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϶ѧйĿᄈת

϶(Pierre Bourdieu)ĻѧйѧѾ൱ȤһȤijڴڴ϶Թ㷺ܸйĻѧƴһЩ¹۵㡢¸·ģʽ϶Ļȷʵйãý൱޶ȵġķĻɬһЩҪ֮⣬һҪԭDz϶оĶ൱ȷġЩķᄈйᄈ֮ںܴ졣϶ĻѧйȤ ѧ硣ѧо(ǴĻо)עȤζȼȼϵҲDz϶йΪ֪֮һԴΪ̸̸϶йĿᄈת⡣

Ͳ϶Ļ۶ѧо壬Լѷ(Randal Johnson)ָ϶صһѧ"ڷ"ͬ·ӡѧڷ""͸ָʽ塢ṹͽ⹹Ķ϶Ļ۹ĵĻƷʷԵͻ;"'ʷ'塢ѧѧо'Ļо'ĵݡ"϶Ļѧ"ֱӻ漰ֵ;Ժͽṹԣѧʵ͹㷺̵Ĺϵ֪ʶӺҵλãĻͨĻĹϵЩ(ʮ)ʮĻԽԽǹ㷺ע⡣"ע1

ѧ"Ļо"ֿܡһĿܡӳдͳѧ۵ǰ£ḻ͸¶ѧоرս"ѧ""ѧ"ľȨڶǹĿܡһЩԭɴͳѧ۾ͳȨϷԣƳѧоԾƷΪĵϰߴͳЩβĻΪ֣֮ĻƷĹ֮ĻȤζĸµȼѧصʷ⣬Щʷдͳ(ͳν׼Ȩȵ)ЩֻʷбֳĬ(ͳν׼ŮԣᣬȺȵ)ʷУЩ¼Ի䣬Щ¼ȵȡ

϶Ļѧ"Ļо"йϵӹ˵䲻ŮȺײڽ¶ͳѧʶ̬ѹʣȴ㷺ĻʽƷࡢȤζĸµȼͳκͱͳεĹϵ˶ԮԾӢĻĽ׼Ժͳʶ̬з

˵϶ڹע԰(ѧҸ¥(G. Flaubert)ͻ(E. Manet))ʱڷصд¡Ӹ˵ĻоһʷԵоҪʷضͻȥııĴʹΪ(϶ĵҪǴΪ)Ʒߵʷֲͬȡ:(1)ߵƽ;(2)ƷӳĻ(ᡢáΡʶ̬ȵ);(3)Ʒʱ϶ȷܾһȡ֮Ϊ"Ҹ˴ۡ"ڶȡԾƷΪģһıĶ϶ȻżҲԸƷݵϸ(縣¥ݵġн)ⲻص㡣ע2϶ĻȡȽϽӽǣʱֻһͳͳıʵΪ"""ϰ"ĸо;ij͹ϰγ˲϶Ļѧһɫڿᄈؽò϶Ļʱ׺ӵоͽ۵ľԡ

˽Ⲽ϶ѧ㡢"Ļо"ص㣬ͱȽװһЩۼˡ϶ѧ"""ͳ"죬ѹעӸԵ""תȺߵ"ϰ"ʹпԾõʽо֮⿪شΪỷо϶""ִоԶԵ򡣺һѧĶֻԵģȨĹϵ֮Сѧѧп͹۴ڵĿλγɵһֹϵṹЩλü¡ӵ֣Ҳγͳκͱͳεĵȼϵdzռλʱ(ʱ)ijʤȡõIJֻʺôҸǶϷԵ֧Ȩ

ѧУ"ϰ"ָǶԿ͹ۿܵѡáϰͬʱܾΨ־ۺ;ۡȷһζǿΪߵԣҲԵⲿṹΪʵϰǿǿ͹ۻĻΪߵѡ֮໥á"""�"γ˲϶עմΪԵΪָΪⲿij򣬶ָʵʴڵĿγɵĽṹһּȹѡֲѡĽṹ

ӴΪ˵ѧһְҵѡÿỷжһЩض""ְҵΪһְֺҵЩְҵ?ضỷЩְͬҵλÿɹѡ(רҵңңѧҵѧҵȵ)?ѡЩְҵλõʲô?кͼ?ܺ?⣬ҲǾܾذջΪһִľԲʵʵij߱׼ijЩǴΪ׻䡣磬϶ָ¥ʱгʱΪṩǰδеıͷչѧǹвȨӵеĻᣬгõķչЩְҵҲ𽥶ƶʡͨıͷչһְָҵѡ񡣾ܾ÷չռ˽ҵᣬϲᣬȨϲĻ(統)ȻֻΪСǣ˼롢ȱʵϵ겻òĿͶһȵĺְҵһıλĽݾʹմ�"˼"""Ĺ⻷dzΪѸٷ˫յĽݾ(ǽ"ѧ""""Ӱ")

