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أHannah Arendt

90λ֮ͣѾй˼˲ٵۣЧشٽǶһЩʶϺȨȨڹơķΧ;޵ȵȡ֮£ȴܵˣй廰""""ֳԵIJǡһǿйƽͼ־ϵȼȨר˼ص´֮便ϵǷ룿˼ЩʱأHannah ArendtĹΪṩʾҪһǣǽı־Ч˵ע͹עȨƺͬҪศɣȱһɡ˵ձĹȨƺƶȸĻľ衣ΪƶҲԶֹήеƶǡǡڲܵһήš£͹Ӿʵ塣 幫ۺͰصĹ

۲ۣ۸۵ıơιͬڲһɺͽʽǸԴ˹ͬʽʲһιͬԱݣҸһúɸԴ˶ͬгΪЧԱˣӦιͬĻԱĻ뱾ǶԹͬ彨ͷչһֹסDzӦΪ֮Ŀϵ͹ǵһ˿ܲںԼĹݣҲӵйݣȴ򱻰Ȩ ķбֵʮ۽ձĸȨ֮ϣձȨǿԹձĿԺԵĻγԱȡBruce AchermanڹӰġɹҵ塷һϵͳزĹۡΪ幫۵ijǸȨʶ"ٺһǿӦõõġ"˭ֱ׳ô˵˭һϸ幫񡣰�"໥˽"ΪҪ"޶ȶԻ"1

ܰѹ۽ڲζԻĻ֮ϣ籴ɣRonald BeinerָζԻΨһηԴԻԶ"еģҲҪ"ֶͨ˲빫ȫֱڡǶ漰Ⱥ"Ի"ȤȻȱֹԻγɸȺ2幫Եľڣ޷漰Ļֵ⣬磬໥ƣȨĵôΪôȨձģΪôȨӦΪһ˶ܵ""⣬Ȿͻᱳþ۵ԭ򡣰ʹд"ͬĹԣͬùڼִֵµʱɹҾͲȨ"3ڸùڹͬõڼֵ£"κκùڼֵһƽ"Ϊ幫ȺĹ淶һֱִάϵġֻʽݵĹͬһֹʵݵĶԪ塣ִշĶԪάϵΪ幫Ļԭ ɺ͸ֵ֣֮Ĺ۶ͳ̶ȵġ磬Ϊļ˸ȨŵˣRobert Nozickͼȫȡ˹ݵ塣˹Joseph Carensʹ"ŵ˿ֻһЩߣǹǶѴڵȻȨЧıŵ'''˿'''ǿ滻ʹõʡ"4ɵٷMichael IgnatieffָڵεӰҹ㣬֮һɵĻɵУIJDZ�"˰"""""5

IJͬڹĸȨʸͬʱĸƸ䲻ƽȵ⡣Ƶĵͳ̶ȹۡȺΪڹУʹȨݵĵԭֻձԵԭˣڹƽ۲漰˵ʽ⡣˶ԼԺַʽȺ塣ʹҲδһһ˵淽ʽ޶˹John RawlsΪȺʽ˵Ϊ˵Ĺͬ˵ΪƵ"ԭƣǹԵ룻Ҳǿе˶"޶˹ϹһֻĺãΪֶJohn Stuart Mill˵IJʽ˻ƽȵԭ򡣵ΪÿһӦ׷ĺáΪ"ĹУֻһСô󲿷ʱ"ɲ˹Σÿ񾡿԰ԼȤȥ׷ʽĺãεĮ6

