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϶Ŀѧ֪ʶӺ֪ʶ

ڹȥʮĻоУ϶(Pierre Bourdieu)Ļѧɾ(Jacques Lacan)Ͷ(Roland Barthes)Ͱ(Umberto Eco)ķѧ÷(Christian Metz)ĵӰۡ׷Dz(Henri Lefebvre)Ķо(Michel Foucault)ѧ͵(Jacques Derrida)ִһʢ϶ĻѧΪע֪ʶΪ϶ִоرֲ㡢ìܡƽϵȨͳκͱͳιϵһϵ⡣ѧϵ⣬ô׼ô綨Ⱥ壬Ļֺͽ綨ž߱ԺͺϷԵȵȵĿ죬ͱȻ漰Ȩᡣ֪ʶƷҪߣһаҪĽɫ֪ʶӷҲ˶Ϊִһؼ֡϶֪ʶӵķһ�""ɫΪ۵֪ʶĻ

һ֪ʶȦӺȦϰ

϶Ļѧо֪ʶӣǾܾԤ֪ʶձ鶨֪ʶ⡣Ϊ˭֪ʶӣЩ֪ʶӵĻʣЩĻشͰŲͬᡣشЩ⣬ؼҪ߱شЩʸȨȨЩʸȨȨڲͬεĻγɺġ(1988b:269ҳ) (з϶ֱԳݼԱ)ˣѧо֪ʶӣʵϾоЩйصĻ򣬲϶Ϊ"Ȧ"(champsfields)

϶Ļѧ"Ȧ"϶Ļѧ徭ѧͬǿIJɵʱDzɵʱҲЩضȨϵ֧Ӱµʱͨڲ϶Ȧָ𱰡¡ӵһϵйϵɵרҵȦɲ�"λ"Ŀڹϵγɵ""""ЩλȨ(ʱ)ṹע1γȦӵIJͬλüͳκͱͳεĹϵڲͬλΪ໥Իȡۻ¢ϲͬʽʱ(ʡ֪ʶݡλȵ)ȦӾЩʱͨռõijΧƲͬʱҲγ˲ͬȦӡ֪ʶ()ȦӾƷ(ҡҡѧ)ʱĵط֪ʶȦӵĸơ֯гʱͨͻȡΪҪġ

ڲ϶ȦӲǽմѧоͽȾ֪ʶĻʱĺĸҲǰһṹԿס϶Ȧӷ˳һгơ϶ӲͬȦе"䷨""ձ"϶ȦӿмֵԴijԴDzͬʽʱ໥мֵԴʱԴҲγ"Ȩϵ"(1989b:375ҳ)֪ʶȦĻԴʱҵȦᾭʱȦȨʱγڲͬȦУǶʲôȦмֵԴⱾ顣ԣȦӵʱ涨мֵԴĺϷԡ ϶ǿִеIJͬȦӾԶԺ;򣬵ͬȦ֮ſ໥յͬԡ磬ڷȨȦӺ;ӢߵȽȦ֮ʹ"ṹͬ"ϵѧУԽãȨ߲ĻԽ(1989b:373ҳ)磬ʦ׼֮ͬ"ͬͶӦ"ϵʦλԽ߾ԽΪϲ׼(1987a:822850ҳ)磬Ļߺ֮ҲƵͬ͹ϵ´ĻĻȦеĵµλĻܾӢĻߵһµġ(1984b)

϶"ϰ"(habitusΪ"ϰΪ")ʹڲͬȦӼͬ͹ϵڲ϶ϰָ"ͬͳһԭ"(1977:83ҳ)ϰʹòͬȦеΪֳ߱ƵȦӷҪּȷͬȦӼȫȻ͹۵Ϊòƿ͹۵ȦӷȻὫȦӺȦӳԱΪѿ"ϰ"һǿΪΪϵر˵ЩܿȦƵĿȦ�"ṹͬ""תϵ"(1977:83-4ҳ)ڲ϶ΪУϰԺȦӾͬȵҪԣΪΪ໥õĽ϶ǿΪȲܻԭΪΪȦӵ"µĻ"ҲܻԭΪ"ϰԵĹȥ"ΪԴ߼໥ϵ(1990b:56ҳ)

