ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
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ڣйҪġΡ͡Ȩ߾ϡ ʩȡ͹


(Jan-Werner Mller)ʩʮŷ˼ϵġΣյ顷и̾,ʩоԵǶʮ˼ߵֱʶ,ΪһоȻҪǴ:ʩضʲô?()ΪʲôҪ̸ʩ?ע1ʩʮĴ˹ͻɴ⼫Ȩۿ,Ϊκʶ̬֮һڱܼȨйʩ,ΪʲôҪʩءΪһΪʵе⡣ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
еġѧ͡ʶо֮䶼ûоȻĽһ,й,ʩоѧԺʵʶҲȻ֯һʩΪʲôֵо?˼ЩӦܵرע?Щоߵʵʶ,ֻǴѧȤ¡ʩزֻǡ˼ߡ,ҸضʷΪ,һ,йᄈн͸ܱʶĵˡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ᄈ,ʩκꡢϣպͶսʱڵҪ·ֱ,Ȩ߻ǹ͹,ȫ򻯵߻Ǽķ,֪ܺǹʱࡣע2йʩоԵƫκʱڶϣʱ,ʩսܾڹֳĬ,֮ǿսġӰ족ġѧ,׸һӡ,Ǿ,ʩκʱڵ˼ԺΪԴ,ʩص˼Ҳ˱ΪһڵйᄈڡСĹߡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
,ʵ,κʱڵĵ¹,й嵼Σ?й̱Ȩ߾ϵ?ʩ˼Ҫذּ켺ĵۡΪھܾΡǿƹҵȨ߾Լȫ(total)Һͬʵڵй,ӷ塢ʩصЩ˼Ч?Dzǻ𵽰ѹɡ谭רƵĸ?йҪҪʩʽκȨ߾?ЩʩؽӦؿǵġ ( http://www.tecn.cn )

һ. 켺ġΡ

ʩصġΡǰǡˡе˵,ŻΡֻڵ֪,βžСʵԡ,ʩ,εĻǹڵ˵֪ʶ,,ֻҪ,ͱȻйڵ˵֪ʶε͹ڵ˵֪ʶ嶼ijֲɵġʾ,˵˼۵ĽһʾȫȻĽܾǡ(H. Meier)ָ,ʩضӽ塱˵,ΡսʵΪ֮,ֿĹһ֪ʶ֮,ȷֱѵ֮Сע3,һΪ,һ֪ʶ,һ񡣡,֪ʶռĵλáע4սֽ״̬²ȡΪȷֱѶ֪ʶ,ǰǹڵ͵ⲻɱ֪ʶ,ǹ˭ǵĵ˺Լ˭֪ʶβ֪ʶ,λ֪ʶǹԼĴڱʵ֪ʶ,ֻ֪˭ҵĵ,Ҳ֪Լ˭ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩذ˵Ĵڵ忴˵ж״̬һǷ?ⲢʩΡۡҪͻش,Ϊʩһ۴֮ǰ,ѾʾһݵȨش⡣ֻСѧ͡ζϡ,ûѧѧıҪָ,˭ҪʩθԤǰ˵Щʲô,ͲܶʾֳĬ˭ʩصθѧһ,˭͸޷θע5 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩһѧ,ձϵѧѧܷվס?ȫڶʾѧԤ趨ʾ,һν,Ҳ뾭Աڵȷʵɵʹд,ս˲ȷ,˵,ȷԵĸԴ,ԴΨһоԵġʾΪٲṩʵıϡ,ٲǴҪġע6Ϊͨ,޷ȷԵж,Ծϱʾʵ֡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ,߲ܲһʼͰѡߡΪ,ֻڶԿʱ,ѧάԼǡıʡڡ,ǿҵķǿҵɡ,ѧ,һִָ,ѧΪҪľǼ(ѧ)һִ,ڵġԵֿʹ֮ûСش:Ѻ͵(Ƿȷ)ʾֳġ˭,˭˵;˭Ҫǻ,˭׷ˡ۵ġϡǽһֺڰסаij׶֮ϵģѧֵȨץһеȨ,͸һ֮еȨ,(֮ΪȨ,)Ϊʹ,ΪӲذ˭ҲӱܵķǴ˼˷ŵǰע7 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
֡ѧʾĽл,ҲһҪʵִСʩѧмֵһֺΪһġ塱ִ͡С,Ųֻһѧ,һ֡Ρѧ,(ʩصѧ)ֻǰʾáȥֻǡá,ǰʾ͵Ρִж,(ʩصѧ)ԼһּжϵʷΪ,һֵ֪ѵʷΪע8ʾų˼κԻ,ʾʹһ޷绤ijɼ䲻,ȴϷʾ˵ǷΡע9 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ,κѧDzɷָ,ͶʮκαѧҲͬ,ʩذʾηһ,ܽǺ϶Ϊһע10ʩصѧʹáΡԱԭΪһκεص㡢κʱԪϵͬһ˱γιϵǴȻġɵĻȻĹϵ,ҲǷڳ,ֻҪ˱γΡע11ʩġǿȡ()Ҳһ,ʩذѵֵǿȵۺͷ,Ϻ;ѡֵ,Ͷķӻ򲻷ӣͬһʵġĵսΪϡζ,γΪһҵ,һַġάϵѡ,˼ʵŵ,ҲΰΡע12 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
