ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

ʫѧȺۣ漰ͰŵȺĶ̸

˹ᣨElias CanettiġȺȨһһʫѧȺۡ1925꿪ʼоȺڣܵµɢļҺʫ˿˹(Karl Kraus1974-1936)Ӱ죬˹ʲô˼룬ԱһҪܵ߶(Fredl Waldinger)Ӱ죬߶оǷ̺ѧоÿһоȺڲһҪȫĵȺ֮;ڶоȺڵҰԽԽáȺ۽ѧѧѧѧʷѧȲͬѧƵIJϡע11925굽1959꣬϶һ34ʱɡȺȨһ顣вȺۼȫûνĿѧ룬һɭ(Richard H. Lawson)˵ġǷԹࡱע2γ˿ȺоȺԼѧ۵һҪǾǣȱձϿɵġѧԡȴһȺȱ

ʷ¼׵ͬʱԼĽͣȡһּķʽ˼·Իоеĵǣڴ۵Ķȴôӿò۵㡣(Tom Nairn)ʹ˱ԹᲩʿȺڡʷѧʲô۵㡣ֻ۱˵ע3ڿѰ۵㣬õȴDZšǣ޲ѷ(R. Robertson)˵DzѿȺеָ߶Ȼϵġ͡͡ıһ֡ʷѧġ(thick description)ע4

һ. ѧѧʾ

ѧҸ(Clifford Geertz)ԴӢѧ(Gilbert Ryle)Ϊһƪ¡һӣͬ۾ĶһԼܿƵϰ߶һʾ⡣ѧΪDzû𡣵ǣǷֱӽ͵ܼDZ˲ͬΪ壬һǡգ۲һǡʾע5ӽһѧĻеΪʱҲҪͣ˵Ϊ塣ͽܼնΪеΪע6

ʵУڸԼƪġϷ;嶷ʼǡУ۲գۺ͸۲Ķֻ֮ںԶǰĸӣڣգ۾˶ܹԼΪȶ԰嶷ĽȴǰԼġȶ԰嶷ĽͣѪܵĶʹѹעǮԹ߼˷ܣʵһ֡ΪΪһֶԡŭʧܡкͻı˹ۿǺӢ˹ۿɯʿϷݳƵĹΪע7ָȵĽк̫ɷ֣ǣǿ֮ӡע8ȴ˵ܼ͵һҪǾǣֽһ㳬ΪԼʶΪ壬漰Ϊİʶʶ(ʶ)塣͵ʲô̶ȱʿɶֹڡȲ͡ҪԼִ硣

ܼѧĻѧ(ethnography)Ϊ֪ӣѧһ˹(Keith Hopkins)Ķʿ񶷣ڸоڱͬʤߵĹٶǰߵʹࡣע9Щ壬ȴ޷ܼ֮͡ýʷļ¼Щ¼Ƿ׼ȷȻӰܼṩIJ͡ڿԼĴԭʼϵĿɿԲûֱ˵߶IJͿŶȴǡע10ҲΪѡԭʼϣЩϵIJ͵һѧƵıֻҪͱ֮Բ˵ɡע11

ѧʽʹÿȺ۸һ뵱ʱѽڵĸоܿȨȺڡɱ˺ͷ˵ȵ⣬ȻʹһֱЩֱйصĶʮ¼ɴ⡢ɱ̫ˡ˹塣Ҳһֱ漰Щʵ¼(簢ءʿ)ۡϣպ˹Ըʷϵƫִ񱩾Daniel Paul Schreber(1842-1911)ʹԴУЩҺͲкʮҪҲȱϯģ鼰ķһЩҪģȫΪ֪

1939꣬ɴͳεĵ¹ӢռмԼսսѵ뷨һһζԾסҳϣһ¹Ļвܸ֮顣սʱĵҲһһʱûзƷҲûзԵ¹ۣԱһĿеijȻʹս˽սƻͶ̫˵ĴɱҲûжԵ¹ĻǴձģǾҺƶеƫִ˺Ͳֻ̡һεرʾеĿЩԭɱ̫˵ĵ¹ˡע12

