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йܷĸļ--ӡĸܷܷ


[Ҫ] йܷӦӡĸܷܷת䣬ԴΪ㣬20飬ܷĸٵ⡣ȣܷ֮˱ΪĵļֵȨηֳԵij򹹳ɣ̺ͳͳͷͳܷϷԡȨԺȶԵռԴ͸ΣܷΪӦеЧΥܷϣܷһݶҪ˾Ӧܵ£εҪʶת綨ΥΥΪӦģʽΪ漰ģʽƶµܷලҪȨͳԵýϡܷǼֵͨηͳڹãԼȨͱȨΪģܷĸӦΧܷ⣬ùȨ׼ṹĹϵȨڲĺϵԼִȨصĹϵͬʱתʹ߽ȨʱеĻҪأȨܷĽȨϵȨȼá
ؼ ܷЧ ܷԨԴ Ȩ Ȩ

ԣܷĸ

ܷ䲼ʮ꣬ܡ̣ܵٸнʮǰ֮ʱ˼ŷδøĸδãгƺιԽδȷҪƶһ֮ԶܷҲDz˵ǶⶼȷȷĴ[1]ǣǾһЩشѵľϣνηԶ磬ƽʱ֮ͨԱ޸ĵܷΪ1982ȴ1978ܷ1954ܷΪ[2]Ժ[3]ۣƶ[4]1975ܷ1978ܷѹȨһ·ڹһһ֮߾⽫һǰ[5]ξϣйʷͽѵ˹㷺֧[6]شܷĸ

20ʷҲܷıǨʷܷҸģ˵һĸܷΪϿɺƶĸƶĸ޸ġӦǵǣܷҪŸĸIJߣȷϺ͹̸ĸijɹҪĸָĸΪĸҪĿռ䣬ΪйķչлĴṩ̵ۺƶȿܣڱҪʱܹƸĸԼĸܷʷ˵͵ܷһǡܷһǡĸܷһǡܷ [7]ܷڶȡȨĸʱڣּڴӷȷϺ͹̸ɹĺϷԻǹȥķͳǸĸܷҵƺܴ仯ھáΡĻĹ㷺дȸĸʱڣּȷϺ͹̸ĸɹάĸڰѸĸɹϷͬʱҲòĸڸĸȲͬڸ־ijָ壬ԭں̶ܴϸԭƣԣĸܷĺϷԻзͳǸĸﱾʵ巽棬dz棬һ̶ΥܸĸΥĸܷȻɹȴϷ⣬ĸܷһʱڻΪءܷڸĸѻɲȷƺͷԭ֮ʱ򣬲ܷзɣзΡܷߵķȨҺһлĸĸܷͷɵĹһȨΣΪܷΣһشĸΪܸĸܷǸĸģسɵģǷչģȶģңسɺȶijɷռΩˣܷΪξð֮ʯ

Խ׼Ϊ٣ȷԾýΪġĸ↑ŵĻߣǿǿƣζйܷھ1975ܷ1978ܷۺʼӡܷ򡰸ĸܷת䡣ڣֵһµʷؿڣӦհԶƽܷĸɴӡĸܷܷʷת䡣

Ϊܷ֮γ֮ٷ֮ף֮ҪȲɽ䣬ҲԱסӦʵʳ͸ı䡰ĸܷ˼άƣۺƶȶľ΢Ը֮ܽصⲢ̽֡

һܷ֮ûз

ܷǹҵĸǹһзɲġĸڴϣҵһзܷΪݣܷ֮£ܷΥܷ֮ϲκηɡֻǴʵڷϵϽġܷƾնҲò䡣÷ȨͨƶҲͬϷظıȻ֤ܡܵԡϷԣܷܽڵĹҷɱܷȲκһзΪĸ壬Ҳκһ֯Ϊĸ壬ôܷɲͱ仯ĸʲôأ