϶"Ļʶ""ϰ""ڻĻģʽ""˼ϰ""۲졢ᡢжԡʽ""нõԭ"Ȳͬ˵˵ϰԡϰָIJǸԵġԵϰߣһּԵġ־õġΪɻơ϶ǿ"ϰ"һʵĹؼ""""(disposition)رܱ"ϰ"һ塣ָ"鹹õΪ""ṹ"һָһ"ڵķʽһϰ״̬(ָ)رָһʡƫá"ˣڲ϶"ϰ"˼һǽṹ(1977214ҳ)ϰⲿṹתΪڴĽһתڵĹҲữĹ̡ڵȼУͬȺ彫ʵڻγֲͬΪ(ڴӦԷԡ±׼ȵ)ЩͬΪҲDzͬϰԡϰһԼΪһڲΪϰΪĽṹƣΪ(۲졢)ģʽ

о֪ʶߴͳ˵֪ʶνĵԺʡ磬ϯ˹(E. Shils)Ϊ֪ʶӵĻ"ʥIJУ籾ʺɵIJƽķ˼"ע2ɪ(L. Coser)֪ʶ"Զʾˣ""Ϊ˼ǿ[]˼ˡ"ע3϶ǿ֪ʶϵȫͬ϶ǿIJΨ־۵ѡ񣬶ʵ滷γɵ֮Чŵ·֪ʶӵϰָ֪ʶȦµ·ŵЩУЩС϶֪ʶϰԸΪ"""ʱ"в׼(ʲ׼)ϰԡ֪ʶӵĹ"ۡϸݻ̵ĻΪ"֮Ҳ߹ϰڽʦ֪ʶһϰʹǿ"ԼĻʱͿʱȡ棬ͬʱٻѿ�"ʦ֪ʶӣǵ"ȤζҪ䣬Ļʱ;ʱʹDzòΪ(һΪľ˷ѵ''ʽ)"(1984a:286287ҳ)϶˵֪ʶϰԲDZʵģԶԵģ־ģɿ͹γɵġ֪ʶӵĿ͹϶Ļʱ;ʱìܣʱִֶȨżΪеĹϵ

ͳν׼бͳεIJ

϶ͳν׼뱻ͳν׼ı׼ǰռбԴơDz϶˵ͳν׼ڲԭڲľʱĻʱ䲻磬ʿѧоߺͽڵӵзḻĻʱҵӵۺľʱ֮ӡλ֮϶ΪʱĻʱǿ֮𣬶ռĻʱ֪ʶʵͳν׼"ͳβ֣""ȨȦеıͳһˡ"(1984a:176ҳ)׼λԣ֪ʶӴڼͳֱͳεìܵλСͳν׼ΪĻʱȨŻݡΪṩ߸ĺϷԡǣȴò֧Ȩ;ȨߵͳΡӸ˵ĻʱھʱĶֻԵģԶ羫ôȻ϶֪ʶȷΪͳν׼еıͳβ֣һ֪ʶΪϡڷйࡣڷԴʱĵ˹¼Ժ֪ʶӾɺ͹˽׼˶֯վһߣΪĻ²ȺĴˡ϶֪ʶ񻰡ڲ϶֪ʶȨλְҵģ빤˽׼Žʵܴͬй֪ʶ˶ĽҲмԺʹԣȨͱҪй֪ʶͬҲ԰Ȼڲͳν׼֮С ֪ʶȨаҪĽɫ϶򲢲Ϊǹһر׼ijЩĻԴȷʵʹ֪ʶγΡȨвγһֽ׼֪ʶΪԾȦ(աѧ˾ҵȵ)Ļ;ʱϵвͬʹͬһȦУ֪ʶҲ¡𱰡ӵռλ֮Щʹձ֪ʶӽ׼޷γɡ϶򷴶ԽԽ׼λ֪ʶӵΪΪ�"һ֪ʶ֮Ϊ֪ʶӣΪ֪ʶȦռҪλ"(1972:33ҳ)ҪλһҪз֪ʶ֪ʶȦߡڲ϶֪ʶȦһƺгĽ壬ҡҡоԱѧ֪ʶȦ໥ԴΪԼաСѧƷȡкϷԵijϣԴһתΪԴ