صĹۺ͸Ĺ۶ͬڰεĮͲǾԲõġĹۺؽڻ񹲺ʹͳĻֵ֮ϡ񹲺͵ĴͳȻ׷ݵϣʿ£ҪĴִάNiccol Machiavelliϵ˹楂Charles de Montesquieu¬Jean-Jacques RousseauܸѷThomas JeffersonпάAlexis de Tocqueville񹲺ǿεǹڹЭ̹Ⱥ幫ΪļֵڴʵԵЭʵÿ߹ԣжϱʶ˵Ĺϵ͹ͬΪгΪȺЧԱ ⰢصĹ˵صʷα빫񹲺͵ĴͳͬҪΪһӵ¹ɴ۹̫ˣĿκƶȵıҲ֤Լ̤Ⱥ˶ҵɴ⼫Ȩͳε𡣶ƵԽǿΪij־üֵԶûдֵǷֹۿ϶ǵǣִɹҹήƶȴĸԭ򡣹۵ıӸ϶ҡƶһЩֵ͹˵ɡԼȡжϺж þĹ񹲺ģʽִĻΪ׼еĹȡĻһԵģʽаõʷ䷶--ֱӲ룬ЭСŵʽǰ͹ѡùŵ䣬ĿǽȲԹ׽ҲԹʦ񡣽𵽵ǹŽ໥գΪӡָʵһʿߣĹŵ乲˼Լִ˼7

ǹŴŵǰ͹Ǿ乫񹲺ۣضΪԼִ˼Ȼͬ¬һԹŵСǰͣ¬ͬǿǶԪ"ձ־"ԪÿԼĽǶԼĿ"ձ־"ǿΪһĹDZڼ־ͳһάһע""缤βк͹ھȻάһǣΪѵЩµ;һбΪ"ǰ"Ϊġʿµţǿ˺Ͷĸͬȥ˵ˣ˲ֻȻĹϵγȺ壬˿ԳԽȻάϵγεϵȺ壬˵8ڶԹ񹲺͵һЩ˼ʱ򣬶Թ򣩵ʼݣرIJֱһ˵

صĹǺ""۽ϵһġıιһɹǹͬάֵĿɼ͹ͬӵ�""Ҫ¶ԺΪԡ¶ָڴ˿ռгֵÿһ"ÿһ˿ۼŵ"˶Ĺԡд9

Ϊֵ--Щ˺Լۼŵ--ʵġۼŵʵȣ顢˼ãǿңҲDZ仯޳ģġ˵ЩĶֻоı䣬ȥ˽ȥ˻ܶΪԼԡÿǣ̸ֻڣԼģ˽IJܸܵĶʱǾѾһԻ¶Ե

ֻԼĹУ˵ľſԷ˵Ϊſܾܹۣ˵ĽɫŵչʾֹĹıǰڡڰʱǡ۵ֺڰڱιڹĺڰ"ȱʧ"""ɡںڰУȨϾɵĵ¾"һΪĿ̸"ֻ"˼¶ʵ"10

Ϊָǣǹе""κʽ"Ȼ"Ȼ˼ʹϵ䡢塢ȵȣԵġǿΪԣȻԣʹðصĹȺԺ͸塢ȺԼ֮γҪ滹Ҫ̸Ҫ⪨ָǣǿΪԣҲǿεΪԡطdzؿΪԡΪҪĻ--ΣȻ졣ζ˵壬ӳ˵ԻȻԡ෴ĻչIJǵصصɾ͡ʹ˵ĸܳԽȻγһɺʹΪͻĹͬ硣

ιͬ͹ͬȷΪΪԹι۾ش塣磬ʹεIJ׺ʹڰԼ¹κ깲͹ϦɴҰݻ֮ɥʧʷľǾʾרƺѹȵξһһǻϧܼȥεĻֵҲһ磬ǿƽȾһijɾ͡ƽһΪļֵȻȨۻƽ˵"ƽ"ȫͬġָһֲñɥʧƽȡֻɡز빫ʱܻƽȣֻڱȨɵƶУƽȲܻءڡȨԴǿЩɴ˹Ȩǣ"ȻȨ""ƽ"ԼDZųȺ֮⣬ȨԡҪΪԼȻȨ绤ҪΪȻȨ绤Ȩ11ֻڳϹƽȵĹУпȨ⡣