ͨΪ仯ˣ羭ƺϵ˱仯ɾҪ仯ʵе仯ܹӦ·ɵı仯ɾӦӦ仯Ӧʲô仯֮Զƣֵ˼ġ˵תʱƣʱ䣻˵Ϊ֮֮Զʱı[8]ֿìܵŶݵԤ衣ڣҪʱҪӦġʱʲôҪ֮Զ֧䡰ԶҪʲôأ˻˵仯ͨ˵־ӳģֻҪͨж˵ƶ޸ķɾȨĸݡǣӵ֤Ȼȷǵģ˲룬Զ֤˳Ӧʱα֤˲أ ˣҪо֮Ϊܷ֮Ϊܷĸݡݣǹ˵ġ𰸲ӦӹڷЧļǶ[9]ӦشӹڼֵԭѧǶѰܷ֮ΪΪһܹΪȨԴĸ򡣸֮ȨΪֵֵֻֻĺģ˱ģһΪˣΪһˣɵģά˵Ϻ͸һֵҲձ¡ձµijʽ˳Ϊձ淶[10]ֿ˱һĵ¼ֵŻù㷺ͬձã£ָʱЧĿɱʵڷΪһּڽĻƶȣܷ಻ʶøĹУʷزͷչġֻΪиõֺͺ˱ɣƺͶžƽȡǷ˵Ϻɵַܷ壬ȨĹ淶Լϵ˽ɲַDzΪȨַȨǣܷ֮֮˵֮Ҫ͡ƽȺɣΪܷԭȨӦĹȨΪܷȨܷ򣬱Ϊ

ǣ˵ֵ̺ĸ򣬲ܷɲ߼ݣ춨ܷĵ¸[11]ֻķ򣬲ܸܷԸܷ֮ԣʹܷȨķճ˵Ҫ˵Ҫֻ[12]ķ֤ͲضҺĻѧķʶʵʩȡضҺĻķɴͳƶȰšķʲôں̶ܴϣǸ޴Dz[13]ǿԳ֮Ϊ͹۷Ȼ߷취ҲԳ֮Ϊʶԭ򡱡ͳ[14]ǣʺ͵λȴӦΰյġ

ĹڽܷĺϷ⣬ڼֵԴ߼ɶ֤ɡҪ;ǰ˱ΪĵļֵתΪηͳִηȨζ⡣ִij򼴳ԣúͳ⡣ηͳͨڹֵЧ⣬ܷƶȵҪݡֵηͳֱ˱ɡȨͳ壬йͳǷֱͳͳͷͳ˸ܷ֮ϷĻҪءǼܷĸλƾ߷ЧԴȪܡܡܵԼָܷ֮ϵķѭķ򣬱ǹν[15]֮ûзȨ֮ûзҲǻרġҪȷʵȨ֮ϣ֮ϻз

ֵη򡢳ĹϵǵͳͳͳĹϵѧĻʥĹϵ˻ͬ˼봫ͳȻʵڷĶԪģʽȨͳೡﶼΪɺϷԡԵ۾ݣǰɷӳ־ȣǣףηͳɼֵܳɼֵͳ㡣ΩмֵǸĺģͱܷʣΪ춨յĺϷԻղ˱ģֻܷû[16]ʵʣǼ򵥵ҪԣҲǼ򵥵ҪȨͳԣҪܷڵһƶȺͷɶռϵĺϷԺԡҲĻĻ[17]

ܷijɹ֮ȷϲ涨һЩȷӳʱҪǨ֮ԶµҪԭ򡣵1954ܷ1978ܷΪܻ˵ףΪ1954ܷҪ1978ܷϺõطӳȨҪִܷһ[18]ʶһ㣬Ҫ鹦ڵʱ˼šʵǣ鹦ԵСƽΪѵ쵼˶Խ뷨Ƶرӡ

ֺܷͱ滹ġʹϽµķԺͼ߶ȸԡԭԵij淶棬ijЩȱ֮ųбȾǿĶԾ仯İӦ1982ʱʹܷǸΪʲôǸģǣܷȶԣζҪڱ1978ܷ಻ǡĹ涨[19]ܷҲδȴΡԾһܷ䲼203ι17޸ģЩ޸ĴǹԺܸٵġ򵥵ʵһ棬Ÿĸ↑źִĽչгƵĽṹ˼ı仯Ƕܷԭʶڲϵһ棬Ҳܷ淶ڱͨԡһԡԵijԭǷȱ[20]ܷ֮ʶͱˮƽϻдߡ

ֻȷʶͰտ͹۹ɣܷ֮ȷЩDZдܷģЩDzдܷģЩDZĵģЩDzܸĵģӶȷ򣬷ĿȶԪֿ̱ش¡ڸĸʹ³ΪʱеʱӦرע⴦öԪ̱뿪شµĹϵù˵Ļ˵ǼҪʱסҪ[21]ijϽĸ˵Ҫʲô˵ҪȷʲôDzܸģһҪӹ̵ġ˱֤ĸĸѧ[22]

