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֥ƺġӢܷ֥ơӢܷ

УӢܷԵĶԣijʱ̡ƶģ佥ɡģһĵķУɢһЩܷʷļƶ͹УɵɢڸԨԴġͨûʽϵֻϵ𣻶ġЩϰڶԳܷʵ֤˵Ӣܷƺһֲȷ״̬ѹִ½ϵпάԣӢܷʵڡ[1]101֮ʣûѧǶܽᡢɺͽͣӢܷܿܳΪһ׼ȷյĶǣӢСܷѧӢܷıߡ˵ӢʷչУر18һЩӢܷѧ粼˹֥ơѩղ˹ͼԲӵӢܷݽܽᡢɺͽ͵ѧߵ˾ȨԣΪЩѧߵҲΪӢܷһ֡[2]12

й˶Ӣܷ˽ǴӴѩʼġѩӢܷоۡ뱾ΪӢܾ塷ѳΪйܷѧоӢܷıϰ䣬ͬȨ䵫·İ֥ƵġӢܷȴһֱ뱾ڶ԰֥˼оҲΪհסЩйѧǷֺ֣̽й֮·ʱӢǿɿģӢܾܽԣ֥ƵġӢܷƲġڴˣӡݡԡ˴ζ԰֥ơӢܷ?νʱġ

һ ѧ·

ֶ?֥ƣWalter Bagehot1826꣬1877ꡣһңĸԴҵ˹壬T?W?֥˹ܲľˡ1848꣬22İ֥Ʊҵ׶شѧ˶ʿѧλ˺רķɣʦʸ񣬵Dzûִʦҵ׵ҵ1858ӢǺġѧҡ־˵ղķ˹?ѷ(James Wilson)ijŮ飻ѷȥӹˡѧҡֱ1877֥Ʋѧţ෽ļʶԨԴʹнӰķѧҡѧҡѧҺרҡ1867꣬½һڿϵۼӢڸ󡢾ԺƽԺԼӢܷʷϵ½Ἧ棬ǾġӢܷThe English Constitution Ӣҡμҡѧһֱ׽Ŵľ塣ѩ˵֥ƣܲӢεİ壬ʹϡġӢܷдȤζʤ[1]99Ӣѧ?ֳư֥Ϊʮܷķߡ[3]18ֵͨŴ洦ɼʽľ䡣֥ƵĹʹӢСΰάʱˡijⲿӢͷ˳Ӱ졣ӰѾԽͣ2001꡶ţ羭顷ڿд顣֥ơӢܷӰ˿ӢӰ졣һλѧڸ1898˵

һζӢξ̽һζӢƶġԵĺͷۣĿּ˵Щƶȵзʽָųȱʧ˵һλɻҺ͹Ķң˵һλ侲ġǵ̽ߡѧʶԨǿ۵Զ˵֡԰Ϊĵ塱ƫӢƶȱʧ̶ϬųĿ϶ϡƫǡڿѧ̬ףԹϴͳִ¡Ȩ۲κƫڸ󡢾ԺԺһһۼЩʱǴӿν໥ܶӳĽǶȼԿǵģӢ˵ϰߡͳĻԸϵɳ฻н¼Ϊڶķ˼ʵȨʹƶȶеIJͬײ״ӦԼѧѧȤѧ[4]3

벼˹ٺʹѩһǣ֥ƲһλϸϵҵĹ淶ߣһصĹߡӢܷصǣһּԣԷǡѧҡάʱȡɺʱõһ񣩺һּʽıʴδͳιIJֱ桰һܷa living constitution??һʵкЧеֵܷ̽IJϸӢܷʵڹpositive rulesǹĴʵ״̬ι(political conventions)ڡӢܷһУǿIJǶʵܷɹĽӢܷʵξʽϵܷʵĹ֮䣬֥ƺֺ̽ߣΪʵԣҴӲνIJɸıĹ򡣡[4]21ڰ֥ƿıϺϵӢһ£Ӣβϵľһ¡˵