ڡȺȨļ̡УϾ漰ԭʼ䡢ԶִϵOڡҴߡϣǾʷѻĴߣЩ̤ڱʬϣɹسΪӢۡΰдߵͼǽߴ䴦ھʾıĿܱΪӰ죬ΪµľȻڱԶһʵϣӢʱȡ˻Ի͵ʤǿԴЩߺ˵Ⱥ֮ҳδ𣬳㹻ļ߼ҫ͹⻷֮ǰа䡢Ľѡʱ̣ӳħ?ע13

ᰵʾ˼ȺȨĶ˶һ˸ոѵķ˼1962꣬ͰŵT. AdornoйһιȺڵĶԻڵ¹㲥ܵ൱㷺ע⡣밢ŵζ̸Уȷ̸ʵѵ⡣԰ŵԡȺȨĻӦŵΪѧѧ۲췽ҲʹÿֻܰעЩձȺ̬ضʷµʵȺڡͬⰢŵǿʵȺڵҪԣ˵Ҫһ˵()רƣûȺڵ׳ûжԸȺڵĹƻɿȫġԴһδսھսͨʱںķ˹רƺҲκһǵͬʷظ£ʮбҪú˽Ⱥ⡣ע14

רƼȨȺڹϵͬ(簢ءʿ)йͬʵʶǣʶûڡȺȨֱֳŵ뿨Ķ̸һĶȺȨʱе۷ʽһԳȻ˼ʵ˼򡣰ŵϣȷ(д)ͼʮҪע15ǣȻΪʹǿ԰ִȺڵäӡͿȿŴйصġ桱ȻҪ˽⣬ضκỷУľֿԭ򾿾ʲôע16ϣյȺںīȺڲͬ˹֡ë󶫵ȺֺǵȺڲͬ



һʼоȺھرϲ¡1925Ķ˸µġȺͱҷʱǰڵάҲ۵Ļ⣬ڷԼ븥µķ磬Լ˼롣Ұ192581յ10ʱ俴Ҷ˼Ŀʼһʼд(ȺȨ)ʱҾ;ܾ˸£Ȿһֱ351960ŵԳָڡע17

ڰŵͿ1962ǴζԻУӵȺһ㡣ע18ŵͿᶼͬ⣬(G. Le Bon)ȺڡȺҷΪӵṩˡԴ֧֡ע19ŵȺȨһȻûᵽӻ£ȴλȺ۵ŵϣܹӺ͸µϵָDzͬľ忴˵⡰µȺڹ̫ӡע20Ȼ͸µķ֮һοӵȺѧ

ȺѧеġȺһȺں֮ڡȺҪľۼһҲܳΪˡǧ¶ĸˣңԾۼΪһȺΪȺ£׳嶯£ΪЩ˲ŪѪɺӡȺ΢þǷֽѾõλ塣ȺǼ˳嶯ԡ¡仯޳ɿֱ飬ȱ˼άȺԳ˵ǣСҰҲ˭ҪǼ뵽Ⱥ֮УͻήԼȼΪƾֱ£Ұֱϲŭ޳ҰˡȺɫӲıԣЮÿһˣвͬģһӵϣȺ֮һ漫ǿԣһ棬רȴֻἫΪ˳ѱ

һܹϵͳѵѧңʮӶԡȺļΪɫԸ衣ڡȺͱҷһУʼáȺڡ(mass)ת˵ġȺ(foule)ͬӹڸȺоͻҰ³ױƭԸ¶Դ˽͵ΪڱɡȺˡʱ򣬾ͻ׳DZʶܵѹ֣(Ⱥ)ЩȥԸֵʵѹͷǰ˵ʶһʶУееĶܵƣֻǴһ(Ե)״̬ע21

ȺںȨһִȺӺ͸µҪתۣѶȺڵĵתΪһֶȺڵ˫ԺԵʶȺ飬ΪȺһӵּܡΪһ̫ˣҲɴ¹ᵽȺڻԪ׵ٻΪäĿµȺȺںȨȺڵһֳȻĻϡȺڿԸͬͬͼ忹ҲԼ˲̵ų⡢ݲУˡǣǿȺڶԸ˵ıãΪֻȺУ˵ĸҲŻᱻɨ˲˾Ͱڲ

