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ƽӹа͸רƶµĵ

Ӷδս1975ȥ.(Hannah Arendt)ѧʼղרƵа⡣ʮԼȨרаĿɴӰ.(Adolf Eichmann)¼شĸı䡣˶ڡҮ·:ƽӹаı(ԭΪŦԼ͡дƪ޸Ķ)һ"ƽӹа"һ˵רаĹעҲ𽥴Ӷɴ˹ļȨͳ̬תƵרƶ¸˵жϵУһԼʵ⣬Ǿǣרƶµĸ˸ĵ?

ʮġȨ֮ԴһУɴ˹ļȨרƽ綨Ϊ"а"аǼ˵аҲһǰδеԭаɴͳµж˹ͳµļӪǼа֡ڰؿа:ɷˡͲ֪д:"ӪǽиıʵңΪ֤ûвܵ£Ȩͳȴз˼޷ͷҲ޷ˡСܵ()ΪܵʱҲΪɷˡļ񡣼޷˽̰ԹȨųЩа񶯻͵ģˣԼȲúȥҲðȥ̣ȥˡ"ע1

Ĺڼаͬһ룬ǰǹ"ζԴа"ǹ"аʲô"ǰͨ˶Դһ㿴ӳ֤һڵѧвܵõ˵dz˵"๼""ﲻ"ָľǴǰdzͷаļޣIJɷָָ֮Է֮�"񲻿֪"ĵһѧ⣬Ǿǣаıʾʲô?

Ȩרǰ˼аľ˽רаһЩжӪھ֪רаʲôҪѧ˼רа񣬵˼аȴûһԽѧͳѧа˼ƶƺ֤ʵһЩ"񲻿֪"뷨"а񲻿֪"ȴ"񲻿֪"и𡣶񲻿֪ΪƶĸʾIJ˵˵ĸϲ²˶Ӧ֮ΪĶ񡣼ʹɴ⡢˹塢ɫĴҲֻһЩܺߺͬܺߵۿѣδ˶ΪҲδ˶ӦΪ񡣶񲻿֪ȻȻصӱܶԶĵжϺСڼȨаֵĵ֣ǶԼȨаγձĹʶ͵УȨап֪ص(Σ̶Ⱥ֯ʽ)ֻǰδеıԳԶ˽⡣ȨаʷǰԶԽ˶Զ˼뼫ޡ

˼רаԵʱ"аʲô?"˵һѧ⣬˵һѧ⡣ص"񲻿֪"ʵѾ"Ȩаʲô"ĻشڰؿȨаǶķбҪȥһרΪ(ΥȨ)ֿȥרбֻԾ˵ģûȨһֳ"Ӧֻ׼"ûԼӪ͸ӪΪǽмɱȥûһȨȻȡ"㲻Ӧɱ""㲻α֤"ɱ˺˵ѱΪӦӵķȥרȨֹȺԴ"ε"Ȩؼ"˳"ȥûһȨ쵼缫ȨһΪԼޱΰ󣬶"ʷȻ"Եĸ졣

Уʲô˾ִе?һֱ1961ԡŦԼ͡־Աݼ֤ɴӰ.Ү·У˴𰸡ǰ˷ջУд:"ΪʲôҪУûۼ֤ŦױУҴûмЩ˻ʲôӣҲҵΨһ�"ע2ºƲμӶ԰һ""߲ͤİһȥˣɱзĶȴǼƽķ;ְءڰϣؿаƽӹĻ֣"һ֮⣬ȷʵûκζͨ׵Ļ˵ֻDz֪Լʲô"ע3

аͨУĸԸز˼Ȩͳν˱Ϊ"ΰҵ"ޱؽ"ΰҵ"ķ浱ߵĵӸ˵ֵаƽӹָ˼룬޶ذͳεķ£İõӱԼΪһеΡаİһе"ħ"ϤеϤ翭ŵ(Margret Canovan)˵ģ"ҪڼȨǰԱҰΪŶʵûб'ƽӹ'ָȷеˡ"ע4

