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֪ʶӺδ

̽κ͹壬Ǻ.˼һҪҲΪ֪ʶӵҪɫİزΣǵ¹ɴǰ˹ļȨνӷεѧԺ֮оѡص̽ΪڼȨķٽε룬Թ˼ΪһֶԼȨͳеĹᡣػһεĻߡʮμ갢֯Ԯ̫ͯĹʮԮ֧ߣʮʱʻ͹ʴ֯Ĺս´ĺΣ߸̫壬ԽսЩʼռֽ¶ַȨȨĹٷΪʼչעžձԵȨ⡣ע1عκ͹ѧĶ顣ォ÷ԼȨεĹ֪ʶӹػΪ˼һյ㣬ԴʾȻмֵ˼ݺжʾ һ֪ʶʷı

һ֪ʶӼ֤˶ʮ͵ֽѣսĸɴ⡢˹սЩ񽥽ѧԺʽΪĹȥ¼Ƕ˺Ϊп޵ļ䡣ȣص˼ҪǿرʮͿѵʷ顣ЩʷһֱӰŰأЩʷʹбҪµ˼·ǹӶս1975һֱһ簬(Jeffrey Isaac)˵"Ĺ֪ʶ""Ըֲͬķʽȥ̽ڶĹ⣬սƽɺ壬ۺͱĻ"ע2Ҳ˶Ϊɪ(Michael Walzer)˵ճֽӴߡע3ѧԺﲻͬDzڳһȻۼƣDzиذպͽǸʱʷĻ

ڰ˵Ǹʱʷ֮һǼȨרƶɵĿǰƽټغⲻŷ޵ʷ飬Ҳȫִʷ顣ԼȨ˼Ϊرʷⷽʽ1945갢ؾ˵"а⽫Ϊսŷ֪ʶĸ⡣"ע4˵аǼȨа粮˹̹(Richard J. Bernstein)˵صԤԽ˿գ"ս֪ʶӻرֱа⣬аȴȷȷʵʵΪصĻ⡣"ӡȨ֮ԴʼҮ·䡷˵ľһֱ˼زϵԲͬ˼صȨа⣬"ͬںڰµһĺߣǶʮͼȨĿֲ⵽¶֮󣬶а˼ᴩȫ˼֮СһֱȥʱŬ˼⡣"ע5

ǴӾġضĸȥռȨרƵʷġ˵־Ǵڵľ顣غͶʮԺĴϵ岻һֳѧǶִȨĨɱ˵ķһѧ˼Ϊ;֪ʶΡشһǶ壬ķҪ"ʵձҪ"ά˵Ϻɣ鼫Ȩͳμ̤˵Ϻɡע6

ȻȴԶΪṩҪķȨ˼ԶʮͶʮԺ"Σѧ"Ŀڵ¹еĴ壬ʩ(Carl Schmitt)ͺ¸(Martin Heidegger)Ϊ˵ʵΪΨһ棬һֵжͳ"״̬"Լõѧۡע7£ضʷļͲɴ⼫Ȩͳεļ䣬ҲԴ۶ļ䡣۲ֱӵʵȴӰ˼ʵͶʵӦķʽӰǶƶαжϡ¼ͲΪ˼һҪ֣ⲻΪԭѧйأҸΪ˵Ļ״̬Ӱ˼˼Ρϵķʽ

ضԴ¼䣬¸ľۣͬʱ˹(Karl Jaspers)佻ѧ˵Ϊ¸˵ҵԶһ޶ġøĴڣΣǴ˵ıųΪĹ֮ͬ¸ҿӦԶ("")ŶڣΪ"�""˵ĸ˿˴ͬһ磬ôЩԭӻ˵еϵĻʱ˵ĸ롣"ע8ضԺ¸ѧҪκ塣ֱмȨʱǿľǼȨͳνԭӻΪ¶໥"Ⱥ"мȨͳν"Ⱥ"Ϊһ˵ĸġġǧһ""ȨͳηɱһɵĹռ䣬ʹΪ"Ⱥ"ֻͨ""""ܸо໥Ĵڡ¸ѧϽ˳׸廯ԭӻΪȨͳοá ǿ˹Ĵͺ¸и˹"""ԭӻ"Ϊ⡣ؽ͵"˹࿴ѧļʽͬʱҲ()ͬµѧ()"ڽУո׶Ի"ӭȡ˼ķʽ"(maientic method)ƽȵ໥ֵڻȡġռԵĽڼ¶ɵĴڡָѧûвͬ˵Ĵڡˣ˹ǿҵһֿձ˼ʽģʽ˼ʽģʽȨȫͬɹۡˣȨȻ԰ѹǵȨ(liberties)ȴվ޷ӸϸıǵĴ(freedom)д"˹ڲһڵʽһɵʽ"ڲָ˾ָֻһDZڵĿܡָ"DZԷ˾ܾԼһֽңɵֻͨ˵ɷϵʱʵĴڡ"ע9ذߵ˼໥ʶȷΪִδĺ˼룬ȷָ"ڵıʾӲǹġֻڽУֻʶ˵Ĵڣдڡ"ע10