йвʩѧʶ̬ѧڽ̡ë󶫾вɵʥȨ,ĸ۾һǿȵۻжԡ˵,˭ǵĵ?˭ǵ,ǸҪ⡣йǰЧ,ԭΪŽ,Թĵˡע13ʤij·ȫڳһСѡĵˡë1926˵ʱ,ֻǽڡй׼ľõλԸ̬ȡ֮ϵ,ʱëҲֻһҡ˵ë¼еʱ,ëѾΪ֮,ѡѳΪëһ־ϵ,롰õλԸ̬ȡ޹ϵʩز˵,ĵ˭,Ҿ͸˭?ë˵ñͬ, ֱͬ,ǵ˷ԵǾҪӵ,ǵӵǾҪԡ ע14ֵȨһϵΰ䡣κλɶΪһֵжԵķ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
һʼ,ʩؾͰѡˡһ,һͬԿս,˲ָжԵĸ,һ,һֶ״̬˭Ҫdzڵ˵Ⱥ,ôʹûе,ûежΪ,ȻǸеһԱ(ĸлɷġ׼ˡͬһʵĵ)ԵΪһ֡ȨȺϡ,εĿľǽȨע15ξǡ˼롢Ϊĺƽ,ֹͣ˵,Ρ뺭ÿһαҪһеǾԵ,Բܱ塮Ļѧ⡣ ע16 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩصͽʾ,ʩĵѶָǹʼĶʵ,ʩ1932ġεĸ޶ȷ,ڵġڽ̡׼ͱȺ֡͹ʶͬҪע17һ۵1933汾иΪȷ,۹ʻǹ,ֻҪȺͬһ˾Ρڹʻڹ,ζһȫסҵĴڹϵ,ǿʽ롣ע18αоԵȨ,͸ÿһ,˱ԷӼ塣ʩд:ڵ,һȨ,ȫܶȨ롮ȫܡ(total)ΪÿⶼԵ,˿ξӰ졣,ȫءԵرβռݡξˡķݾ,ζ˵ĿȫȫġһȺԱ־ʵ,ľһ˱֤ȫȫطӡע19ȫӵȨ֯ʽ,ʩص˵,ڸԵ֯ʽ,֯Ⱥ塢սеɱλ֯,Խڡʱ,ȫεҲֵԽע20 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ˵μϤĸĸԵѶ(׼һץ顱)Ϊʥԭ,һҵʽ(һֲ),޶ġ޳ġ϶һ(κ˶ǽϹ,ս),һ֡״̬µȫ(ҵ˶),Ƕ԰˵ڵһ(˽һ䡱),ȫȫռ˵ʶ(һпԡϸߡλ),һ־ԵȨͳ(񻯵ëͶĸ˳),ʵؽȨ(Ҫִ,ҲҪִС, һ䶥һ䡱),ʽЧľԵһ(衢¼衢Сᡢϵı̬Ч)ĸ뼫Ȩڽ̼ϵʩθѧϵ,߼ôġʶ,ŲǴżȻɡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )

. ΪרƼȨĿġȨ߾ϡ͡״̬

ʮʩܷѧ,,˵,ʩضʱ˼,ķѧ˼,ʩصķѧ˼ȻӰ,ʵȴǹƾӡ,߼ⲻ˵ʩصķѧûһЩҪĹߡ,ǸȤȴʩصۺԼµ,ȻҲѷɱεע21ʩطѧ˼˸Ȥ,ҲľǸܷ֮ϵġȨߡһδսʩγɡҡ͡ȨߡشӰ졣ʱ¹ոս,κ깲͹⵽ַв,ʩѰҵDZȫͳһ۷,Ϊ,һйڹҵִ۸׻ѧע22 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩѧǿľǸϵȫ(omnipotent lawgiver),ʮߺʮпھεĸͳҵ׵,ʮȫεϷ׷񶨡ƶȨɢ,໥ƺ,ԷȨߴȨ,ҲԷδΡʩڶսǰִܲ,֡Ȩ,ʹȨ(Ȩ)ٷָע23õĶ,ʩάִ,ҲΪִʽʩиר(ȨͼȨ)̵ơսǰʩصȻԤʮͺרʽ(νȨ)һֶôµƶȡھĸй,ضʩصġʱͲܲŵȨѪȡʷ,ʲôҲûзһطʩصĶʮע24 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʮʩԵκ깲͹ʩ,ҵְάͰ,ֻй,ҲܾһְʩعעIJǹҵij̬,ǹҵΣʱ̡,ҴڵıΣʱֳ̲,ҵΣʱҲġ⡱״̬ʩΪ,¿߿ɭ(Hans Kelsen)巽(һܶž֡⡱ķƶ)DzʵֵġԴɵ,ִܲ?,ƶȼȲԤ,Ҳܶʵһпܷ,ȨߡرʾȨҪȨߵȨµķ֮,ҲԽһ򡣰ʩص˵,ȨǾʲôʱ,ֹˡע25ȨͬҲǾʲôʱѾԻָˡ,Ȩ߹˼һʱʱ̶̿зԼˡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩڡѧһмеȨߡ뷨ġѧ.