¼ʹظıԭȶԼȨаĿʶаһֱɵó˵޶ȵаDzڷdzķΪа򶯻ķdzƽӹаĶƽƽ㣬аĶܶҪԶµ۽͡ƽӹаָIJаײУײеаҲǿնġаĿն£ʹѧ˼а̽չ"ҵ˼ָȻˣȴỴ̄Ҳħ̣磬ǡǡΪ񶾾ڱɢ˵а˼벻໥ݣΪ˼ҪȥҪ׷ף˼а񣬱չΪапһƽӹֻƲȣ()ԭ"ע5

ضаشʶתڣа̽Ϊаƽӹԭȵ"а"˵УƶǵһԵģ޷˽ΪĵһԺԭԳ˼󼰵ļޡڰؾƽӹа˵УֻƲǵһԵģаǵڶԵģаȱƻƵɥʧƽӹа˵ħа񣬶ǶʹȻעӵǼȨרƣҪΪаṩIJѧĽͣ׵ĽͣεµĽ͡

ε̸ƽӹаҪʵǾܾרƵааıȻǽа»ػȨרƵı޲ԹûʵʩУɴжΪ˺﴿ֵԽĻ˹ֵĴϴͼӪΪһʵ壬йĻΪ˽֮ܿѵרƶȵı绤޲βط̵涯ͳĸԶ壬޲ܶеҫˡаԵóףĿԶʥΰ󣬾ͨ˿⡣а񣬰θа񣬱ͨ˵֪ǿͨȻؽа�"Ǵ"Ŀ쵼аɵĿdzΪʵijֹԲδıҪۣġĶӦؽܡ

رĹ̬һɴƶˣҲһɴƶȵߡΪаĻΪʲôͨ˼ǡǡ෴а񵱵ʱΪΪʧȥжǷǵ˼ָ"ļȨͳ£(˵)˼ɵѿԶʤܵΣܺ͡ӦҮ·õĽѵ"ע6

ǿ"֪"͵ɵҪԣͼ֪ƼΪƣ˵˼жãΪ˼Բ(ȻһDz)ƶıһ˼У۵Dz˼ɵжϣ˼ʹ˲ܹϵ˵ǶԵģǴġʵҲ֤רƱһߡ˼ǯΪ

԰ƽӹаĻһؽҪ⣬ǾǣӦ˭?κξֲ(绹ܺһָȷ·ߣԩٴȵ)ֻʹΪijαΪӦøIJܿѵ̫ˣȫࡣָ"ʣڵʱкι̫˶̫˵ݱɱģ"һʷǰ"ȴһַ̫ϵС"ע71951ѾڡȨ֮ԴijбƵ˼롣ָȨΣȫģ"Ȩͼͳȫ磬һھ߻Եĵ·ʤĻʵУڿʼݻ˵ıʡ"ע8ǿַ˺࣬ǹǴȨڵļȨаĵݡ ˼а۵IJdzѧѧ⣬ʵʵĵж⡣"෸"ֻһжϵĻԭܴǶÿһ׮෸жϡӵ¹ɴ⵽ɫޣÿһ׮רƱйصľԼǵ˻ԹߣǶЩ¼ľжϣΪձԭסжϵΪûһĿȻĿ͹۱׼ȻҲΪûֳɵ׼ͽۣǿжϲŸΪҪ

ڰؿûһĿȻĿ͹۱׼ûп͹۱׼Ϊרа"෸"Ҫͨ֯ѹȨ͹ȨʹΪһһ""ͬ֯ע9ˣ"ʲôа"Ծ廯Ϊ"ʲôа֯ʽ"⡣ǰһdzģһо׼ԺǰһΪʽı˿ռ䡣רȨܵʱǿԷܱȨԿΪǾijɫȨһб׼γһ̶ȵĹʶжϹ֮ʱԸʵɡȨγ൱Ĺʶ

ش֯ԭ̸а񣬳ǿ¹ʶĿܣ:а񾿾γΪһ֯()ʽ?һƶȻ԰?֯ԭ̸ȨרƵаʵҲǶĻشڰؿԭʽ˱Զ˱ʶʹ˺ʹר֮ԼIJ˼룬Լɥʧж͸ʽӱΡϲļȨһ޿˵ս춷�"ûвܵ"̬ΪΪһʷȻĶߺִԾӣɴԼļֵѡȫɥʧ""еȨиεߣ"׳"ԱɲŻӣִϼΪΪ淶УаÿԱаļӣһִ϶£Զɥʧ""ļ֮