ض˹彻˵ۿأչΪһֹɹβ˹Ĵ彻۵صιۣľ巢չһرǿζʵֵľԱҪԡڶ""ͨ""ͶԪתʹðĴΪʵδ塣

˹ཫҴںɵӺ¸ΨнѳԶδܽ˵Ĵ빫ϵڶսǰ˹໳ɽǷܰ˶ԼĴڡд�"νɱرα(ˣ)вӦ̸˵ıʡ"Ϊ˼ʹϵʱ"ϴڣʹ֮ʧ"ע11ˣ˹ಢûȫųΣΪβDzԽ˴ɺң"ڹвж֪ʶôαһϡΨˣ˲ܽӴһдȨ"ע12ˣЩεģдʶߵIJʮҪһ棬ǷԳΪһƷʵķű꣬Խ˲ԽԸ롣һ棬ǵIJ߹ΪIJκƷʡ غ˹θµ뷨ͬʱǿδӱ˵ӦҵáسɵͬΪɱΪӦһ"ʲô""˭"ֿʲô(ְ)˭ǰָһֿڵġڣָǸۺΪʾ;ǰʵˣƴ¡ֻ˭ܱ־ҵɣΪҵѡƴڲġѡƴأۺΪڹ̨ʾ˴Ӹ˵Եģ"ΪУʾ˭ʾǶصĸ˱ңԴ˳֮С"ע13

ԺͶԪǰι۵һҪչιеʾǾӢģֲǾӢġؿʹοռҲܱ⾫ӢΪһЩȱĹвǣǿξӢĻȴ"ֻǶƽߵΣ"ɴֲǾӢġע14ȥξӢ˹ֻ˲ر߱ʶ뷨֮ͨιϵȴҪͶԪöࡣ

˹""һѵõΪ߱ʹ֮߱䣬ƺһԽĸҡ˹˵"ȷʵһ֮Уһ;໥״̬һݡǣ֮ϵЩϤߣȴĹϵЩ֮ԼǣҲͬնҺЩ֪֮ġ"ע15˹ȷʵ"ϵ"ִڵĸʵı׼úܸߣӰˡ

ذ"ϵ"˵ѧչ˵ĹΡδҲʾԺͶԪԡʵʷ£Щӵκ;Ȩ͵λռеȻػǿԭ˵Ӧųκٺ""ˡͬʱǿӦκεһԻԼĶԪԴ˴ڵĶԪԣÿߵƴDZŲͬӽǺ¹۵㡣ڹУͨ˺ѧƽȵġڰؿʹ˹࣬Ĺ˸ҲѧݸΪҪԶδս˹ڹ㲥̨Ͻѧڵ¹κʷ鼮ۺΣӰȵȣ͡Ϊ˹ЩճĻΪһ�""˹"ǰΪ(Լ)ÿһ˼븺"ԳƵ"Լÿһ˼붼Ĺ֮"ע16

֪ʶӵķ ڰ֪ʶӵķһڹм˵ɡϺƴΡ֪ʶӵķζһһָֻĿĵΡ֪ʶεĻǼֹ˵ձֵֵּķ岢һֳɵʶ̬()һʶ̬(缫ȨȨ)ڣܾκֳɵȷƺ˵־жϣܾԴκʽĹȺ彻˵"֪ɰҿDZɣҿɣҶԴһҲںһɣʲôҲǡȷʵڵκ˼"ע17

ڰ˵ܾʶ̬޶ǹ֪ʶɵҲɵĻ˵(freedom)ȨΪĵ(liberty)DzͬġڷȨʱҪԽֳɵͼȨĶʶ̬Կģʽ֪ʶȾҪ֮ɡϺ͸ԵȻֵȷΪձķֵڰؿΪѧѧĴǡǡΪֵּṩ˿ܡ ǿ˴ڵľԺԣ"˵Ǵѧĵһ"ע18˵˵ΪڵδԺÿʱÿ̵Ŀԣô˵Ϊ˵ľԡǿ˵ľڣĶ"˼""""ձ"˲ûκδȻõһ᱾ʣ˼ǻޱȣǼȴÿ˵⻥γԣҲǿ˵˵""ע19ذ˵Իϵһֵּǿһֶ˴ڵ"͹"˵Ĵڲϣǣ˵ȴԶ˵ĴڶܡҲԶʢڵıҪûϵĴDzȫģǿȵģѪȲпģܿѵġ ͬ˵ĸҲһֵּһֶԸȨ"͹"(ȻȨ)˵ĸԸ徭IJԣܹʵʵڵ飬"Ǹʶ¼УҾǶһˣ˼Ϊһ'Ϊ'Ϊʹ˳Ϊ壬˹еճ뿪Ϊ˼ձֶصӰ"ע20