͸ҪķǡȺڡ͡䡱ĹϵǿȺΪſܣҪϵһġȺеÿ嶼֮һ֡ȶࡱ()ϵ߳Ϊǰ߿ɼİ˶ȺһִӰ죬ּܴУȺڲŵ໥ͬȺڴһԭʼȺнṹĵˣΪԭʼȺֶͬһְµĹͬɵֵܹϵע22µȺڹаȺڹ۵ҪأһȺڵ˼άܴͬΪԡʶױ޳ܻþҡ嶯ȵȡڶȺڴĵ˺͡󡱣ȺڶӰ֧ԽǿԽû䣬ԽˡȺڱȻ죬ûȺڣǶﻹֻ࣬ҪһĶۼһ̾ͻ᱾ܵذԼȨ֮¡ע23

븥µĸͬڣҪȺںȨȺûȨȺڡ͡Ȩǡ۽㣬ǻΪ䣬ֻΪҪǿߵ֣ΪȨĸġȺע24򰢶ŵ͵ġСȺ(pack)˵븥Ⱥ۵IJͬСȺ࣬ij֡״̬¡ȷĿġڼ˷״̬¡߾ȫǸĿġȺԭʼѰʳʮˡʮˡʮ˵СȺ(Ŀİսȡ)˵СȺļ״̬롰ִȺڡȺйأȴʼ޶ȡСȺڣǿڶ࣬ǿȺĹͬĿĺȫ׷ɹϵƽȵĸγɣһϵܹϵʹøȺһеͬкͰȫСע25

СȺһִ״̬ģбʶԵȺڡСȺУ˵ƽȺ׽DZȽʵģǣִȺȺУƽȺ׽ڼ⡢ݵ£һֻþͼִȺСȺֻһ䣬һƣڣִȺָ(command)ϵγɵġγָĵȼʹٲƽںϡǿָ͵ȼʵ״̬ȺڲϣǿȺڹ۵Ļ۵㣬Ҳ븥Ⱥڹ۵ĸҰڡ

ΪԽȺ໥ۺϵǸĸͬġ°ȺĹϵһȶ()ͬףΪǸӡͬȺͬ䣬˲Ⱥڸ˼硰ֵܡάϵڿῴǡ䡱ȺڵġָʹȺܵش̡˺޷ΪġԭʼСȺȺڡԿ˵ҽ(µ)ͬȫáע26

ڸ·Уӡ̻͡ᡱ͵ȺڡΪӺͽ̻ᶼǵȼɭϵġָ֯϶γ˲ηĽṹȼ˼ʸҡ˸еȫȺ״̬Ȼ෴ָ̡ѿŵȺΪˣ֮ĽDZֹġʥʽ(communion)ʥһġɼĽ̻ϵȴǰȺ̻׼ȺĶ裬Ϊ()Ⱥ̵ڸһְͨԱıԵĶԻеı仯ʽǸ򵳵Ļ֯쵼ġġ顱໥ҷע27ҲȺڵʣӸͲȺڡȷָṹ֯ɵȺ壬ӵ֯Ϊ˷ֹӱ(Ⱥ)Ⱥھ˵رҪľǿָһȺһӷֳ300˵һطȥǿԷɢеʱӻ͹ʱҲܱȺԭϲ˵Ⱥڡע28

. ȺڷȺڽ

ľȺתͷ(J. S. McClelland)˵ڿȺڲȨָ(ѵ)ѧУǶ㿪һСָӱע29ڡȺںȨһʼ˵Ⱥ˵ж¾ظѾ漰ָɡרָشʱȷָ˼ظһ־ɻÿһϵشɵġЩָشӦܵһȨָ֧µע30Ⱥڵķ͸Ϊ淴Ⱥڡ(reversal crowd)𵽵þǰγЩ۵ش̡

˵ һ޷԰Լ(ش)ظ½ųģ˲Żγɡ淴ȺڣΪһȺһ޷԰ѵش¼ųע31ڽ淴Ⱥʱ(Jullien)ڷĸʱдӵһ仰װѣdz;һҪ˰?ע32淴ȺھǿƻһȺֻǸ˶Ȩָı(ȺİȫߡܼȺĿָС)淴ȺܴݻεȨ˵Ⱥڰָشת޵Ⱥڵ˵ϣԴ˰γԼϵش̡ˣʹʧˣһлָԺȺҲǰô˳ָˡϣʹʧܵĸҲֵõġע33ͰضԸĿơذʶΪмֵĶ־˵¿ʼע34