βּܱ֮?ضĻشе棬صǰߡһ֪ƵԭһҲ˽֪ƲƵʵ֪ƵDZжϺжļԡ1964귢˵רµĸΡָ"ߡΨһܹԼжϵˡܹ֮ˣΪбȱļֵۣҲΪɵǷDZ׼ȻֲǵͷԻ֮СΪǵ֪δνԶҲδγһѧĻķ֮ĺ׼Ĺǵı׼ͬ(һĴ):ǻԼҸɹ󣬾ôİ?жϵȾʲô˲߶ԵµľϸֻʵϰߣҲԼԼĬĬضԻո׺ͰͼƴΪ˼�"ע10֪ԵԼƵ֪ܾij

ԼԵרƶ¸˵ĵΣڴ˵ʵ̫ߵҪԼҲֻ˼˶ӵĻһ㣬һдߣһдǻߡǰǽ̵ִţнڰŶðؿרµ֪֮ѣҲ˵ĵ¶ж֮ķֱϵ񰬿жߣԼԼж߿ܲԼԱ˵ʶĵ⣬ԼжΣñ˵ǵĶΪʵijõ죬ѶԱ˵ַ˺Ϊ븶ĴۡػǴӵȥĶΪϵģΪȻDz֪ƶж

ܰضԼȨаʹߵķڵ򣬵ȴųһֿ֮νӡಹĵ˼ڡȨ֮ԴѾȨͳοƵʶ̬Ļһ˽ϴԣȫԲֻɱһ˼룬ڷɱһпܲ˼ռ䡣жж˼룬ʹˣҲֻ͵͵ڸ˵˽УһֳȻ˼ɱ֮еĸ˵ѡѾǷǷǣǷ˵滰⣬ܷ񹫿ʾжϣܷ˵滰⡣

£Ҫ׷ʵIJǣɴͳΪʲô˾ܾ뱩?ҸǣôһһشӲ˵滰ߵٲ˵滰ĵز?·(Elisabeth Young-Bruehl)ָģ"ڵֿѲٿܵʱ򣬺ֿͲ"ҪʹԶ̫˵סһ:"һһģ֪ʱԽǵԶӦԽĽߡ"ԽߣȨаҲͳΪճĶ񣬳ΪϰΪĶ񡣡ע11

ˣערƶ¸˵ĵѡ񣬹עһЩ˲пĻʱ(ĸ߳ʱ)еĶУԶԶġҪǹעЩʹЩгΪܵĵ򻷾Ķ񻯹̡Щһһݻɵĵ򻷾ż˵ĶнʧǶȺ͸˵¾г־õĸʴãʱΪһ˲п׼רƶµĸ˵ʱͬһҪǿͨǿ˱Ƿ(˼)ֿ񣬾ܾǿҪͨ˵ΪĿܡער¸˵ĵΣΪDzøɼϵƭȵȵýڣעڻڸ˵ѡԼãԱڵжϻΨ־ۣѳȾ󵱳ɽרƶµΣҪ;˼Ҫ˵֪ƵĿܣҪǿרƶȵıǿƺͿ־Ļأһ֪ҪĻƶѵöࡣǿ˵жϵͬʱǿὨĸԭ ע
1. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973),pp. 458-59.
2. Arendt to Thompson, Rockfeller Foundation, 20 Dec. 1960. Library of Congress. Quoted by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1982), p. 329.
3; 6; 7. Hannah Arendt, Eichman in Jeruselem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, revised and enlarged edition (New York: Viking, 1965), pp. 287; 287; 267.
4. Margret Canovan, Hannah Arendt: A Reinterpretation of Her Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 24, no. 30.
5. Quoted by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World, p. 369.
8. Hannah Arendt, "Preface," The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1951), p. iii.
9. Cited byElisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt, p. 411.
10. Hannah Arendt, "Personal Responsibility under Dictatorship," delivered in Boston on 15 March 1964 and broadcast over Pacifica Radio. The BBC broadcast was published in the Listener 6 August 1964, pp. 185-187. Quoted by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt, p. 376.
11. Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt, p. 345.



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