ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

л֣Chevronԭ

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19403£ղķ˹.M.˹Ժһ䶯һʱݽΪϵĹؼ⡷ôʱ˵ϵĹؼ⵽ʲôأ˵ĹؼжһǷӦһͳһ򷨣һȷ˾ʵΧʮĽ죬˵ĵһѽǣڶЩǻǰ-----Ȼ侭ȫ顢ֱȷ˷֤ݹ򣬵һЩԭԺͼԵûһȨ˵ʼմڶƮҡ֮С
ϸͳ˵һ˫ŵľ棬ɱһЩ߼ˡǣij̬˵ȨȨֲεĹ۵ƺһֹŵۣʱΣҲ˶ȨӣͬʱҲһѧԴȻʵΣ˶ȨҪҪִٳ˶Ȩغͺʵ˵ѧ͹ϵһ򵥹۵㣬ǾǷȨӦԵģ߲ԶԿҲԶȫĶԿֻܵ·ɵúȨıԵĺֻܵ·ɵרƺȨĿ
ڼ֮нȻ˻ͣǣ˹ĵڶԶûȷ𰸣Ǹαԣ˾εĹϵ๫ѧˣȷһ۵ջԴջҲͿʼɴ------Ϊ۵ʵõ˻Ӧʵṩ˰ȷԭҲ˾ʵ⹱ףлԭһԶİʵܾУ˾ϵشѷɫijЩشƶ編1789Ŀస1873IJʰ2030󰸼1803ѷ1970ĸDz߿Լ˴Ҫ1984лְȵȡ
˹chevron U.S.A v. Natural Resources Council(467 U.S. 387,1984)оΪðȷԭ˵˸ıһת۵㡣Ϊ˾鷶ΧһֱӲԭǶ˾Ȩϵʶ壬ȷ˾жϱ׼ԡ
1ȨȨԭ漰صȨĶʼȷȨɣһרҵɣ߾ɣǺʽɡЩȨһЩɣȻԾٳ࣬˵ӱܺתεɵȵȡǣȨô𣿶лԭɣ˹һĵ۵㣬ǾǡܷԼĵλӦñƵ߷Χһ۵㣬ɣһķ©ģͬȨίȻʵϿһȣ߼ϵȷܴԳķصĹϵΪܷĹϵֲ߳һʱӦɺ߽ͣӦһٲûȻȵĺֵãǣĴڶֵĵλȴٽǶһ˼
Ȼɣ˹ڽchevronԭȷЦΪáػѡǣضصԼ˾ضصأȴƺġҲκؾʷϵġԵԭ򡱣һͶұĹϵԭʵҲûغ˾شﵽʧҪĵز˹ĽΪһԵΰ󹤳̣Ȼ˾ܸ˳ӦԵıع̣ʹδؽڴˣΰðգðտܱðҪСɹȴΰöࡣҲһ죬߱ʱ˾ʵáػѡΪػꡣ
2˾ȨȨϵϣһƬʶ˾ԽĹΪ˾ȨҪͳȨʯʿһƪУԴȫΪ뷨ĹϵҲã˾ȨȨĹϵҲãǵȵġ˾Ȩ˼ලȨ⣬Ӧغ֧Ȩ˾ȨȨʱʱȡԽ޴ҡ֧˾Ȩлԭԣǿ˾ضضڳķ͵أҲ˾ǻһ档ҪȨ˾ȨضľԽͲĵĸ֣ҪۺʵĴ¡Ϊ˾ȨãȻȨŴͿԡ
๫ѧ˵ǿȨغһɼ롣ѧʩߴľ˵dzϺϣһЩƷʡлԭһ̶Ը
ǰ˵лԭ˾鷶ΧеһֱӲǣԭȷ˾׼ϣҲһۺݱ䡣Ȼ1984ǰҪԺضڷɽ͵ȷȴǼʮԺ顣ڸðУԺΪûбͼʱ˾ӦԼĽͣͺȱ˵ʱͨǰ߷Ժȴ⵽˷ΪоΪԺ϶йûвȷĴ𰸣ôԺǿԼԳķ⣬оΪ߷ԺȷᡰģʵûӦͼʱʱӦôӷԺĽǶøǷȷǵΪȷʱǷҲ˵ԺҪضԳķĽͣжϵı׼ֻǸýǷ
ԣԺȷı׼Ǻ׼˾ʮ¬˹İRust v. Sullivan(עðоʮо)ԺӦChevronԭʱ˶˾׼ķſϯ󷨹׿˹صУضԳķĽֻҪǽģplausibilityɣһҪreasonablenessı׼ת˵ضԳķĽֻҪ޶ȵĹͿˡʩߴΪðһСķΧǶлԭš
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֮лԭķչķչһµģʱڵSkidmore v. Swift & Cov.Ȩ˶ijʷԡлԭֵоܶ࣬Ӧϵƣ統ضԳķĽͷ޳ʱ˾ظô죿ʱֲһ£˾ؾȨأ߿˿ءٱ磬ԭ˾вһԭ򣬵Ȩѹ˾ȨȴƺΥġǶ˾һַͱѣʵ
У˾ǰͻǶʵ뷨ɵȷ֣ȻһԭȴлߵĸЧⲻԽԽ٣ԽԽ࣡