ⷽ棨ָӢܷѺţ䶰һֱʵĹ۲߻ʵ֮ķе㵡пܶ鱾ûеĶ֣ᷢ鱾µĶڴªʵиҲ[4]54

ڰ֥Ƶֲص㣬ѩ䡶Ӣܾ塷ʱвΪȻѩǰ˹ͽЩоΪԺõĹۼ϶ЩܷԷɣconstitutional lawֻˡӢܾ塷󲿷һֲܷԷɵĹм1914ΪӢܾ塷޶ʱʱҵѳʵӢȨɵĶӢƵľӰ죬ʶΪһλʿױΪһˡ[1]81İ֥Ƽʮǰع۲쵽Ӣʵڹʵ֮޴󷴲úӵġʼڡӢܾ塷ĵдð֥ơӢܷе֡¬˵ʱѩʵͼص֥Ƶϡ[3]219

ӢܷҪ۵

νǶȽӢ֥ƵҪװһ¼㣺

һ ӢƷֳ֣ϵIJ֡the dignified part͡ЧʵIJ֡(the efficient part)

֥ΪͷչӢǸʱǽֳɡϵIJ֡͡ЧʵIJ֡Ǹ޷ϵIJ֡ӢƵۣЧʵIJ֡ıʣǰ߾мͱdz羴֮ĵĹܣʹƻȨͶЧʵIJ֡ǶȨִãǰǴƾõʷм̳ģӶûʣ϶ׯϣǾִԵģ򵥶ЧıӵִʽļԵÿӵһûʵʱʾĸʽׯԶԵøûʡ[4]61֥ƶӢеֲûȷ֣˵о͹ԺڡϵIJ֡ƽԺڸڡЧʵIJ֡Ӣ֮ףڸЧ֮ס

˵֥ǴδͳιIJӢܷġһӢܡϲ֡ĽֵΪԡһԱߺͰ˹˹١ܶʹѩӵġϵIJ֡ǴӴͳм̳ģ׼ȷ˵ӢƵijЩϵIJ־͵ĸԺ书ܺ͵λѾʱ䣬ûбǼΪƵлֶµĹܵijֶ˵ӢӼǰȨ߱ڵġԺȫһһԼִĻҲֻڸִǩ֡[4]101ȻӢƵһ֣ʹһЩȨȨthe right to be consultedȨ(the right to encourage);Ȩ(the right to warn)[4]116ΪһŽͳһάӢУΣʱ̳ΪӢ֮۵ѹϲ֡Ļɵģͨ족ġһַԵĶһԵĶһвĶЩвصĹҶԣֶǡһصij羴֮ġ,[4]56ֳ羴֮ʹӢƱáۡʱʹӢ˶ԻʼķӦԵú[4]85ȴ˵صӢʽƵĻҶԣӢСЧʵIJ֡ǿԷЧģΪġϵIJ֡ԷЧġھ߱ͬԣӢʽƵķЧֲֻ䡰ЧʵIJ֡Dzģʹ䡰ϵIJ֡õӦİšð֥ƴ۾ڶսձƵİϿⱣձСϵIJ֡ʣżȻġսձŲǵձ桱ִձǷȶDz֪ġ

ӢСЧʵIJ֥֡Ǵ͵ġ֥һߣҲƵʵͽӢܷ18651866ܷ1867Ӣڶĸ﷨̨֮ǰӢܷһʱǴεĽǶȶǴӷɵĽǶȣ֥Ʋظĸ﷨ʱ仯ľӰ죩ӢܷܴεĽǶȷӢƵʱ仯ʱǿδͳιμҵã1867ĸ﷨̨󡰹ΪɷѡƱʵЧֵ磬ǣʼնȷر˶ӢʵĶġͻرƽԺȨǿϡ