ܷDzǷ

й˽ʷĽ⣬ûġʵǷʡǶ֪ܷǹҵĸǡĸǣһҪijDzܷסijDzܷ⡢ijDzܷжϵʱЩĶƺֲˡ2001꣬ԺͽȨ[23]ʱйܷһ[24]Ϊʲôܷʩн20νһأܷDzǷһ˾ȲоΣյ⡣ðܷķȨʵʵڡȷֻܷΪĸݣΪ˾еĸݣҪܷΪʱʵͻǷΥܲȼãôܷDzǷ㲻Ϊˡ ܷʲôܷǷβǸ涨ҴиԵԭķɡȣܷкǿԣȻǷôʲôأ

һΥͱǿͨһ׷;ȼõȺȺ򣬷֮һ֡йһΥô⡣֮Ϊھ߱ΪʹijЩ򲻽߱ԼҾ߱ǿƵľɲųΪҪ֮ʣǿƾȰ֮ģΥĴȼãȷϻʾΪܷڵ͹ҵĻ졢·ߵҪ淶ԭľܹ֮ұͨɳΥĴ;ȼ⡣ɵľɵЧ[25]ǷʵЧͷЧĻһЧûκλͳκζԸ÷ΥɾͲ˵߱ȫķЧʵЧЧҲ֮ǧ޷ͬȻܷɷЧķʽͬ˾ʹܷЧܽΥ⣬ܷ㲻߱ȫķЧ

ʵϣܷܷĸʺӦķЧȷ涨͹쵼ǿܷ߷ȨΥΪصΥ[26]ɽ缰ҲǿܷȨŹ㷺ĹʶڣʹЧҪΪƶȵġҪܷ߷Ȩ߷ЧȨηҪҲdzԵijҪھɺֻԺַʽֳΥܡ׷ΥܲӦľȼãȡһҵƶȰšһ˵Ҫ໥;һܷ飬ܷϡֻдڶĺ飬ܷŻΪݲ˳ΪĸֻдܷϣܷŻȫʵʷЧ˳Ϊķɡ˵ܷܷʵЧؾ׷ΥΪʵʩֻܷʽ[27]Dzܷ֮Ϊı־Ҳܷ֮ʵʴڲõıϡ˵Чܷ֮ΪľأôܷܷϾܷ֮зЧľ־[28]

ⲻζܷݶԲӦڷԺáκιҵܷdzĴͳģDzĴͳģ֣һǿԲӦڷԺõģòϸϵķɣɳܷɹ淶ɣһDzҲӦֱڷԺõģòǹεԭ򡢸͹ϸϵķɣɳܷ¹淶ܵ¡ǣֶǷܷ¹淶ȻֱڷԺãڻ˹ȨߺĹ㷺ϿɺѭӶʵʵԼܵ£һؼԱٻΥϸϵķɣǵķϡܷ¹淶Ϊܷ͵IJڷԺãΪĸݣرȨϵ£Ϊ߻ܷܷΥܵĸݣĻ׼˾ľڴϣܷһָ򡢰ɡܵºơĹ򼯺塣

ܷDzǷⲻҪָܷķʺͱܷȨƶȰţ㷨εһҪ󣬻ҪָܷʶƶȰŵIJ⣬㷨ģʽѡضҪܷǷζܷвַЧķʽͬġӦܷǷ߱ɵһԵʶĻ϶ܷIJͬ𣬴Ӷ롣Ӣܷѧ֮ѩһӢ˵ƺĵDDܷDzǷIs constitutional law really lawat allȻ֤ܷ߷ЧܷΪɵӦȨ෨εĻɷѿģֱӾضᄈµܷЩķɷʡָӢ÷ֱܷӻӾȨʹйѶ˵Ĵǡ򡱣rulesǷɣlawsӢܷĹԭ׼principles and maximsһϸϵķɣڷԺʵʩгĵģҲвĵģƶҲдϰߡͳ򷨹취ͨΪͳΪܷɣthe law of constitutionڶװconventionsĬunderstandingsϰߣhabitsͨpracticesǶȨȨijԱԱԱΪоʵȴǷɣΪ޷ڷԺʵʩɳܷconventions of constitutionܷ£constitutional moralityһӢ˵ȨߵΪǷܣconstitutional or unconstitutionalָ֮˵һΪǷϷlegal or illegalȫȻͬ[29]ѩ˵ΪܷûܷҪܷܷܷɷ֡dzܷDzܷܷɺܷķֱܷʹһӣңӡԵģȻЧԭ䱳һɵ[30]÷Ҳܷ޴ǵĽǶܷ̽ķʡ˵˵ijˣijΪϷʱָΪΥܷеķǷɹ򲿷֣ЩǷɵܷܷ¹ܷܷͨϰߡܷԼܷĬɵġܸΪΥijͨصĶΥĹ򣬵ԺԳͷǡԣЩܷ򣬵Ƿɹ[31]˹͡ӷΪȨǰܷʵڵʵڷɵĻϣΪϸĵȨ߶ԣܷʵڵ¡ʹijΥܷȨ߷ϸΪΥܣҲûΥϸķɡ[32]