ϣ߲ⲿӢ,Ҳرͬȥʩصѧ֮һΪ,ʩκܷ48()ͳȨȨ,Ϊˡɴ͹в,κĵˡע26ϣָ߲,ʩ19321933޸ġεĸ,ѹڵ˵Ҫʵ˲,Ҳdzڶɴ͹вĹע ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ϣ߲Ϊʩر绤߼,ɴ͹ר֯,Ƿһܷʥԭ(Ȩƽȡƽȵ),ʩˡרƹұר,Ҫº͵רƷᵼ¾Եר,еġע27ʩؼҪ˵DZͳʹȨȨ,ΪΪ˷ֹɴ͹òƻκIJ֮; ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ϣ߲ʩصʩصſΪκµġҩ,ʩؾܾ˵ʱѧҵձ鿴,,ijЩȨȨΥľ񡣡ע28ϣ߲ʩһ,Ȩ,ʩһԹ֮ķȻгġϣ߲ĽȴһdzصĽǶǿʩصġȨߡȫʺй顣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ڽй,ڴʩصô,һ,ǼǿȨȨ뷨ǰᶼ,ʩص뵱йʵԡǰʵһȫ鹹񻰡ʹǴӡ⡱ʩڶʮκĿԳ,ĿҲȫкϵйʵ顣ʩᳫȨ,ԵЩϣ߲˵,ɴ͹Ļܷ,ȴͨһЩʽܷٵܷһ,ǿͶƱ̱(54)ڶ,ӵһĶϯλ,ǾͿʹκһ㷨(68),ӵ㹻Ķϯλ,ǾͿԶܷ(76),Ҳ,һȨ,ǾͿԴӴ˹رշεĴ,ٲǾȨ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩصҪֹ,ǡǡǵйִȨʮ¹ĿѾй,ɾĴѾر,ִѾȵؿ˹ҡйʩضʮּڷֹóѵȨ,ʲô?ʩõ¹ʧ,ָġҡΪɴ̨˴šй,Ȩδ򿪵?йûʵʩκ깲͹,Ϊʲô֮̽һγɼȨԭ?ӲҪ̸ʩ,͹йΣ,Dz¿? ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ˵ڽʹϡġȨߡͬڵйϣ߲͵,ν⡱ָ(the normally valid legal order)⡣ע29ϣ߲ʩԼڡԺͺϷԡһе˵ָ,ʩΪ, ǾСΡܷһЩԲַġʥԭ,塢˽вƲڽ̿ݵȵȡʩطԡֵ͡ͷ۷(legalistic)ķʽܷʩس,ЩͳѾΪȫϷĹ(Ӣ),áֵ͡ͷ۷ܷǿԵġ,κʱڵĵ¹ԲܾܷΪ¹Ӣûеļ˶,ʩؼΪ,ڵ¹лԾ,ֵּؽܷ,Щֹľ,ܷһ,һȡȨͻԥȨȨѵɹҡע30 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ϣ߲ȻĿжʩ͵ġʩص۶ս¹ؽεá,ҲΪݵġֻЩ֤ܷ᳹ԭʸܷϵȨ,ܷȨ涨֮ȡޡս¹ܷ()ɴ⵳ܷҸȼ,õľʩصһܷšʩڶʮĩʮɴ֮ǰ˵DZͳȨȨ,ȵʱκ깲͹,˵лĻ,ǾͿԤҸƻԵġʩ˵Ȩָ˵DZѡͳ,ԪǴҵ,ǡά()ȶͱ()ȫע31ʩص˵,Ȩͨ²ƻķ,Ҳַ˽򡣡ע32Ȩƽʱʲô,ڡ⡱¾رش,ΪֻȨϹǷ롰⡱״̬,ǷҪֹ״̬еܷ,Σȥ֮,ϻָ״̬ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ˵ġȨߡйСйûһ˵DZġѡͳ,Ҳûʵκ깲͹ܷˡ,˶ܷȨʥԭʵءȱǰ,ʲôڡܷ⡱ġȨ߾ϡ?ʩصȨ߾˵йġ״¿ԳĻ,ô꽯ίԱ⡰˹ӦһֺϷȨ߾ϡʵ֤,Ҫ֮ųйǸȷȷʵʵһܷʥԭļ,һʩرΪ֮С ( http://www.tecn.cn )
йֽһɡ֮С涨ִּܷĵ¼ȫܵȫܵĹҺΪһ塣йνȱʩκġΡ,Ҳȱʱܷ֮ϵȨߡйġȨߡͨ, ⲻءķ,ַ˽򡣼ʹҲ޷᳹1949йϳȨֹܷġִС,롰⡱(˶)״̬,ȴδȨ⡱ʱڽָƽйִܷġ⡱ʱ˴,ûмϹȫ緶Χ,ġ⡱ʱڿҵˡȻйȨһֱʹijܷȨ, ʲôҪû㹻Ȩ,ϡ? ( http://www.tecn.cn )

. ʩȡ͹

