˼ᡷ磬19998 ذ棬101 ҳӡݣ1946棬109 ҳ

[ ע18] ͬ[ ע2].

[ ע19] μŷȪȨ޳磬1955档

[ ע20] μʣʲôйĻɴͳƽࣺ֮׳塷6 ᣬ20442078ҳ

[ ע21] ִй֪ʶ֮УܹѧϽȷֵģֻŷȪġȨһ飬ķᡣѾ0 ˡμ[ ע19].

[ ע22] μŶݥ131-135 ҳ

[ ע23] ֣ͶԺʵɹеijɷʮַḻɡɵȶֺ塣֣ͣʵ˼롷̨ѧϵоʿģ1991ꡣ

[ ע24] תʯԪ˹̨ͼ鹫˾1989棬57ҳ

[ ע25] ž۽ѧ˵Ҫ˹ʿ֣ž۽룺ε䷶Ϻӡݣ 1930档

[ ע26] תGeoge Sabineѧ˵ʷ²ᣬ799 ҳ

[ ע27] ͬ[ ע25].

[ ע28] μ֣ģͬ[ ע23].

[ ע29] μž۽˹˼뼰Ȩԡܡ1 10ڣȨЭ֮Ȩԡܡ1 12ڡ

[ ע30] ž۽ʮǵйڶʷݱࣺйᵳ磬1988棬95ҳ

[ ע31] ͬ[ ע9].

[ ע32] μAndrew Vincentʶ̬ƽ룬̨ͼ鹫˾1999棬62ҳ

[ ע33] ž۽顷ʱ±磬1922棬109 116 ҳ

[ ע34] ž۽顷109 117 ҳ

[ ע35] μйʱгйѧ磬1985棬129 ҳ

[ ע36] μ̹ԣһŶ0 йս̨ӡݣ1988档

[ ע37] μŶݥ뽫졷3 4 š

[ ע38] ͬ[ ע7].

[ ע39] ͬ[ ע16].


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