ձɡϺ͸Թ˰صĸι۵ĻιǺĹϵһģеĸ塢ӢʹΪһ־ӢʽιۡʵһֶԿܻ˵ļȨι۵ιۡ׷IJȨͳΣҲЭ壬һвܳʾʵʵƴҡ

עļֵ(˵ʵ)бڼȨΣбΡֳƺ뵱ǰκʵζ൱ңԶĿĹۣʵҲôңԶΪʵѾijԭͣԭ֪ʶ䳡ṩġŵ(Margaret Canovan)ţѧ"ѧ"Ϊ˵ص""ע21ţѧһɼѧռ䣬һ"Ϊ""Ȼ"ѧ硣ţѧУ԰ѧƽƶйɼԡΪѧţѧڵĿIJΪʦṩְλֻΪѧ䷢ְƾţѧڵĿΪѧĹػΪÿһţṩʵֵĻᡣţ˵Ķţѧһռʷ־ӳͬιҲһΪ磬ƶȺȳΪṩ˿ɼԡҲӦ󹫹ѧʹʷ־Ŀġ ȻʵʴڵιĿһѧͽнƺУ԰ѧʵһҲֻһǣȱ֮ĻǶ֪вõܷƤͼµᣬڶѡˣѡȻѡѡ٣ıϦĵļЩǿ뱩ƶ˾ռߵĹǰųġ˵ĴڼֵйصĿȷΪӦеĿģΪǿεĿľǸһЩṩͳεĻֶΣÿһܲ빲ͬĹʵֶضƴҡΨĿԵĹ򷽲ʵƺΪһ£ܳΪĹ񹲺͡ ԴʶΪĵ֪ʶӷ֮ԳΪһΪΪ˶ʶ̬ȨɺսҸΪṩһι۲ͬιۡǿθбʣǿ()Ⱥιʶ(Ի)ǿƺͱԵġεķԽǷġģκεһζòЧܡ簬ָ"֪ʶѵĿܴ[κθȺ]Ļ֮УٺõȺ壬Ҳǿսġ"ע22

֪ʶӵķγ˴ĵ½ǣܴijձȷĵԭһݵƽԽС˵Ĵڳìܣ˵ѡҲ޵ġΣΣ޶ȵġ߲׷˵Ȩۿܣǣ߲ʱض˵ˣֻҪ˵ʱֳĬˡ߶˵ⱾһʵۡԷ˵Ǽ˹(Anthony Giddens)˵ֻ""壬"ʵ"ʵע23ʵ˵ʵΪɺά֣ϵбͣعеƶԲϸµ"""ͬ"Ϊġ"""ͬ"Ľ֪ʶμֵľ·źɡ·ţ鲻ɵУ֪ʶεķɵҸĹ塣

עʱش⣬ͬʱŬԽʶ̬ƣձε¼ֵͬʱĵƱѣִп˵Ѿ˺ִءֵָǣ˼еĺִزûзֶʮ֪ʶʵ𷴶زٵձִɵģ˿ԼˣйͬҪձõļִֵ˼һزΪŷеĿѧ˵ȨǣͬʱҲΪɵбʷ飬ֻζѧ⹹ض˼ԳƵձȷΪȻǣ˷˵Ĺͬ״̬;෴Ϊ˵Ĵ״̬йͬԣȨβκεطز١ضִε(ŻĹҺ)񣬵˵λεļˡԼΪʹȨΪضʵֵԷԹһεһֶƵġɻĹ롣Խеִι淶ĿIJΪ˷ִΣΪ˳ɾֻܴ֮еִκ͹ δһ

صδڶŷ֪ʶӷȨ֪ʶйɫ֡ʵͳεƺ֪ʶεѡණŷ֪ʶӱιֱӶԿȨΡǸעձԵĴڼֵӼȨͳζԵŤǵ֪ʶһʶ̬һʶ̬ճĵγ"һµΪģʽ"ע24Ϊģʽиø˵ϡɺȨ͸˻Ϊĺԡ漰ԼļȨͳȨƶȺʶ̬ҸЩȨùһճеɢע�""еһӡ