ʩذѷεƶȿִԸͼһ־ֹġʵԵĺȨĹһ۱ҪѾбġΡΪʽķθ뿪ֻʵԵȨҡ͵ѱġΡžСϷԡ(legitimacy),ķιҺͶԪеֻʽķԻԡ(legality)һֱ,ʩضûиıĻ뷨 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩص˼ھʷỷвͷչ,жӰشĿ˵ǵ¹ѧҺ˹(Wilhelm Hennis)˵ġ¹ʽҹ⡱ע33ڵ¹,һδս,DZ,,ڴһǿġܹ֧ᲢоӰĹҡĹԼĴ,оֲ漯ŵҡڵ¹,ֹ׷ݵڸԹҺ,ѹȷΪȺ徫ߡ¹κͷѧΪijֳıʻ,Ļ,һʵԵĴ,Ҳֻǹ𵽵ûʹĹ,ҸΪµĴˡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩضκ깲͹ǴDzһֹҹ۳ġһֱڴľʵԵĹȡԵķ,γɵ¹ġͳһͳһ塣ڽ¹ʷ,ֻɴȨһʵֹڴ,һʵġгȨȨԪ׹ڡ۹бɱ¾ͼȨͳгΪһѪȵʵ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩӵֹйŷdz˵ԶIJ˵,1949,ҡС,ĸйҡ״̬һֱйĹƶʵйƶеλһ()͵ڼġ˭˵ĴͳһֱάһȨȷȨȨϵרǿƹҡ,ҵݶλһϵеĹں͹ʵĵγɵ://ʱ塢۷ޡ׼ȵȡ,ͬʵ,Զ롰ĵˡһּĶԿ֮С֡ε֮Դ,γΪһ͸ÿеġʵ桱֡Ρ֮,Ȩ߿ȫܵشȫ,ǵ־,˳ǿǽһɺ͹ȨմߵġҵĴʵƺѾȷʵʩص롣 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
Ȼ,1980,˱仯,йвڳһЩǿƹҵ,֡ʶ(ڵĽ׼͹ʵķ۷)Ѹ˥,ĻˡλҪ,һȻȡСʲ׼ɻ˶ղԱȫЧ,úʹĻķչʹгˡΡ޷ֱƵġ򡱡, оȻҪ,ᡢСҵҪȷصһѧ˳1980йԵĹҺϵΣڱΪ1989ķ糱 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
1989괺ĵ¼ (³ơ¼)Ѫ,ǿƹһ¢ϵıʾȨȨ;, ӡǹʱ,Ȩ߱ȻѳΪƭ˵ĹǿƹҵȨܵ˿ǰĶҡ,ǻڡͬ񡱵ĺϷҲ֮𡣡¼Ժ,йԹҺϷԴΪ⡣һںϷ(ע,ʩرԵ)һз,Ӧ,ǺϷġֻҪİ,кϷԡֺϷԹ۵㿴,¼ûжҡйͳߵĺϷԡڶֿ,ĵĺϷԱԷձԭĸ߷¼ַˡȨһ߷ȨҵĺϷԡֿ,ĵĺϷԴԵġĻͳձĸ߷йĻͳ(ߡ޼ֵ)б,Զԡ¼֡й顱ľϴȨߵĺϷԡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
һֶԺϷԵʩصġʹҡҲֻһֹ,ҵòֻƽȨ,ҵĴڲΪصͲͬ漯ŹϵұǡʵԵĴڡ1989Ժ,ʵԡȨĻл˿ǰǿҵıʩΪרƶȽɲʥͬṩһֿܵġΡ֧֡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
רͳҪ˼ʶ̬ȱ,ΪͳκϷԻӪij֡ʵȺ塱ǰġ񡱱Ϊй񡱡ʩصʵһļϡ,롰ʵϵġΡ(εͬ)ȷ,ΪȨߵľȨǰġ/ʡ/͡׼жʽһЩµĵжʽ档ڵʵ˿εĵˡʶ̬ĵˡĻĵ,塢Ȩ,ȵȡȨߵġ״̬ϸԲһࡰˡ磬ԽԽؿźۡͿֹΌ֯ũᡣ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩ˳Ӧ1989йרͳκϷԵҪʩȳΪ̷ġѧֵ֮һۡʩѧƵ,ìͷ׼塢ִԡȫ򻯡ձֵȨ,㶼Ƿ塣ͬ,ʩȵй֪õԴųصķ˹ʩ֪жô,ô,ʩȵһҪǾһ,ϧΪ֮ʷʵĴۡ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
йʽʩرܻ򵭻ʩʮλ,Ĵ˹ͻɴ⼫Ȩرʩصξԭ򡣵һ,̸ʩغͷ˹ĹϵȻᴥ˹ͼȨͳεһЩ,ͻǶйʵ,Сβȷ֮ӡڶ,оʩر˵ġ,ʹǶѧĵжɡرܺ͵ʩ뷨˹ɴ⼫Ȩַ,һǿκʱں1933ԺľȻѡ,ֻǰһ,ۺһΡһǸɴ˵ɴ̨ǰ,һֱɴ⵳Ϊ,ֻǡΪ˱ɡ()սɴʶ̬ע34Ψоġȥ˹,ʩزһֱǵġѧס ( http://www.tecn.cn )
,ʷʵʩزһӡʩɴδ̨֮ǰġʲ׼ķιҡ(1928)͡˹ҡ(1929),ͼһشӷ˹ҵԽȥ¶͹ҵα׶˺ƭԵġоʩزֻҪ֪ (ʵҲе)һҪ֪ʲôƶʩس÷˹ƶѡԸ޷϶Ϊιҵġԭ򡱡ʩΪ,ѧϵһҪŶǴһЩȨйصԭ,ظ˵ĻȨ,Ȩɢ໥ƺ,ȵȡʩضԴ˽¶,(Щŵ),˲,Ȩܵ,ҲͬܵơȫǼӹҵ,ܷɵıƶȰֻǵһֻƽ֯ʽ(硰͡),ȴΪ,άֵƽ⡰ֻϸɵ,ͳһ档ע35 ( http://www.tecn.cn )
ʩΪļҩȫ桢ֹҼ־Ĵʩ˵,Ҫ,ķʽȨ,ҲǡȨߵľϲͨ˵ͶƱ,Ҫͨ񹫿ʩطԹԸݽͶƱ,ΪͶƱʽ񹫿̬֮һķˮ,ʲ׼ͶƱûdemos,û ( http://www.tecn.cn )