ڰܷܷϿʵʩܷҪ;ʱҪԴνܷġ˾⣬˼򵥵ҪܷͨԺҲһζоʱԮܷ֮ΪܵҹķаʱԮܷһ£ؼޱҪǷǡ[33]˾ָ˾оͽһԮܷģʵǰܷΪͨɡԮܷͨδ豣ΣҲӦϸ޶Ŀǰ˾عͷҹܷӦͨѰҡʶ𡢹ɺȷܷĸЩǿԶұڷԺõɣЩǷͷξĺϸܵ[34]Ӷһ棬ʹܷܷϾпɲԣʵһ棬ʵеһнġġ淶ƶȻɻĹʱͨ޸ĻƶܷΪ춨ʵܷı ޸ĻƶܷӦؼǿܷķЧȷܷ岿֣ӦǿڷԺõϸϵķɹ淶ܵɶЧǷεҪҲִһҪ[35]

νΥܼ϶Υܣ

ܷݰܷɹ淶ܷ¹淶֣ζţҪɣҲҪܵ£ͬʱеΥܷΪܵ׷Ӧ׷;ȼõΥܺͲ׷;ȼõΥܡôνΥܣ

νΥܣܷķɾΧܷԾ˭ϽҪģʽһģʽ(legalist model)ܷ֧Щ䵱߽ɫˣģʽ(governmental model)ܷ֧Щ䵱߽ɫ˶֧Щɫgovernmental rolesˣȻģʽ(naturalist model)ܷڸ㷺ķΧڶһɹϽÿʩÿԴ˽˵ġΪʱΥܷ[36]

ģʽܷעĽ㼯Ȩߵķ壨legal regimeġ塱Ȩߵķ壨ܷǸڵһضɡܷԵġġĺͷķɣҰķʵʩIJĹߡͨʵʩõԴܷҪܵľķΪ߽ƵΪģʽijͼѡ塱͡ĶֿҲĶ̴ڣΪʲô塱һȷĴ𰸡ʵϣ˿ġ塱綨Ǻġ磬һݵķɸԱضΪAΪBɲȨԱijضΪAΪBľôģʽΪAΪBľǷڡ塱ĸһ׵߿ܻԱȨʹƶɡһͻڻֱ߽ܴ鷳Ϊ෨ɲԱҸ蹫˽ɲȨ磬ݹڲƲԼķɣ˽е˽˲ȨʹҲ͹еIJȨʹһ˷ЧѵҲǡƶɡô磬廹ŷ屾һµ⣬ȷһֹܹԱɹ淶ΪԱԽɹ淶Ϊı׼ȵȡ ôģʽ𣿰ȻģʽԼijŵΥŵ˽Ϊ𺦵ΪΥ˽˽ȼ⣬Υܷܷȼá˿ΥܷΧΥģʽߣΥֻ߲ܵΪ˽Ϊ涨ȼúͲṩ־ȼʱŷֻ߶˽˸ſΪΥܵΪ˿ȻģʽǺеͨģΪոģʽͲһƶܷˣ׷ͻҲ鷳ѡģʽܷһ淶Դμ淶ģʽҶɡȨǵijЩΥĻҲЧЩԡԱ֡ķΧڶΪģ˽ΪΪԱڡԱ֮֡ΪΪΥΪȻΥ巽棬ģʽģʽͬģΥݷ棬ģʽȴΥܴӽ淶ΪչһЩĻ[37]

ΥϣͬģʽģʽΥӦΪһػ򹫹Ȩǹͷˡ֮ͨɱַȨͨɱ̷ֻ׷Υ׷ɱ˻ܺ˲ӦеľȼΥܣΥ׷ܷ淶һؼ˽֮Ĺϵ˽֮Ĺϵ[38]ܷ涨طһΥΥط񣬵ܷ׷ܷԹʽҪӰ죬˽Ϊܷ[39]ܷ֮ԶԹл壬ؼܹ淶ȨԹʹԹҵȨܷΩΪι淶Ϊ淶[40]ΥϣģʽΪʵ漰ijЩҪΪӦǿǣΪȰصΪҲ˾ȨصΪȻҲִִΪκһֹȨԳԽܷءļָʾܷ㲻߱ӦеȨ