֪ʶȦӳԱᣬȼȦڷԵȨԣȨܹ涨ʲôȦھǺϷԵĻƷ֪ʶȦУ¡ӡ𱰵λرҪռλIJͶĻʱIJƽȹϵɵġ(1983:213ҳ)϶ռλֿλ֪ʶӺǵս֮Ķ֪ʶӵIJԼбغ͵߸𡣲϶ǰΪ"ͳ"Ϊ"˵"֪ʶӷֱΤ(Max Weber)˵"֪""ʿ"Ϊԭ͡(1987b)϶߼俴"Ļ""Ļػ�"ֺͶǰߴʽ֪ʶʹоԵDz֪ʶְҵԣֶоߺͽʦ֮䣬Ҳڶ֪ʶӺͽ֮䡣һάеʱһıȡʱ

ҺУʿ֪֮򾭳Ϊߺ½֮ĶǰռĻȨλãĻȦ൱λƣѰ㣬ͼ𡣲϶򿴵ֳͻиԣݴҲΪȶ֮ķҰ(1971a:178ҳ)Τڽʿ/֪ڽѧģʽ϶˵֪ʶӵȦᣬҲ֪ʶӵȦᡣ

Τ˵Ĺɮº֪Ķ漰һ棬Ǿ˫ȡһڡ϶Τһ˼룬ߴԵƷǡƷгһġ(1971b)ڲ϶Τģʽе"֪"Ϊʮͷִ(ִ)ң"ʿ"ΪѧԺɻҡ϶Ļ()Ʊһ֡Τ()ɮº()֪ڲ϶˲ͬ""ߣ""(laity)ߡ

϶Ϊ֪ʶӲһͳһ壬ϷԵĶУ֪ʶ֮صĵȼ硣֪ʶӵȦȦDzͬģ֪ʶͬΧڽеġǰͬڲ޷ΧڣڴĻгĴΧСΧҲǾӢгʹг𡣶֪ʶ˵޷ΧĻرҪԣΪĹؼרҵϷԡͿѧǷdzרŵĻгЩĻгIJͬŵϿɣһñ׼ϷԵȨ(1971b:5562ҳ)֪ʶȦ֮ܶΡȨȦֳܰԼȫ׼ͺϷԵ

ڲ϶""һҪĸֲ֪ʶȦΡȦ־롢ȷԵֶΣҸ֪ʶȦڱ䶯ĸ֪ʶԵҪΪǿң֪ʶ˵ûɫζŲڣ"Ҫھ͵Ҳ˵ռضġڲͬλá"(1983:338ҳ)ɫҲռλ֪ʶҵĸڡˣ϶ָ֪ʶӵһռλҵϢϢصġ˭ռλã˭׷õãӮýѧеǨҪ쵼λȵȡȦ֮ȦΡ֪ʶȦν·ۣⲢʲôȻʵĴѧΪ"ۡ͹ȥǶԿѧչĹףҲ''ֶΣĿΪ˽ָǿ߸ıͳιϵнṹ"(1971a:121ҳ)

϶رӾӢĻȦͽĹϵָܴĻȦڵԽԽҪȷߺϷĻʽȻǾӢĻȦӣѧǾӢĻҪߡĻȦѧ޷ΧڵרĻĻȦ֪ʶϷԵУģĴĻȦҵĻȦ·λáȦӵ¡ӵȼҲᴩĻ˶ԾӢʹĻƷУǰһΪ()һΪ()Դѧ֪ʶȦϵ϶д:"ÿһ֪ʶ֪ʶӵĹϵжԳƾĻԣĻԵʽͻȡ֪ʶȦеλãȡʹѧĹϵ˵ףѧƹĻɿķ�"(1971a:179ҳ)仰˵ÿ֪ʶҪõͬŵӻ𾴣ԼĻ;ԽܴѧƵijϺӣҲԽԡ