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עͣ
1. 21. Jan-Werner Mller, A Dangerous Mind: Carl Schmitt in Post-War European Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 2; 8. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
2. Peter C. Caldwell, Controversies over Carl Schmitt: A Review of Recent Literature, The Journal of Modern History, 77: 2 (2005): 357-388, p. 357. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
3. Heinrich Meier, The Lesson of Carl Schmitt: Four Chapters on the Distinction between Political Theology and Political Philosophy. Trans., Marcus Brainard. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. p. 26. ʩijCarl Schmitt, Der Begriff des Politischen (εĸ)1933棬p. 16.εĸ1927 (Berlin)1932 (Munchen/Leipzig) 1933 (Hamburg)汾·ֱԡεĸ192719321933 ֮ ( http://www.tecn.cn )
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 10. 11. 12. 16. Heinrich Meier, The Lesson of Carl Schmittpp. 26; 27; 93; 66; 67; 67; 68; 68; 30-31. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
9. See Karl Lowith, The Occasional Decisionism of Carl Schmitt,in Martin Heidegeer and European Nihilism, ed., Richard Wolin, trans., Gary Steiner. New York: 1995, pp. 37-69. Richard Wolin, Carl Schmitt, Political Existentialism, and the Strong State,in Terms of Cultural Criticism: the Frankfurt School, Existentialism, Poststructuralism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992, pp. 84-104. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
13. ëѡһ3ҳëϯ¼1112ҳ
14. ëѡڶ580ҳëϯ¼14ҳ
15. εĸ1927p. 11.
17. εĸ1932p. 54.