еġش̡˸ѡشгڵ˺Чûʲôش̸˵壬ˡڼ£羫֢˸ش̴͸ش̣Ҳܸоġʱһ֢֡ѧ֮ΪΥ֢(negativism)󣬡ֳһ֡ʾūԡ(suggestion-slavery)״̬µĸ˻ƴŵرֶָ˳ӣΪ˶еġӡЩڻĿΪʵһָһָΪָ֪˺˲Żӿŵؽָָ˺ע35˸״̬µĸ˻ΪԼȺڵһԱʵûлΪȺлֻ֣ǡȺѳƬע36

ȺʱǿǸȺио֡()ظĽţҲͷšЩظָشÿۻɵġ һȺУоͺشڵؽǶԼԼ(ۼһ)޴һĸоΪʲôȺϲԭ򡣸ûбȺиɵˣ֮ƴ뿪ΪһصԼӣ¹һˣЩɶֻصҡظش̡(324)ʵУָоֻʱģȺһٴϵĸоⲻһֻþע37

Ⱥڶָش̵淴DZΪָ߱淴ǻŤı֡磬ʿòڡϵָȴ֮УγԼϵش̣ǻ䣬ֻһ;ˣͿԶԱʿָôŰôŰˡע38ʹڷʱ򣬸ȺڱĶҲһЩ޹򡣿ѸΪȺҧǡҧ֮ǰҧӡʵǷ1789714գǷ610աǷڰ裬ѷBrittany50BrittanyɱġǧֻΪԶӣԷйƽķ߿Ⱥ׳֮ǰȹӡ淴(Ⱥ)ֱӹ֮ǰǰŭйڿҵϡע39˼޹ڸֱӶ󣬾ҧӵ

ڸ߶ձѧϿ϶淴ȺڵȻ¿Եģֿ϶ཫȺڱΪȺåıԵ𡣿۵ɵģǣȺۺ͵͵ȺȴֲһҪ档һȺ۲ͬü򵥵ıȥ͸췴Ϊ췴ΪǰijЩֵ֧縻ѹ̰DzĶСע40ڶȺ۲ȺڿͳͳġȺȺڲȺȺлвͬ׼ijԱȺж߶ǵ죬ͬж(翹˰պľ)Ҳȫͬʣȵȡע41

淴ȺڣỹһŽϣĸ--transformation(Ρ)˵ıһӦͨϷǵܹ֪ıƽɷ֪źӵڹҵ·ϡһּԼּߵ顣ҲһƳ˹¶˸ҵȺ顣ֹ˱οܵʹ沿̻ġߡߴ߳Ϊż񡱣ߴԱߺͱεֹ״̬IJͬڣǽġ˵沿ȴвϱ仯෴ģͬһġ˵ı仯رΪı䶯ע42³űߣһߣٲµĿʼԼ͹֮˾룬ߺһжصģñ֪ġע43

ҲǴߣұҲߡһ棬֪Լĵĺݶ˱αװһ棬Ҳ֪λıҲαװԼԱһᡰ˺±˵ߣϲ߶һδεġҷ͡ࡱһп˱ε飬ͬ׼ˡ͵̨ĶΥ鿯ֹ˱εЧʽ֮һһԵؽתΪūū׼⣬׼ǣЩȴһһηȥԽ򵥣Խޣ˾Խūȥע44ҪÿһūһŹܵһ˿һѱĶһʼֲͬūһһ˵ĵūһţȺۼһеūūDZ˵Ľֹ͹涨סûбοܵĹ״̬ע45

ΪǿȺڷԸȺڽŵĿܣΪҪȺԭϣŬȺںȨֿȻҲֻԶŵIJʱҵӡƽȡ޼ѹȡش֮ԷȺ״̬ҲԭʼҵҲڼٶݵƬ()ż֡ԼҲִȺںȨּǿִתۼŵġȺڿ񻶡ʱ̣ҲлصȻȺ״̬ĻþǣԭʼȺ״̬ʵѾDzܵˡִȺڱ룬ҲֻܷŵᡢԼʵӵеȨܵȨвܵõ⡣