ڰб""Ҳб"Ⱥ"һЭһչѪŨˮ֮ĵطһ¶ҵijÿһڹеۺΪǰ"˭""˭""ô"Եģ"˭"˵صġظҡ"ô"˵һЩҿ˹еԻְܣڽְ̡ҵԱ𡢺öȵȣΪ˽ܳʾҡһ""һ"ȻϷ"ΪÿһǵIJжṩ̨ԹɾӳĻ12

Ϊʾɵ˵β⡢߼ʽǣӹŵ񣬴󲿷ֵ˱ųβ֮⣬ò˽֮СЩ˱˰ݹɫȨкͲдȨ֮DzƽȵġΪƽǹƽȵĺģƽȲƽȺ;ƽȡȻҲijЩòƽȿܺ͹ƽȸ룬ΪЩòƽʹһЩ޷빫򡣵ǣȻΪӦòƽȺβƽΪڹƽˮ׼ΪңȡƽȹȨĶӦΪ򾭼ϵƽ13

ͬʱǿչҺ˲룬ʹصι˫򡣵һǽΪһϷݳڶǽΪһﳡǰ߽ڹIJΪչָʺͼӢʽΪ˵޵ģȴڹĺۼѸ˵IJ뵱һ๲ͬڵʽʹ"ۺΪ"ķʽЭ̣Ӧ湲٣˫γһЩֵע˫ǿӸΪһǿ֣һǿ佻ӹһǿӢʽľͽɫһǿЭӦ͵ͨߡӹڱһǿ˵ĹٺһǿڹͬɡϺءʶһǿӢףһǿԪʶֻаһϵе˫ǿһǣܸõⰢضڹȺͳԱݵĿ14

ӢΪͨ˲룬ع۵涼ҪˣBhikha C. Parekhָ"δάһӢʽĻӢʽٺ͹ǻ빫"15åʽӢʽεķ档åʽκĮγɶѭԽ£Խе֮ʿе֮ʿԽ룬;Խ޿֡Dana R. Villaһ϶ع۵Ӣ۾ӢָӢĹӹĻ͹Ļʵ⡣νЭ̣ʵȴǣЭԽ࣬δؾԽܲõĹĻԶĹԡЭ̺ͱٶ࣬Ҳһܱ֤ǵĵҰһܴɹʶûиʵ룬"͵ĹڿռʹЭ۲Ϊε 'ں͹'ṩһʵģʽ"16

Ļֱǣ浽Ҳǣ浽ʵʳЧߺ͹񹲺߶ĺһ⣬һӦԷȴǽȻͬһΪͨ˲ޣ˹ľԶڹΣִȻ󣬶ֻȻǿƽȥʹεĹΪαͲҪзݣЩ˲ηƶеߵ

ǣڹ񹲺߿һִιͬĻƱײĽǣеĹʽ֧Ԯʵеʵԡ£ǿζԹҪʵ塣ֹȣŲμ޹ԣεĹܡγɡμʵһϵ岻ͬļ⡣

عĶӦǷġصĹ񹲺˼ӲǿɡȨƽȵļֵûЩֵΪǰᣬЧIJسɿ̸һ˵񹲺һ塣ֻһʷͳΪӢȫһǹ񹲺17ˣJeffrey IsaacȫеѰΪһλرϵߣ͵"հ֣Isaiah Berlin˵һλ '' ''ۼңĵβ͹ԣһȤ˾ƹȨ�"18

Ⱥ͹

ǰ̸ذѹͨۺжʾҵĹ򿴳һַȻͬϵȻĹȺʹðصĹ۲бڸ壬ҲбڶԸȺ͸塣ΪһӵͬȨ໥ϵżȻϳɵȺ壬ȺȲ漰ֵͬѡҲȡԷߵһȻȺ塣Ⱥָ߲ͬȺۡͼȺ桢ͳĻǿĮϵȺϵͬҵڽ̻ĻͳȻһЩȻάϵ