ҹĿǰҪһȷ綨ΥΥΪΥ壬һҪȷܷ壬ʶΥΪþܷ׵ı׼ͻƣӶʹܷ߷Ч߷ȨͨġܶලҲͨ͹˾ֳƣȫ˴䳣ίȨƶ⣬ԺȨƶ棬Ժź͵طйȨƶ£ӵְȨĵط˴䳣ίƶطԷ棬߷Ժ߼ԺԶԷ˾͡ӴĹ淶ļϵǷִܷ˭϶ʹΥܣؽоġѭԭ򲢲ȡӶij򣬲ܱ֤ȻϺܷȫ˴䳣ίḺмලܷʵʩְ𣬵ڽܷȷ;ΥΪ棬ȱ㹻ֺ֧ƶȰš磬л񹲺͹88涨ȫȨıijίԱƶIJʵķɣȨȫ˴ί׼Υܷͱ62涨͵ȫ˴ίȨܷͬͷִ棬ȨܷͬɺִĵطԷ档Щġʵִı䡱۶Ҫĺ׼ơ

ΪҪǣΥǷȫ˴䳣ί᣿ζ˴Լܷ飿ϽȨԭһȨ񣬲˴˴ȨʹߣȨߣִִҪͨҪȨأִߡңܻء塢ƶܷƶķɣ⼸ԸܵͬΥ־棬زΥܷ磬زƶṫȨķɣƶݼķɣر򲻵޸ܷΥܷӦضسı䣬ϲ飬Լġ١ڴϣزнͺͼලܷȨܷලģʽҪ顢ͨԺ顢ܷίԱܷԺ飬Ǹж̳[41]δʵʳȰȨηְֳԵijȫƶµܷලƶȣ˵֮

ġܷĺʲô

ܷʺΥܸ漰ֻܷЧܷĺݡܷĺģбҪȻصΪʲôҪܷʼʡ

ڷԽԽҲԽԽӵִᣬߺϰƺĿ쳵ڷεԾԾذѶ÷ֵͬͼֵȷ֤Ҫѵ;鵤ҩͣһ룺ɶʵʵľáΡĻʲôôΪʲôҪƶһķɣܡҲΪʲôǵҪһܷķɣΪʲôҪͣ޸ģ࿴Զļ⣬ʵΪʵʡִܷǰķɹ涨ҵĸƶȺһЩӦĸԭͳ֮ȻˡǺ˵ȷ䡷Ħū䡷ԼҹŴһĴ󷨵䣬Ǹĸܷ֣֮÷ԼȨȨڷ֮µҪӦȨΪ֮κʹ[42]һַɣһ棬չȨƺ⡢ӷɵԭ涨Ȩʡṹƣȷ壬ǽȨĹ淶ԼϵӶʹϷЧΪ[43]һ棬ƽȡɡȨԭһݹȨ嵥ͨȨ趨λȷϹɣʹ񲻽ɲҹලȨȨɲΪȨֺͰȨ

ǣܷΪ˱ɵļֵͨȨηͳԵijڹáԼȨȨܷ֮⡣棬ͨ߼ǻۺ;ɵķɼִܷƶȵĻݣ̳֣֮֮˫໥ϣƫϡҲһ׿гЧܷĸ͹ޡ뿪ǣΥܷҲʧȥ塣

ùȨҪԹȨʡԴͻһȷʶȥһ׹ڹ뷨ɵԴʺͷչɵѧ˵ҪǰѹҺͷɿ׼ͳκͽ׼ѹȵĹߣȨɵԭĽҪڽ׼ηĹϵȨȨƵĹϵҲҪһ塣йܷ2涨ҵһȨʹȨĻȫ˴͵ط˴շɹ涨ͨ;ʽҺ񣬹úĻҵһںȨͳԣһֹȨȨ֮ϵѧκϷҪͨϷֺ֡ǿȨ˭ãٺõȨҲû塣ܷĸӦͨǿȨĹ淶ලԼȷ񵱼ڹȨĽṹ͹ܵ⡣ һǹڹȨײϵۡʷΨΪΪһ󣬽׼ֺͽ׼չһʷ׶ϵġ׼۵ͽ׼ǹ۲ͷһԿףܹǶҺͷɵʷʵƽȡɡȨһ׼ϵµľ졣ͬʱִܷĻǡҡ͡񡱣ǽ׼ִܷĺĸǹȨ͹Ȩǽ׼ͳȨͽ׼Ȩʹý׼ܷһɫôȨԴηӳṹı仯׼ײṹı仯ֶṹԴı仯ʲôҪͨĸٷԭβƣ̺ͼǿȨĽ׼Ⱥڻȫ׼ײϵ[44]