ڲ϶֪ʶӵѧǺͽѧϵһġ϶ָ֪ʶȦͽ֮Ĺϵег(1971b:74-5ҳ)ԭ֮һǣĻƷԶͺĻ֪ʶȦΪϲµ֪ʶʽ¡ȻеĴ¶ܴӽƼʱúϷԡͺԣƵһһԶĻƷϷԾвɵ֮ӰԴЩԶѧ￴磬֪ʶȦԵĻ(ߺ͹ýʿ)ڵòӵ»ָ߸ϣܵʱֻմմϲ֪ʶȦԵ߸òѧУӶͳλ(˷)粼϶ָֹǡǡ˵Щ֪ʶȦԵںѧͳλʹĻԵȨԽңԽԳѧҪ(1971a:179ҳ)

֪ʶɺ֪ʶ

ܲ϶֪ʶӵĻԵزڽṹơʱתᣬû֪ʶӲɷָ⡣ڲ϶ɲһѧ⣬һ֪ʶβϵһʵ⡣֪ʶӾӦ񣬻Ӧֲר־Լ˼ҵ?ڷͳУҰ(J. Benda)ؿ˵˶ֽȻͬĻش𡣰Ļشǣ֪ʶػ"ɮ"Ǵµ㳬Խľҵʷεľֻ־ҵΪ֪ʶӦȫλ˼ߣǶԵش¼Ӧһڲ϶ֿмԣȴֶһ֪ʶȱٵݣǾ׷֪ʶɡ(1989a:103ҳ)ΪάɣҪ֪ʶӶвɵⲿȫˣȫⲿ磬Գչɡ

϶Ҳ֪ʶɣΪֻܱΪȫijѻȫλĽ롣Ϊһʷʵγɵļֵһֱֵ߱ǿѧ(ر"ѧ")ڲ϶ѧ֣һǿѧԳΪһֲΡƵĶ˼ǿѧʵԳΪһֲθŵġжõΪ˵ƿѧɹ۲߳˵Ϊ϶ԼڲǣѧΪ棬ѧȦҲȫȨȦ£ôܳȫɵѧ֪ʶ?

Ȼʵ˵϶ǿѧͿѧʵȴȻʵ塣ΪֵĿѧķ̸У϶رָǷԴ¾ԵѧⲢȫȡѧ"ȡĹϵȡеĵλ"ָǰļȨרУѧ͸޷еĿѧã"ЩԳѧһ򾭼ѧҵֻṤʦ"óΪṩһЩ䷽ѧΪͳȨΪͳΪṩ"ԡ()ۻ͡"(1993:13ҳ)϶˵ľɾĿѧַּѧǡǡ෴һ־ܾΪȨĿѧһּڽ¶ȨƽȽṹƵ֪ʶ Ҫ˽Ⲽ϶֪ʶɺ֪ʶӵؼϵõ;ҲͨѧĿѧ֪ͣͨʶӵһϵʵһϣ϶ΪӵԭҲԼʷ(D. Swartz)Դֲͬģ໥֡һǹο֪ʶӵ˼ɺԣڶǹ֪ʶӵνɫáע4

϶ԵĿǣԼȾʷԣҲձԡһ棬ΪҪʷĹ۵ѧԣ�"Եһ()˼Խṹ"(Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992:189ҳ)԰ԵձԽκ˼Խṹϡ϶һбڹ˹ĽԹۡһ棬϶ȴֲý⹹ձԡ϶ΪʹԲʷʷƣȻijЩܳԽʷƵļֵǾ⡢ֺͽ϶ЩΪѧļֵѧųȨأռСǿȡλƵȵȣ뱣֤Ĺƾоݡ߼ķ򣬱ȺĹͬ顣ѧЩʵĻʵֽԵձ淶 ϶ָʷУѧ𽥴ӾáΡڽȨȡԣѧ֪ʶȦӵļƸ͹ͬ档϶ǿľͷǿʷµձԶʷԡƻձԣʹɺԼĶʷָ"ǿ԰Ѳ϶()Ĺ۵㿴һֶλԣʹһܶԸԼĺṹһܶԴһ˵Ĺ˹ҲԺṹߣ϶ȷɴͳķ͹淶϶ΪͳΪṩһҲգij̶ֳҳԽ֪ʶʽͬ⼤߰ѿѧ򵥵Ϊһڽ̺ħȼ۵֪ʶʽ϶ͬʱԹ˹ѳȻ֪ʶȦڵijϵһDz϶ϣܵõƶȻͷչ档"ע5