ҲԸȺۡһ""""ֵȺ幹ɱ׼""ȻγɵģΪκγԱѡı䡣Ӹ˱ͷȺԭǿڲŽᣬųڲȨĵͳ̶ȹ۶ܽܣΪͳ̶ȵĹȺԱ໥ǿȵԭΪǰġΪijͻֵ""""һͼȨɺͶԪֵΪȺעʵԵļֵݣһԴͳȺԭʽۺϵ⣬ͼʷԡͬͳ׼ʵԱȺͬݡȻ幫ȺԱͬȻ"ʷ塢ڹ̶˴ǿҵĹҷչعͬĻ"塣ܹ߾ܾѪԴ綨ĽޣͻʷĻڼ־ãȺȻdzΪ19

صĹȺļȺ۶ͬǿȺάϵΪԣѹάϵÿԱĶжϺѡϵһ𡣾ͬʱǿͬú͸ԱԣصĹۿȥƺȺۻ֮ǣȴͺ֮Ҫ𡣵һǻɵģġĵIJλָijӵУֽȴʧ˵Ⱥĵνδֵܳ빫ͬ塣ڶעIJɹͬʷĻڽ̵ضλȻȺ壬ֵʶλĹͬ塣ΪͬĻάĻȺУDzΪ˹˹ȻȻءѡһΪͬļֵѡԸ⹲ͬһ20

ڰȺ岻Ȼ˵""""Ҳһ"ϰ"һ"׻"άϵϵIJѪŨˮȻ飬ǶԹͬĿѡͳŵΪѰܺǡǡDZųڹ֮Ⱥɴͳµ̫ǿֹϵάȺУⲻһ""ûйεļֵңȺУжϳжϡĹάϵ빲ŽϵֻŽϵвҪ󣬲Ųɥʧڼֵжϵ21

ڹŽϵмֻڹֵĶжϣ˹μʡμȲ˽±ʾĺöҲڿһʵ""˽ºö۶ѹƵĹĵһǿСѶΪ˽һٵĹʶ湫Э̣Ϊ̬͡նۺŴ˼ƶ沨ʹȨ߿ֱ׳ȥǿ⡣Ĺʶڹıۺвγɺȷڸ߶ԼĹнܼ鲢չ

ĹҪ˺ȺĹϵһҪǷΪȺijֳԱÿԱֻʹ˹κ񣬲һĹ񡣻֮йְ֮ǹ񡣹һΪһʵֻһʽݡڶҪΪǷбҪ֧Ԯֻɡзʹְܣ¹Ϊһ˵⡣

ĹỹҪ鹫ԣݺ͹ڵͬʵȺУձ鴦ڲг״̬֮Сһйݵ壬ʵԹΪΪеĮ""β뼮󣩻ȨȨѹƶɵȱɺΡһȱ޷Чش¹ΪΪɹдڹʶ;Ӣʶ֮ĴҲΪȨͼȨԹʲΪƴ롣

ǶΣǶԼٽ""֮ȨΣıʽصĹ۶𵽿ɹľʾá־ʾʵĶԱʵֵġԣŷƵ£Adrian Oldfieldд22

񹲺ۣҪıԡҲһַʵȴԲϡ񹲺ֻͣǿϣﵽ룬һֱ׼Դ˱׼ʵƺΪԴ˱׼ԼΪʹ˶ԣ""�"ͬ"λ""""ͬҪʡ֪оƾĹɣǻιɡ֪ĹɲǷԹɵ룬ҲʹǾЩǵʵ粻ϻ޹ءǻùǵ硣ͬɣù͹ͬǵ硣