С˵մճһϯ֮أɫһֳռλIJԺʱֶΡ϶Ը¥ΪǿճеֺͶλҪIJǿ̳ʲôǿܾʲôΪ¥ṩֺͶλѡǵʱѧѾõȷλһ�""һ"ʲ׼"¥Լ"Ϊ"ߵвŵõȷġע4϶ռλ˵رҪһռλҴ۵ѡλòƾ죬еֶλ֣DZ־롣ֶλǶԿͳλõֶλҲʹճȨĹϵϵ("ɳ")ΪҪ⡣ڶھʷỷµֶλʶضҴͷĹؼֶλ׼ǺܸӵģѾѧõȷλ𣬶Щѧδγλ𡣺λΪѧʷ޼ضǵļûرҪоϸشʷѰͷ֡

һѧɴ˼Ŀͬ϶ճǿľᡣմʿճռλʱʱͲճںϷԵȨڳȡʱĻᡣʿ˵Ҫھ͵𣬾͵ռضġڲͬλáɫҲռλҵĸڡ϶ָ֪ʶӵһռλҵϢϢصġ˭ռλã˭׷õãӮýѧеǨҪ쵼λȵȡ֮ճΡճν·ۣⲢdzȻʵĴѧΪѧдȥǶѧչĹףҲֶΣ"ĿΪ˽ָǿ߸ıͳιϵнṹ"ע5ճڵϷǾDZ뱣һ̶ȵߣڽȨ�""

ճ˱صij棬ɴתΪһֵԭ𵽵ҪһָãȻ𡣲϶ָÿճʲôʱһѸٵõ֤˭ȥ˭ʱʹŪǽ壬ⳡ̰ŪƲһע6ҲͬԴйִѧԿȨʧмʮҪ"дѧʷ"ΪƳIJ־ߣлعճԭáȻֺᷨγѧѧֺռλʱIJԺֶ?

Ҫȷѧֵ϶Ļѧ̵ؽʾڷγ"ѧ"ֵʷͬʱָѧֵƷֻս޵СڱܵIJƷᳫĴʹע𽥳ΪսйʶĹ淶ͼֵֵͨڴģʼֵƶȡúϷԵĽע7һϣ˴ѧʹѧ֮ڵסµȼΪֵȼǺдڵĽ׼ϵһġ

϶ָȤζȼȨάĽ׼ȼ֮"ͬ"ϵϵͬ͹ϵ㷺شڸʽ֮(ȤζʳȤζȤζʱȤζȵ)ΪȤζ֮ϵע8磬ŵȤζһʾԽݵȤζ(taste of distinction)ǿȤζĴԣںҪijȻ;붼ԽľΪǰġ׵ȤζһճҪȤζ(taste of necessity)ĻƷĹֵܼǴֵͨճ(Ϥľȵ);üֵ(ĻƷг۸ղرֵȵ)ϵһ𡣴ȤζżֵȱԣȴʵҪϵΪһֱǷȱӵȤζ϶ȤζȼԺͽ׼ԵķĻ۶йѧо(Ǵо)Ӱһ֡

϶ڵóֶյ"Ļо"ʱǽذסԾ巨ۡʹЩ۱ֳԵķԣҲǿĻᄈתѶȡе߰˽ⷨĻΪĻò϶۵ıע9еǿ϶۵һԣҪָԭۺ۵ỷԡע10ֵָǣʹھijԵУͬʷ׶κ;廷ҲȻҪض۵ʱ򲻶ԡ϶۸¥ʱ漰˾ùϵճȨƵȷ棬ⱾͱֳԵӡ϶رǿ"ɳ"ƾһӡ¥ʱɳһʿʵĹڿռ䣬ͬʱҲһΡȨӰճĿƻơͬΪɳ͵ʿȨʿ""нϵʹȨͨʵʵĺЧʩչӰ졣ȨͨɳճһֱȶȨߺϷԵĿֶΣʹȨƱҲº߱˺ϷԡΪȨִճĴԻɳһձ塣ɳδһֿĻƣɳȴͬȨִĻ֮Уй"Э""Ժ"оͽ