ʫѧȺȻʵȺںȨ൱ʾãȻܹ̼ߵǶʵ룬ϾȱӦеԡһʷƶʵʲIJȺںȨΣվǺӺģһʵǾǣıʷ;ᡢƶȣǸıȺ״̬ȺȨϵĸڡ滷ȷʵܹ൱̶ϾձȨش̵˺̶ȣDzָָֿķʽdzΪ淴ȺεĿܣֻܷһЩݶżȻʷʱɷijϵƽȵȺ壬ܷƽȺȷΪõļֵȥǵȴһܱ˵Ⱥ塣

עͣ

1. Thomas H. Falk, Elias Canetti. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993, pp. 85-6.

2. Richard H. Lawson, Understanding Elias Canetti. Columbia, SC:University of South Carolina, 1991, p. 57.

3. Tom Nairn, "Crowds and Critics," New Left Review 17 (1962): 24-33, p. 29.

4. Ritchie Robertson, "Canetti as Anthropologist," in David Darby, ed., Critical Essays on Elias Canetti. New York:G. K. Halls, 2000, pp. 161-168.

5. Gilbert Ryle, "The Thinking of Thoughts," in Collected Papers. 2 vols. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1971, vol. ii, p. 482.

6. Clifford Geertz, "Thick Description:Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture," in Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973, pp. 3-30.

7. Clifford Geertz, Interpretation of Cultures, p. 443.

8. See V. Crapanzano, "Hermes' Dilemma:The Masking of Subersion in Ethnographic Description," in J. clifford and G. E. Marcus, eds., Writing Culture:The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986, pp. 68-76.

9. Keith Hopkins, "Murderous Games," in Death and Renewal. (Sociological Studies in Roman History, vol. 2.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 1-30.

10. S. Schmid-Bortenschlager und Hermann Broch,"in K. Bartsch and G. Melzer, eds., Elias Canetti:Experte der Macht. Graz: Droschi, 1985, p. 118.

11. Ritchie Robertson, "Canetti as Anthropologist," in David Darby, ed., Critical Essays on Elias Canetti, p. 168.

12. Dagmar C. G. Lorenz, Introduction,in Dagmar C. G. Lorenz,ed., A Companion to the Works of Elias CanettiNew York: Camden House, 2004, p. 9.

13. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power. Trans. Carol Stewart. London: Gollancz, 1962, p. 468.

14. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," in David Darby, ed., Critical Essays on Elias Canetti. New York:G. K. Halls, 2000, p.142.

15. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," p. 142.

16. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," pp. 142, 157.

17. Elias Canetti, The Torch in My Ear, Trans. Joachim Neugroschel. New York:Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1982, p. 149.

18. Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind.London: T. Fisher Unwin, [1896], 1916. Gabriel De Tarde, LOpinion et la foule. Paris: Alcan, 1910.

19. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," in David Darby, ed., Critical Essays on Elias Canetti, p. 143.

20. Ibid. 150.

21. 22. 23. Sigmund Freud, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1951, pp. 9-10; 45, 52; 13-15.

24. Ritchie Robertson, "An Introduction to Masse und Macht," In Dagmar C. G. Lorenz, ed., A Companion to the Works of Elias Canetti, p. 203.

25. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," pp. 144-145.

26. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," p. 157.

27. Elias Canetti and Theodor W. Adorno, "Crowds and Power," p. 155.

28. J. S. McClellad, The Crowd and the Mob:From Plato to Canetti. London:Unwin Hyman, 1989, p. 299.

30. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, pp. 323-324.

31. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 328.

32. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 59.

33. J. S. McClellad, The Crowd and the Mob, p. 299.

34. Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

35. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, pp. 322-3.

36. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 324.

37. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 324.

38. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, pp. 315-6.

39. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 59.

40. Edward P. Thompson, "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,"Past and Present 50 (1970), 76-136.

41. Edward P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class. London:Gollancz, 1963, p. 64.

42. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 374.

43. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 375.

44. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, pp. 378, 384.

45. Elias Canetti, Crowds and Power, p. 384.