18. 19. 20.εĸ1933pp. 45; 21-22; 22.
22. 23. 25. 26. 28. 29. 31. 32. Carl Schmitt, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Trans. George Schwab. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1988. Introduction by G. Schwab, pp. xv; xvi; 5; xxi; xxii; xvii; xxv; xxvi. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
24. Gary UlmenָʩغɴֳжϺ͵˼ȴ20δѡGary UlmenBetween the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich: Continuity in Carl Schmitts Thought, Telos (Spring 2001): 18-32, p. 18. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
27. Mark Lilla, The Reckless Mind: Intellectuals in Politics. New York: New York Review Books, 2001, p. 60. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
30.. Carl Schmitt, Legalit?t und Legitimit?t. Munich and Leipzig, 1932, p. 33, 35, 41-42. 48-50. ˰ѡԡ͡Ϸԡ ΪϷԡ͡ԡǷԡӦָԣָ淶ʽ(ϰconventional morality), ԡԡ뷨ĹϵҪǣ ()ϵʱھγɡ֮,ǿ̶񷨡Ϊ,dzĴڡ,ius(еġ)iustum(ġ)ǽ֯һġھԵġϷԡ֮ ֻСԡһֱġϷԡμ Giovanni Sartori, The Theory of Democracy Revised. Part Two:The Classical Issues. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers, 1987, p. 322. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
33. Wilhelm Hennis, Zum Problem der deutschen Staatsanschauung, in Vierteljahrshefte fr Zeitgeschichte, Vol. 7 (1959), 1-23. ( http://www.tecn.cn )
34. СѡʩηѧϺ꣬20024-5ҳ
35. 36. Carl Schmitt, Der brgerliche Rechtsstaat, in Die Schildgenossen, Zweimonatsschrift aus der katholischen Lebensbewegung 8: 2 (March-April 1928), pp. 128, 129; 131C133. תHeinrich Meier, The Lesson of Carl Schmittpp. 137-142.( http://www.tecn.cn )

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