ǣͬʱҲҪĿɱвɱԡڷɳʱԺѧԺʱһֱźܸߵλDz϶ǿʱõҪݡʱȾʱܾճΪIJƷкϷԡйͺܲͬˡйȷʵҲӵһЩʱʱԶʽʱ⣬䲻ʱ⡣ʱʱЩ1949ǰ˼ʱңһòԹԵذȨ涨·£̸ĺϷԡгԺйƺ븣¥ʱһЩ֮ڣһȨԲճĿӰ죬һгճֱӺͼӵӰֱӰĻƷг·ӰźʹĻ¾ҵᡣ¥ʱķջйΪޱͶ롢߳ɹʵıְҵܡǣⲢζйʹ˳Ƹ¥ʱʲ׼ʲ׼աʲ׼ͳν׼һȨֵۺʶ̬֧Ľ׼йʲ׼ֻһЩǮˣһЩСǹĵǽǮȨֵۺʶ̬Ȯ(ʲôҲŵ̬)ˣ¥Էʲ׼ʶ̬ȷѧԺϷԵĴźʵйʵϲ̫塣

гõӰйȨȻͳǿȨ£շֻܱӲȡתԶԿӰѹʾԡھǵйͳնķҲȱʵʵ塣ֱķǿ()պҵ()յͳͻӻ򵭻߿ܹе棬ǾǶȨͳεķ£϶Ըźʹյȼб㲻ֱӰõйᄈ϶ԿʽĴָ֮Ĵ벻ӹ׵IJӳ˸Ϊġ뾭иֱϵȤζ(ǰѾᵽ""Ȥζ"Ҫ"Ȥζ)϶ȤζأָȤζС޽ͳΡͳεͬ͵ĵȼϵ϶ǿ۱Ĵ(Ļ)ʵһͳν׼ϵȽеĹд"һ˵׵ġġȤҲǷȻȤ"޷ΪʾһԽȤζ߼ʿ"͵ĸš¡޹޻رȤ²ԶԲġ"ˣЩ޷ԸȤòʧȥԼȤȨҲΪʲôĻƷζάȼáע11

϶ڷᄈеóһۣʶĿǰйľӢ/ĻȼһİǣͬʱҲһ۵޶⡣ԽȤζ(Ļŵ)ȷʵĿǰйһЩպ۽ʿԾֵʹճҪ۵϶һ۵׼ԵĽȴδйĹ顣ǾܾΪȻƷζֵ֮ͬʱҲҪ⽫ĻԽᡢԽֱӹҹйĻӢȨӢһͻһµӹ˼֮СйĻӢչۺȨӢչ۲һ¡磬ӢղԸȨӢǿӵʶ̬һϣӢͨ˽˷ȨӢĿܡ ϶ĻѧرǿƺĻƣǴѧݶȤζȼ趨áйҲдѧͲݣйЩĻƵȴһ뷨ơ˵йѧͲһֱڴкѵ""""Ȥζǿǡ϶ڷʱǿǶԵĴݺѵгӽƷζĴͳڷѧͲݴݡѵԵãһȶάֵĻͳΪġйƵ(ѧ)ԤڷĻãǾͻСйĻͳֹһֱŶѡĻλƵͬ͹ϵҲƻijЩ˵ʷʱڣĻڼ䣬ĻԲ˴λƣƻֻ

ʹĸԺ󣬽ƵԻָѧ""ԲþĻйءѧȷʵΪһЩṩ˱һԽݻʸ񣬵ݺʸȴδؾʵԵĻԡѧֻһƾѧڵIJǿڶ֮ѧٴѧԼʲôĻԣǿһȺ»֮ͽ˵һıķ룬ʮѧʦ�"º"һ֤£϶עĸĻԽλͬ͹ϵͲ̶߳ƾԽλͬ͹ϵʵҪˡȻƾĻԳΪйĻʱҪʽ϶ǿĻʱάеȼƶȵҲͲҪΪȤζȨϵˡƾȨϵøʵͻŵ𣬹ŵƾװѧȨףѧթѧƭѧУѧ껯ͺлѧƱļֵɥѧܵȵȣйѧĻѧо˵Щ±Ȥζв϶ĵ塣 עͣ
ע1ע2ע3ע4ע6ע7ע8 P. Bourdieu The Field of Cultural Production ed. by Randal Johnson (New York: Columbia University Press 1993) 1; 145-60; 195; 198-99; 197; 201; 221-23.϶һЩҪĶļС
ע5 P. Bourdieu "Intellectual Field and Creative Project" in Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology ed. M. F. D. Young (London: Collier-Macmillan 1971) 121.
ע9 K. L. Gorder "Understanding School Knowledge:A Critical Appraisal of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu"Educational Theory 30: 4 (1980) 335.
ע10 M. S. Archer "Process without System" Archive europeenes de sociologie 21:1 (1983) 196.
ע11 P. BourdieuDistinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste trans. Richard Rice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1984) 7.



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