ڰ֥ʱӢȨѹתƵᡣУƽԺ͹ԺְܻʱûȷԺȨϵ1911꡶̨ᷨʱſʼ֥̽ԺϵʱȷʾѡƽԺȨͬÿԺҲҵȻѾ¶ʱԺԺ[4]20??????ڵǿҶһ£ȷӦ˹Աǵ־ַӦѡǵ־ôҿԺӢòӦԷԡ[4]22ۼڸԭʱ϶ԭǣȨľȨ??????[4]77ַָܹԸѡһһȫЩѡƱһе?????? [4]186ڱȽӢСȨʱָȨǵһģӢǵһģӢյȨѡƽԺ[4]240ڸ¼ġ³ķѫĸԡһۼսӢ׺ŷ½IJʱ֥Ҳֳ˶ԡʥͬˡרŷ½IJмר岻һɵĹܵӭרڽ̵ʥͬ˺ӢܷЭdz״أ״Ҳ⡣ҵڣвʤĹ롣½ǽרơƵ??????[4]299

ӢܷЧܡĽʾȨȨġȫںϡ

ڰ֥ʱеӢܷΪӢһ֡Ȩ롰ƺ⡱ơ˽ӢȨֳȨȨ⽻Ȩ֣ŷ½˼ҲΪȨķӢƵӢеõ֡ǣڷӢеġʵİ֥飬϶ӢܷЧܿ˵ȨȨ֮Ľϣһּȫںϣtotal fusion [4]62˵ǰ֥ƶӢҲмֵһ֡ѧȻֵ̽ġȨơԴڴˡ

֥ۼӢƵȨԴʱ϶ѡԺƽԺյȨ˳˼·ĴѩܽӢܷĵһԭ򣬼Ȩǣ֥ƲûֹڴˣǴʵʵʵнһھ򣬲ӢȨȨġȫںϡһ

νںϡָȨȨգζŶߵڹᡣζŶԾԡȨijƫ룬˵ijֵơ

֥ƽһָӢȨںϵӵǡڸ󡱡ڸһ´ʻ㣬⼴һѡԳίԱᡱ[4]62һõġֺšһõġӡӺͽ۵ǹҵֺ֡ԴϽһ֣Ͻһ֡[4]64

ڸȻһίԱᣬӢܷĹнɢȨڸĽɢȨʹصĶһȨٵĴߡһ壬һ塣DZģƻԴϽģжȴлԡ[4]60֥ƽӢڸֽɢȨΪƽԺһȨġthe modulatorΪӢܷԳɹе֮һһǡȫڸԹԺԱIJȨŹԺӢһϵеĸеλ½ԼֲȨȡȫڵӢеѾ󣩡֮ԱҪΪΪȨߵƽԺġ֥ƽƽԺȱܽΪ棺ԡԺ˽ԡ[4]243ĴӢȨȨ߶ںϵҪ֤

μʱáǿ

Ӣѧ߶ӢܷһѧƷչһǴӷɷ棬Dz˹ٺʹѩʷ棬ǹ(Hallam)͸(Freeman)Ǵη棬ǰ֥ơ֥ӢĶӽdzδͳӢܷʵһ⣬ͻرԱʱӢĸ﷽μҵġáǿϡ

Ӣܷװ1867ٰ꣬ʱ֥ƼдһƪġԡƪУνǶȶʱӢϵͳܽᡣۼٳʱʱûаعڸĸ﷨ΪμҵĻͶڵ

ӷɵĽǶȿӢʮ͵ǽӶĸ﷨Ľ1832ĵһθĸ﷨ʹʲ׼ѡȨ1867ĵڶθĸ﷨ʹ˽׼ѡȨͨθĸӢ̨Ͼй塢ʲ׼޲׼ȶԪԴԺӢ̤һ֡ϷȡȨȨĶڸĸƵĿ½С20ͼνһĸĸѡȨӢʵˣӢڱ˷ʽı£ͨĸȱ˴ͳɣʵ˳ֵˣӷɵĽǶȿٳľһϵеĸĸ﷨ǣڴνǶȷӢİ֥ƵصĿ

дƪԡʱڶθĸ﷨Ѿʵʩꡣ֥Ʊ˵1867ĸ﷨һشƶȴ²شЧΪЧʱΪֹвΪ֪ʵ˵ǣ1865Ŀõľޱϸ˵϶ġ[4]9ΪЩޱμҵġʹɡµġξ񡱵ı仯¡ûиĸ﷨һԭҲޱ䡣[4]8ǵԱֱ仯κӰ죺