ǹڹȨڲȨϵۡҹʵȨƣ˾ȨԼطȨְֹܷǿ͹۴ڵġ[45]Ϊ˽ȫһּ໥Լͼල໥Ϻֵ֧ȨƣӦشӷ˳˴ȨȨ˾ȨԼȨ͵طȨ֮ĹϵȷȨúȨͼ磬ƶ£˾ܷ񵥶ԼΪʲơ̰۸ܻӦô˭˭ƲʵеƶͽͷɵְȨӦк־޶ȣҹʵеһƣνر˾Ȩлңij̶ֳѳµȨܷ涨ϼ˴¼˴ͨѡ˴ν͵һµĵطȨڷȨãطȨݺܷԼʲô[46]͵طԵȨͲȨֵĸʲôνطϵڵȨܷƣ

ǹִȨعϵۡ͹쵼ƶȸĸӦܷĸͬĸƵ쵼ʽִʽƽΣ巨ιңȫáΪִӦԺַʽȨؼ롰ִȫ֡Эãδƶϡ쵼񵱼ιı֤ͳһ⡰ִܷ壿

ܷĸӦΧƵһǹȨй߽Ȩʱʱ˵ϺɽȨ𽥳ΪƶȽĺļֵ˵ԸҪͨתΪȨ滯򻯵˾ϺǸ¹ػ˶ΪȨЧܶ𲽳ΪΣΪ˽ȨΪȨı߽Ρжʱ˵ʲôĻڰǰմٳij仯Ҫأתʹá֮˵йڡ߽ǡȨʱ[47]ϡüֵηͳĹУȨԺȨԽԽ𵽽ṹԵġԵáΪĻҪҪУ뾭øĸľ𻯺͸¹Ʋβ뷽Ȩʶǿƶռɳʶ˶ԼֱȨҵʹȨʶǿ˹Ȩ֪ʶŻ˹Ȩ֪ʶṹ˹ȨƻгתŶijЩȺ棨ײȺڵ棩ֶεµ汣ȱλ̼˹Ȩ󣬶ҶȨ˾˸ߵԼȨԼWTOȨ͹˾ijЩҪѾƶս ȨʱϷ״̬DzԽġ

Ȩ棬ҪǿȨҪȨΪһִӳȨƽ˸ͱɵĹṹĵȨձȨͷȨ[48]ȨһЩΪȨĹȨ߱ijȻdzΪʵڷܷ֮ϻΪܷݵĸôҲҪΪȨĹȨ֮ϻΪȨݵȨȨܷغͱȨȷΪһܷԭ򣬲Աֵ֤ηͳתĹваκƫұ˾ԲͬȨʱܹڱȨ͹ȨĽͺ

Ȩϵ棬ܷڹȨоǽΪ걸ġǣθݸ๫ȨҪ󣬲йѾǩ׼ĹȨԼеȨϵҪIJ޸ģ磬˽вƲȨܷλȡΪ˴ùȨԼ͹ڷĹϵڹԼȨڹڷԺʵʩչȨϣԿʱƶרŵġȨΪܷԵķɣץоƶ޸ܷԷɡͬʱӦпǽȨȨʹԼйɵЭ[49]磬Ȩ棬оδǶȸĸͶƶȡDzƶȡݽƶȺеȨƶȣѡȨ棬оѡٺֱѡٵķΧι̴弶ֱѡƶȲ뵽Ȩϵȡ

ҲΪҪģǹȨľȼãǹܷȨľȼáŴ˵оȼòȨ (Ubi jus, ibi remedium)ֺֻܵõȼã̸ȨΪ˱ϱҪľȼãִҵķɺ͹ȨԼڹ涨Ȩͬʱ˾Ȩ涨ΪһȨȨȨԼҪڲöκ˵ָػȷڷϰȨʱ˽нܷͥеƽȨ[50]ζţɷͥκλʵжϵȨǹһȨdzԹȨһӲԵҪ󣬶dzԷԺѡҲֱ۵سν˾ġԡܷ˾ڶ̶ܹ˾˾ܹ֮ܵʲôıһ棬ȡƶ˾ƶȣһ棬ȡڹʵڷɷʵҪ֪ʶƸŸɡ֡λְҵԼϵȷӰ졣ЩصIJ죬ͬȷȨĹʵȨھ޴IJ졣ˣڹڹҺǴǿƵĵλܵ͹ҵֺ͹ҵʵʩֺʱѰЧľȼþ͸Ϊѡ