϶Կ֪ʶӦͬά棬Ǹ˵ĵԡʹ֪ʶӺѧɺͶĶһʵζǵΡһζĶȷģǹȨҵԶѧĿƺ͸šǰѾᵽĽʾвƽƶ֮⣬ѧ֪ʶεҪάĶڲ϶ѧ֪ʶ֪ʶεĺģ֪ʶӦԿѧ壬Ϊά֪ʶȦͬΡ϶Ŀѧ֪ʶҪ֪ʶνɫ֡һ뾫ӢĻߵ֡϶ԴͳӢĻʿ֮ĴѧΪȻЩʹоӢĻΪεɮ͵Ľȣ϶Լһ֪͵ѧߡڶΪͳߵ֡϶ÿѧΪŹηҲԿѧͳߵȨ档²Ⱥ˵֪֡ʶϰڰԼȺڵĹػߣ˵ǹĺ˽ǵļ࣬ʵǵĴԾӡ϶ֶܾʽνɫ֪ʶӺ²Ⱥ岢ͬ档ͬ·˵Ҳ֪ʶӾԿáڷսʱڣ֪ʶͬ·˵һ֧һ֯ͻ˶ij־롣ʽ"л֪ʶ"֡"л֪ʶ"ҪָЩ빤˽׼Ϊһ壬﹤˽׼֪ͬʶӡڲ϶֪ʶͳν׼еıͳβ֣֪ʶӺ͹˽׼ĽֻijֱͳεͬԣΪͬϰΪлغΪһ塣ע6

϶Ŀе֪ʶ"ѧ"Ϊ͵֪ʶӡΪ"ѧ⴦оǸȦ--ֻǽ׼ᣬǸֿѧ᱾ͬʱѧұʹЩ֮Сڽ׼ȦУij־úĻʱռߣĻȦУȷе˵ѧСȦУӵijر(רҵ)ʱ"Ϊ֪ʶӵѧӦԼλñָ߶ȵѣ֪ʶԶЩӶصλϢϢء(1993:10ҳ)ˣ϶ΪѧҿԳΪһȫλ֪ʶӡڷͳУȫλ֪ʶѳΪһּӰй淶ģʽȫλ֪ʶӶзĴС¼ϵر̬ȣ϶֪ͨʶΪȻⲻһΪѧߵѧӦܹݵĽɫһѧҵרҵ֪ʶϾޣ漰һ򣬶̸۵ʥֻijЩ߿ԳȨʵļ󡣶ң±̬ȥǹĹʵҲһ֪ʶȦڵıֶκռλԡڲ϶֪ʶӱҪõľѧֶ֮Σý䶯ЧӦȷԣôȵȡ(Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992:185-86ҳ)

"ձ֪ʶ"ʱҲ漰ȫλ֪ʶӵ⡣϶˵Ŀѧ֪ʶȴڸ˵"ר֪ʶ"µר֪ʶӽΪרҵȦڣγһָΪ΢Ρǣ϶ȴ֪ʶӵĴȺΣͬһвͬרҵΧһйϵ϶֪ʶӴЩ˼ɽĵ͹ƣԽ"緶ΧڼжĿͷʽ"(1989a:99ҳ)ʷָ"϶͸֮IJڣ϶Ҫ֪ʶܽмԤˣ϶ʵ˵غ͸µۺϡ"ע7

϶˵Ŀѧ֪ʶԼΪΪһ¡Ҫ棺һʶѡ¶ʵ᲻ƽȽṹȨܵоĿ;еضԴ֪ʶʵ;ѡһЩܼȵ롣ע8һڶǰѾۼ׸ڴֵһǵ档϶Ĺ񣬵ͷ¶档ٲμǩ̬мҲΪ򹤻վ̨ܲ϶׿ηѧԺѧϯڣýعȴԶһЩͬУͼ(Alain Touraine)Ī(Edgar Morin)ҲرͶ񻷱Ůƽһ˶ʹ͹ľ񲡻ߡﷸͬߵĸºܲͬв֪ʶʮμӹ(Emmanul Le Roy Ladurie)ʮμӼ֯·˼(Qndre Glucksman)ʮͰʮֱɼķʿ϶Щ֪ʶӲͬһֱһ֪ʶӣֱ1981귨ᵳִûͳηıҡһֱ뷨ᵳͷ幤(CFDT)ϵᵳѹƷȨ̬ȡǶɻͬڷнļ֯ṹ1981꣬϶븣һ𹫿飬ᵳڲѹŽṤ¼ϲȡIJߡ1993꣬ˡظ(1999)һ飬ᵳӷḣ