ÿС˵СԼ.Kʾ""αΪ(Ȩ)˼ͳεֶΡʹK˳ӿƵʵԼյС;һKûϾȥ˼й˴ڵ⡣һϴԼһϾ硣ⲿԽԻK˾ԽеʡһѱDZΪȨͳεӰע25һһε˼顢򵳽ġϴ걳УK˱һֻڻдڵ硣˹ͳκ"鹹"Ĺ۲һ㣬Ϊ"鹹"ȨҡĹߣ׽ļͥϵҲɢĶ

ҲۿƷʱһ"鹹"¡1951һλѺǧĹԱһڲ˹ԩбЩ˸һӣ㵳ǣҲĸԸظߡǾ󿨷С˵еK"ϸϸԼ͹ȥھΪ֪Ĵ󣬲ճĪе"λȴЩرյĻȥԼ֤Ҳ֤Ȼûаﷸһ͸ʮͷˡʱһĺӣѼˡĸžۣΪʮһ죬ȥλѣһʲ֪ΪʮĶ糿̰˯ȰСʱһΪ˵ˡ˵"貢ûСǸ˲¸Ůˡ˿µʱȴܶסҪҳΪһˡ̰˯ҵⲻֹˣܵҵ˽һҪ˵ȥ�"˾úܱλڵֿȨȻ˵Լ顣öĸԸؽһƵָأԾԸؼ˼룬ڳĪеĿһĻͥз"΢˹ʽ"ʡ"һЩ(˼顢˵)ʷ¼ĻơЩĻƺЩ(ƽζʮ)˽ʵһġ"ע26

˵ϸ΢Ϊ۲켫Ȩר΢Ĺ۲ʾһԴļȨ˵ճе"鹹"ǿ"ϸ""ָ""˽һ"ļȨ˼ƣʵҪӢררƺͷϿרͳΣпܰļͥ˵ģȨ"''޼ģͥǺϣȨ򵳺͹κ飬ȨĸκһȨչ¶΢ЦԼ'һͥ'"ע27

Ͱһ˴ڵĻ״̽˴ڵձֵ壬ʵľ⡣ǿձֵijһ״Ϊձģʽȫƹ㣬ǿಢĴҪͼֵʲôͬδڵձͼֵΪһѧѧ˼Ҳ˾ŨϢ˵ػӸ˵ļֵȡڶִȨһʷڰбһҳļ䡣Ҳ˿̹ĵļ䣬γ˶صҰһȺڲִ֪ͬʶӡ

עͣ
1. Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1982).
2, 22. Jeffery C. Isaac, Arendt, Camus, and Modern Rebellion (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1992), pp. 13; 126.
3. Michael Walzen, Interpretation and Social Criticism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).
4. Hannah Arendt, "Nightmare and Flight," reprinted in Arendt, Essays in Understanding, 1930-1954, ed. Jerome Kohn (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994), p. 134.
5. Richard Berstein, "Did Hannah Arendt Change Her Mind? From Radical Evil to the Banality of Evil," in Larry May and Jerome Kohn, eds. Hannah Arendt: Twenty Years Later(Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1996), p. 127.
6, 8, 9, 10. Hannah Arendt, "What is Existential Philosophy," in Arendt, Essays in Understanding, 1930-1954, pp. 174; 181-82; 183; 186.
7. Richard Wolin, "Carl Schmitt, Political Existentialism, and the Total State," and "Sartre, Heidegger, and the Intelligibility of History," in Wolin, The Terms of Cultural Criticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), pp. 87, 89.
11, 12, 15, 18. Karl Jaspers, Philosophy, 2 vols. Trans. E. B. Ashton (Chicago: Univerisity of Chicago Press, 1970), vol. 2, pp. 91, 93; 328; 30; 155.
13, 14. Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1958), pp. 179; 177.
16. Hannah Arendt, "Karl Jaspers: A Laudation," in Arendt, Men of Dark Times (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1968), p. 75.

17. Hannah Arendt, "On Hannah Arendt," in Melvyn Hill, ed. Hannah Arendt: The Recovery of the Public World (New York: St Martin's Press, 1979), pp. 333-36.
21. Margaret Canovan, "Politics as Culture: Hannah Arendt and the Public Realm," in Lewis P. Hinchman and Sandra K. Hinchman, eds. Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994), pp. 185-86.
23. Anthony Giddens, The Constition of Society (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984).
24. Vaclav Havel, "Letter to Dr. Gustav Husak, General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party," in Havel, Living in Truth (London: Faber and Faver, 1987), pp. 27-28.
25. Hannah Arendt, "Franz Kafka: A Revaluation," in Arendt, Essays of Understanding, pp. 70-71.
26, 27. Milan Kundera, "Somewhere Behind," in Kundera, The Art of the Novel (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), p. 108-109; 110.



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