ĸ↑ڳɹɴƽѩ󣬹ȼÿʼֲƶȻܵ˵ķչ˽ķչԳٻȨȼڷΧƺˮƽϻԶԶҪһ״ӦܷͨĸԸı䡣

ϵйѧԺѧооԱʿʦ

עͣ
[1]磬197812£ȫṫָģļ籩ʽȺڽ׼ѾĽ׼Ӧðϸֺȷ಻ͬʵìܵķȥܷͷɹ涨ijȥ ܷ涨ĹȨϡйļѡࡷй뵳У1994棬86ҳ92ҳǣʲôǡĽ׼ܷι涨׼ġ򡱣ȨǷֻܷ1978ܷ⣬ûȷĴ𰸡
[2] 19817¸ı1978ܷʧ֮ڼ򵥣1954ܷΪáӦġڽʷľ顷ľ޸ܷ˵һܷ߰Ȼһܷ޸ģڵʱʷƣȫܽὨľ飬Ҳ塮󡯵˼Ӱ죬Ի˲ٲǡĹ涨һܷݻȷģ涨Ȼá棺ѧϰܷ1983棬2122ҳ
[3] 磬£޸ܷʮ顷뷨ơ19813ڣ89ҳ
[4] ԺƵɣμ֮й޸ܷļ뷨ơ19814ڣ67ҳܷ޸ĵļ⡷ͬϣ19822ڣ9ҳЭΪԺ֮һɣμФεƣҹܷĵѧ1986棬3436ҳԺƵɣμ棺۴ԡ²ᣬȺڳ1986棬118119ҳ棺޸ܷļ⡷ѧо19823ڣ3ҳ
[5] ŷǰͻȨйȨйҵȨȫ˴ί칫оࣺйܷ͡йƳ1996棬51ҳ
[6]ѧ뷨Ρɱʡ뷨ƵġǰƽȵۣṩҪ֧֣μйѧԺѧоұࣺ۷ǰƽȡɳ1981棻ۼȺڳ1981棻ȣܷļܷļࣩȺڳ1982档
[7] Ϊһַܷĸܷܷ͡ͻֶڷܷǶνתенǿĽоμʲ.ҵĹۺоڽ̡ԪսܷȽо롶ܷȽоļɽ磬1993꣩Ԫой񹫰ѧ磬1996֮꣩ͯΰԪȹڡΥܡۣμ룺ѧܿо20022ڣԼ¶˺Ϊĸܷı˵¶˺飺ɸǿɣйܷļֵȡ˾Ŀԡձ2002125գ
[8]磬ȨأһףΪءڣΪԽݣһажһ̣֮֮ͣΪΪ֮ӡѵ
[9] ɭܷ߼淶Ľǡⷨѧʽģÿ㼶淶ЧԽϸ߲㼶Ĺ淶й淶Чһ淶ܷܷ֮ЧΪǡԤյļ衱ֻһٶܷ贴淶ȨЩ˵оĹ淶μɭҵһۡ룬йٿȫ磬1996꣩130131141143ҳ
[10] ĸڹ˹˵Ļԭ򼴡Ԫ淶ĵ£һֻձ淶ϵͳνձ淶ûȨĹ淶ЧҲûơ˹ϷΣϺ磬2000꣬112ҳ
[11] ϣΪܷĺĿDZоϺͼֵңȵĹȻȨܷĹҲԱΪ涨ͱȨġ̽ǡԸҵʥϵһֱ֡μ.J.ϣ壭ڽ֮ά1997棬1417ҳĪΪڰȷΪļֵʱȡһֵ¿͹ʵʽۼϵıǿ͹۴ڵģԷֵġμW.F.ĪơܷܷȽо롶ܷȽоļ3ɽ1993꣬10ҳʼǺϷĻԼϷĹϵμ˹ϷΣ7¼ǰԡļֵйͳ֮ϵμ¶˺顶ۡ
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[14] ķһִߵȨԴ壬ڲͬķɴͳвͬʶ֤áȻһֹΪ֪ĸӢֺܲͬμCharles Grove Haines The Revival of Natural Law Concept, Harvard University Press, 1930, p.43-4552-65һ˵ķ򱻿͹۴ڡò䡢ձϵģΪͳߵĹΪصᣬء磬Ӣڸ߼ݽ뷨Ϲijͬġ͵˼ǹڷӦϲҸڹұй۵ӢķǷչһӢʽķԭǷԼ¿ŲһԭijЩڹĸ߼ԭ֮Υͬϣp.32-33ȻҲǽΨһԨԴԨԴãμ˹ɣ˼Ļ¾ӡ2002棬175189ҳйȻ취ʷμ£ۺŮʿ¡֮ϵ14952ҳ
[15] 磬㳣Сӡ
[16] ϣ̸׵ŵܷʱ˵ġܷѰﵽĸ׼֮ƽ⣬Ϊȶijʵʩģִϵ򣬰ƽһĿ꣬ңкܺõɣȻҲѾɣ֧۵㣬ͳľƶƶȣܹṩ޶ȵİƽ򡣡ϣ壭ڽ֮ά17ҳ
[17] һ˵ǿһƶѡԼھʱѭijиʵڳͷ֮ϵļֵΪϷԵı׼һɣһѡٺ͹۶ذϸһͨģͨһִлذسϸʵʩַϣҲȻкϷԡμW.F.Īơܷ1013ҳ
[18]磬Ϊ1954ܷΪܣΪԭ򡢷ȽϺáԭԭԭ򡣡ڵԹҡ쵼涨ڡԡУһܷڡһһй涨ȫй쵼µ߹ȨأҲһܷ߰ڡĻȨУ涨ӵй쵼ˣ޸ֻܷһܷΪһܷ߰Ϊѧϰܷ2122ҳ
[19] μ棺ѧϰܷ56ҳ