Ȼ϶ȴһ͵֪ʶӣȫܾĸʵ񡣾֪ʶΪȨ񣬵ҲΪᵳṩ1985꣬Ӧʵ룬һϵнĸ١1988꣬޿(Michel Rocard)η϶˽γоίԱϯְλԷγ˲ٽ顣ӰʮʮԽԽڵӡϽܲɷû򷢱£ҲƵصŷ޹ҡձúͽѧЩ൱̶ϽĹ֪ʶӵ󡣷ϣ(J. G. Fichte)˵ʲôѧʲôѧע9Ҳ˵ʲô֪ʶʲô֪ʶۡԲ϶˵ǺܺʵġǴɲذڿѧ֪ʶӵ۵һӦеģʽΪ˶пܳΪв϶ɾͺӰ֪ʶӡʹڷͳУԳΪ֪ʶӱʵҲԶֹ϶һˣءѡ¶֪ʶӡǵʵ벼϶ͬһ¡֪ۣʵֺγ˵ͬһȺ֪ʶӡ 漰IJ϶
1971a. "Intellectual Field and Creative Project" in Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology ed. M. F. D. Young 161-88. London: Collier-Macmillan.
1971b. "Le marche des biens symboliques" L'Annee Sociologique 22:49-126.
1972. Esquisse d'une theorie de la pratique. Precedee de trois etudes d'ethnologie kabyle. Geneva: Droz.
1975. "The Specificity of the Scientific Field and the Social Conditions of the Progress of Reason" Social Science Information 14 (6): 19-47.
1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1983. "The Field of Cultural Production or the Economic World Reversed" Poetics 12 (November): 311-56.
1984a. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.
1984b. "Le champ litteraire: Prealables critiques et principes de methode" Lendmains 36: 5-20.
1987a. "The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field" Hastings Journal of Law 38: 209-48.
1987b. "Legitimation and Structured Interests in Weber's Sociology of Religion" in S. Whimster and S. Lash eds. Marx Weber Rationality and Modernity. London: Aleen & Unwin 119-36
1988a. "Flaubert's Point of View" Critical Inquiry 14 (Spring): 539-62.
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1989a. "The Corporatism of the Universal: The Role of Intellectuals in the Modern World" Telos 81 (Fall): 99-110.
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1993. Sociology in Question. London: Sage Publishers.

϶˺:
Pierre Bourdieu and Monique de Saint Martin. 1982. "La sainte famille. L'episcopat francais dans le champ du pouvoir" Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 44/45: 2-53.
Pierre Bourdieu Loic J. D. Wacquant et al. 1992. An Invitation to Reflexive Socioloty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pierre Bourdieu and Alain Accardo. 1999. The Weight of the World. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

עͣ
1. ϶"Ȧ"õ಻ͬȥѧ(1975)׼ʽ(1984a)ߵȽ(1988b1989b)ڽ(Bourdieu & de Saint Martin 1982)ѧ(1983 1988a)ס(1990a)
2. Edward Shils The Intellectuals and the Power and Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1972 p. 3.
3. Lewis Coser Men of Ideas: A Sociologist's View. New York: The Free Press 1965 p. viii.
4 5 6 7. David Swartz Culture and Power: The socioloty of Pierre Bourdieu. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 1997 pp. 251-55 262-66 252-53 262-64 265.
8. Բ϶ѧεľɲμDavid Swartz Culture and Power pp. 16-38 266-69 Derek Robbins Bourdieu and Culture. London: SAGE Publications pp. 1-21.
9. תJohn Cohen "Individuality of Thought" in Identity and Anxiety: Survival of the Person in Mass Society eds. Maurice R. Stein et al. The Free Press of Glencoe 1960 p. 542.



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