ع۵ԱΪһֶ˵˲ǹ񣬵ȴԳΪ񡣵Ȼģ˵Ϊ˱뾭ܵĽɫҲϵɡκɶ칫칫ɱ빫ɡƵȵȣһµļֵʵʽڿ£Immanuel KantԵĶ˺ɵѾõѧı˹Jrgen Habermas޿Ϊһÿһ""˶ΪγɾԵĹ׵˼23ȻǸɶԵĸɵȺ壬ԼΨDzչʾ͹ԣδκгʵ֡ʵʹΪԻɺͽǵĶԭǺƽġйµ֣ջȴ顣й߶ԹԹɥʧĸᆳΪиз24

߸߾ƽ塢ܵģܰѶȨ̧ߵϵĵزα˵רƣԭ᳹һα⵼¼ȨȫΣƽĸߵΪں˵ģȨƽIJòƸ뾭ȨƽľεĺȻȨܵIJƸIJԷٹڸȨʵԣۿɵDZڳͻôȫʵ֮ʱɵȫ㸲֮ա

صĹǿйɥʧɱ䣬һǹ񹲺֮⡣˹Peter FussָصĹۭڹƴԵأʵʺͳ򡣴ʵϿһǰԼƴԣһ"˷"ƴԡӳϿ໥˵ӦҪһ־ܱƴԵķǿƵľ߹25ƴԵйΪ񹲺͵һЩΡЭ̲߶͸ĹƽȶԪĹձֵʵɡƽȡƣһµĹɵȵȣйҲʮǷȱЩ²ǹͱΪΪֱԭ򡣰˫ǿĹۻǿ۱һЩҪڲơĹ۱ԶԿȨȫεҪΪġǿĹɺͶжϣԵǶ˵רԼȺļʹۡ˼־ľӢɷǿǶ˵Ȩ⡣κҲ԰Ƿֹƽȱ򵥵صͬΪƽ塣صĹ۶˼йⲿڲضнãǽһ۵ʵڡ

ԭءʮһ͡˫¿20022ºţۣĴѧйĻоҳ117-126

ע
13 Bruce A. Ackerman, Social Justice in the Liberal State (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 75; 115.
2 Ronald Beiner, What's the Matter with Liberalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 100.
4 Joseph Carens, "Alien and Citizen: The Case for Open Borders", Review of Politics 49, no. 2 (Spring 1987): 272 n. 3.
5 Michael Ignatieff, "The Myth of Citizenship", Queen's Quarterly 94, no. 4 (Winter 1987): 981.
6 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971), 227-28.
7 Lewis P. Hinchman and Sandra K. Hinchman, "Existentialism Politicized: Arendt's Debt to Jaspers", in Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays, ed. Lewis P. Hinchman and Sandra K. Hinchman (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1994), 167.
891213Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958), 26-27; 50; 173-74; 28, 29, 176-79.
102021 Hannah Arendt, Men in Dark Times (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1968), iii; 13, 16, 25; 13.
11 Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973), 296-97.
14 μ Maurio Passerin d'Entreves, "Agency, Identity, and Culture: Hannah Arendt's Conceptions of Citizenship", Praxis International 9, no. 1/2 (1989): 11-13.
15 Bhikhu C. Parekh, Hannah Arendt and the Search for a New Political Philosophy (London: Macmillan, 1981), 177-78.
16 Dana R. Villa, Politics, Philosophy, Terror: Essays on the Thought of Hannah Arendt (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), 151-52.
1722 Adrian Oldfield, Citizenship and Community: Civic Republicanism and the Modern World (London: Routledge, 1990), 1, 5; 7.
18 Jeffrey C. Isaac, "A New Guar-antee on Earth: Hannah Arendt on Human Dignity and the Politics of Human Rights", American Political Science Review 90, no. 1 (March 1996): 61.
19 David Miller, On Nationality (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1995), 77-80.
23 Jrgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trans. Thomas Burger (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987), 106-107.
24ͣ--˼оϺ꣬1998ҳ193-94
25 Peter Fuss, "Hannah Arendt's Conception of Political Com-munity", in Hannah Arendt: The Recovery of the Public World, ed. Melvyn A. Hill (New York: St Martin's Press, 1979), 173.



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