[20]μ־ʲôҪܷԺ20021216ա
[21]ʥ֮ΪҲΣ±ˡʱף䷨ң¾ѡ̾顤ƪ
[22] ѧͳijЩһζͼ¶֮˵ʱҲ,ؾͬҲɲһȰѧƪƪ䷨ߣ1978ĸ↑ųڱΪءδǰһʱڸĸĽֵ˼ġܷĸո֮Դ£Ԫ19817£ڸܵıܷǸҪڸٲĿ㲻ҪĴ£𲻱Ҫۣμ£̵ܷص㡷ѧо20031ڣ
[23] ַȨֶֺܷĹܽĻȨǷӦеε[2001]25š
[24] μðѧ¼ܷ˾һϷĩ2001816ա
[25] ˵ġЧ˼ָ淶ڣ߾˵ǼٶЩΪ˾СԼɭҵһۡ32ҳ
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[27] ܶΪɷԺʹලܷʵʩȨɵΣСΪǿƣ־ֻжϡļӡݣ391ҳΪһЧԤɷԺijһٷΪǿʵʩAأɵĸйٿȫ1996꣬105ҳҹܷӦϵɣμйܷɷϡ±ࡶ2ɳ2000棬235239ҳ
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[34] 磬й޸ܷĽ飬һܷ
[35] һȱݣʵʩκδ˶Լ̤䳼ȨĹʩвʵи( Charles Howard McILwain , Constitutionalism Ancient and Modern ,Cornell University Press , 1940.p.95)
[36]μJohn H. Garvey and T.Alexander Aleinikoff Modern Constitutional Theory, 1994,Pp702-710.μLarry Alexander & Paul Horton, Whom Does The constitution Command? A Conceptual Analysis with Practical Implications. Greenwood Press,1988.
[37]Ϊ⣬ҹѧǴӡΪչΪֻͬ·й˾ģʽ෴
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[40]ʿ´ӳǰĽǶܷ塣ΪǰΪڣΪڡеµܷԭΪ淶ǹʽǣʿνǰѧѾע⵽ܷڸƹҪ壬ҽϺõذܷĹϵҶΪܷڱҪ⣬ջ⣬ʽ⡣ΪʲôȨȻŹʵʲôʽʵ״Ź״ķչƺǰҶУιιйʦ200212ڣ18ҳӦÿӽƶܷʵʩһܺõڣǣҪֹ˳ڽ綨ΥΪȻΣ
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[44]19509£ڡͬ졷ݽܷλ׼ײŽ⣬вοֵμ䷨ѧļɳ2001棬6373ҳ
[45]ĹȨߣ۹ڡʻģҲרƻõģȷϹ򣬹񣬲öϾסְܣִν˾ȨȨ˾ȨáƣιƺͷɴͳIJͬв족£ĸ˾ۡ20021ڣ
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[47] Լ10ǰһȺѧѺҴµһйȨչоȡΪȨʱμȨʱ--йȨչойѧ1995µ1棬1999޶ٰ棩
[48] μ¡ȨԴ--Ȩʷѧйѧ磬2001޶棩88-116ҳ169170ҳ
[49]ùԼּԭҹܷԭȨһµģҹɹ涨һ»ִҪе624783912102121143ң15119122012͵22lȣҪ漰̡ɡǨɡ绤ȨĬȨ̷ɺͽɵȡ
[50]磬ȨȨʹԼ141Ժͷͥǰƽȡڲöκ˵ָػȷڷϰȨʱ˽ʸݷȨܵġƫеķͥΪĹСϹļ汾вͬע

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