һιǡһƬɭֻ֣迳ͻȡ֮ڵƴͿĽʼɳЩӪһµķΧµµ۱档[4]9

ڰ֥ƿʹμξı仯Ȼܹٳı仯ڰոĸ﷨ջѡȨĶѡĸμ֮䣬֥Ժ̹ʱ亦ѡеǸ֪Ĵ[4]22Ⲣ˵ЩѡѡȨ˵ΪDz֪ʹǵѡȨҪμǵ»ѡȨĽײ㲢ȾеĽײҪʹ෴½ײҪ[4]11ţ֥дһѩԮڡӢܾ塷ԡֵǿμǵΡ䣺

ͬʱǵμ˺öδûᣬҲеΡDzòµѡʹѡȨþĵۼһɹҵҪμһʱӵо޴ȨΪĶԻͨһݽܳһʱԺ˵ЩʲôдЩʲôͬǵĹƶǵĸ??˳֮Ϊƽ̨ƽ̨ϣǺ˽νбǵָͨԼͨɲͬμĸָıȽϣγжϡͨ˵ǺжλҪעЩ⣻ֻܾжϣӲȷ⡣ȷЩ⽫¹غֶϣμdzеرشΡʹͲЩпܱЩͲŪЩʹЩͲ˵ҵ治һ»ͻǽݺҵǰ;һʵУǿʹȥܻⳡʵ顣Щθеİ֪ǿڵǰҲֻʱȴЩк⡣ǿһЩΪһ׼һ⣻һЩɿԸ˵⡣Щ۽ʹΪij·ʹǹʵ??зʹǹò??ΪһòʽԽǮЩҪǮˣĸȱѡǵҪͼһ˵á??ڻã϶ܹ??ôڸտʼⳡʵ齫עҪʧܡΪ䷢ѡȨ˵һ޴ѣЩõ˵ͬǾ޴ѡ[4]1415

ѩʶλʿı徯ķ50¡20ͺڣѹµӢӢҲʼձʶ˰֥λķ

йʾ

йһܷҡеʵ徫ѧ˶֣ᷢйܷıʵ֮Ÿķһ棬ܷûӦʵЧһ棬ʵЧIJһЩܷҲĶЩʵǰ֥˵ιЩַ˵֥ƵġܷĶ·൱ʾá߸о֥ƵġӢܷһܹйṩһ¼ʾ

ȣӦӶܷʵЧĿ졣йܷѧǹ÷ʵ֤ķͺͷܷıʵڹ򣬶ӶЩʵЧ͹ܵĿ졣һûʵЧõܷʽ϶ô걸ʵԵ˵û壬ʹƫʵĿꡣΡ͡ȨԶܷıУʵʢеĿȻκȨ˵йܷдʵ֤ĽDz԰ġҪһֹķ

ΣӦܷرιáǰ֥Ƹֱӵʾʵξõǡܡa living constitutionôǾӦöܷ㹻ӡѧⷽĺϵͳоʱա

ٴΣתڼ䣬DzܺξӢǵáйδȻƶ͵ġȻǵġʹɡܲӢԶٳɰ֥˵ʱޱ䣬ǣʵںξӢƶĸ﷽עܵ͹ġ

󣬴νǶ裬ǴӺϲƫĻԭԭȨԭȨԭͷԭĹʵѾγһЩܷЩΥͷԭġ˵˽ǵȨῴǰ֥ʾܷġϵIJ֡ʵʹȨĻ˵ǡЧʵIJ֡⻴ɽۣûʲôֶΣˡܷγֻڲΥͷεľǰ½СĻֹγɵԽ࣬ǾʵԽԶ


ο

[1] ѩ.Ӣܾ[M].ױ.йƳ磬2001.

[2] ޺ ߢӢ.ʱҵܷƶ[M].ѧ1983 .

[3] ?.[M].֣룬 ӡ2003.

[4] ֥.Ӣܷ.룬ӡ2005.
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