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йѧ ʹϵѧԺ 100872


2090ë󶫼˼о

[ժҪ] 2090ս״̬Ļʱ䣬ҲйڲսԵٶȵë󶫼˼оҲתƷɸΪӡʶ̬Сѧ·ӡоϵڵۡӡһη򡰷۶ԪѧߵʶоԹͬһон塣 [ؼ] ë󶫣ë˼룻ëой

2090ս״̬Ļʱ䣬ҲйڲսԵٶȵë󶫼˼оҲԵתγijֲͬǰ˸о׶ε򡣱ƾĿǰ֪һЩϣë󶫼˼о״رѧһоһ 2090ë󶫼˼оĶ̬ʶоȷ棬ΪͬһоṩµϢڴٽë󶫼˼оҵһкͽ塣 һӡʶ̬۱硱ѧ·

۹2050ëо״ˡս˼άɫʡDzųб൱ϸѧʽҲ԰ëоרһΪɡ͡ѧԺɡʹǡѧԺɡĴѧ֣̽Ҳ¶൱ʶ̬۵ζ

90ս״̬Ļʱ䣬ҲйڲսԵٶȵѧ磬ë󶫡ηһȻѧгϰԡ󡱡Сҡ̬ȻȻڣһл͵ļ󣬵ķʽParadigmڷ仯

1989˷Roderick MacFarquharˣTimothy Cheek⣨Eugene Wu࣬ߵMerle Goldman ʷȣBenjamin I. Schwartzѧ߲μӵġëϯܽӡٻ˶Ծһ飬ѧ档Ϊۡ͡ס֣ǰһ˷ʷȡλѧ߷ֱ׫дĵɣһë1957굽195819ƪɣСٻ˶ʱڵĽ14ƪԾ ʱڵĽ5ƪӦ˵Щ棬ʾʷ׷ıͷĺܸ߾磬Ҳӳëоѧɵķ۷òУʷȽڵߴԡΪй⡱ȨʷȶʷϵıαͼֵϸµĿȻٴ׵ë˼ֳġꡱTotal Redemption롰ȫۡUtter Frustration֮ĸӹϵΪë괦йڲϵʵ뵳㽻ĸӱ֮У˼Ҳ໥ϵ໥ìܵĻҪأü򵥡ַϷʽ˵˵ƪ÷ѧʷ巽۵ľ֮

1994꣬Ϊë100굮ӢйƳˡë󶫰ꡱרëоѧߡӢ׶شѧǷоԺʩķStuart R. Schram֣ƪԺƪġʩķġë󶫰꣺һͳߵŲ֮ģֱӡë󶫼ɳȡȨйʽ·˼а塱ũа˼뵽׼ëйʷеλ߲ۡ͡ɡЩݼ˹ë˼о±Ҳëоʶڷ۽ǶϣȻ֡ʷ + ۡĴͳģʽ˵

ѧ߲ͬǣִҮ³ѧѧ˹ɣMaurice Meisener,ڷƱõѧУʮһգʼʵԼѧܾ롰ʱ֡йͬȻԼо˼·չԡë塱о˹ɼΪѧԡëʱ۴ƫں̶ܴʶ̬йǿ󸻵ļ̬йءָʵë󶫵ǸʱԶձ鴫νľͣʱʷΰִʱ֮һ¹ձͶȼִҵ̨Ҫ֮ĹҵʱȺѷɫȥȷëʱйũҵ֮һɵ2070ΪֹҵǿĹȡõľ˳ɾͣͲëʱСƽʱľ⡣ʵϣë󶫷չԵҪͲеĴ󲿷ֶǸٹҵĸƷȷľʵ޷ë֮ʱռ֧λĸĸ ڡСƽʱй˵̽ѯ1978-1994һУ˹主߼ԷдĻζ˹ڶʮĿֶεҪ⡣ ʷûбʱɸߵͳߵתĺر¶ ҲжԲƽȡӢ塢ȼ塢ĸԴ̵׷ ӹ׸ԣ˼Ĺ۵㣬ǡǡӳѧƷ,Ϊһʵһ֮ԡ

ϸֶë󶫵ѧ۶ԣ1997ѧߡſ˴ѧĵˣArif DirlikԼPaul HealyأNick Knightġë˼͸ӡ һ飬90ɡë˼оߵı־ѧרšһǡۣë˼ѧɾ͡ڶǡë˼˼ۡǡȫ˼Ұµë˼롱Ӹݿ漰ǰԵ⣬ȫ򻯡ִִ塢Ů塢ξѧĻŲ˶Ǩ˹Ӱ졢ëĶ˼֤ë汾һϵר⡣һ̶Ϸӳǰëо⡢ܺ·򣬾൱ȡ ǽ͸е˹ڡִԡµġë塱֮ʵķһԽܡһɱĹ۵㲢ܴǰëоʶͷȫ򣬵ȴչʾ䳬Խʶ̬ѧֵ̽Ļ

ָ˼֮ڷһ޴ۣǣʱ֮ԱȻ;ĩ·ʧܣǡǡijɹ֮ʱٻľ޴춨ĻȻ˼ĽǣִԵĴˡֻܡͨӳ̵ִ֡ԡӳ̵ִ֡ԡ壬ִ޲׼ֻDzִܴлøӷḻġšԡǣһ棬ǿ˿ѧͿѧ˼άľ޴ֲִԺͼΪ״ܹ͸˶֮УͨʱἼõʵ֡һ棬Ҳִ֮еĻԡִдݻƻЩȶԺͿɿԵϵԴӴȻнųȴְؽһɹƶߡԼԻҵĹԹɵġ֮С۲ִʱ˵˼뵽20ĩҶʱִ岢ǡִìܵһ·һЩì֮ȥĸɿ̵;ԣ˷־޴ìܵij嶯ͱȻǡʹѱִʷعʷĵλ ָάϿ⣬ë˼ٵͬһ⡣ëͼ̽йìܣһ̽Ҳìܵģһ棬ë󶫰ìܵΪì֮Ƶ໥ʹ޾δǰһһ棬Լ־ìܣЩìδһԼĸδǰǣëԼ˵ʲôǽìܵġȷ𰸡ʵʵУì֮໥ȡʽⳡУëǽͼҡйĶԣë󶫵ǼִģõЧȴ൱ƻԵġڳ׷µִԡʱ巽棬ĻӺҲһ20ʵȫҲһִìܵij·ѧִԵĻǰ֮桱 ѿڡִִԡҰ£ԡĻʵ֣̽ѾԽʹ䡢ͷźʹpolitical viewľΣһ̶ϣҲͻˡȨ弫Ȩй񡱵IJ棬ʹë󶫡ۺʵоΪ컯֮ձһֵ˼Ķ

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ʱθֵⲿйĸ↑ŵڲ仯Ӱ쵽ëоת֮ѧڵġʶۡ͡оҪҲӦչ

һӽϣë˼͸ӡһνëоһģӡ󡣸鲻оӽǺⷽ淢˺ܶ仯ֵעǸҲڷ۷,һȡ档һǡȫ򻯡ӽǡڸ顰ָۡë˼֮ṹ뷢չо棬һҪı仯ѳй磬Ӱ쵽ȫص˶Ӱ³ƶ壬ë󶫵˼붼ѹǻƸʽǨ򷴿ƽսԵԭĻ ֮һϣѧΪֻаë˼뿴21͡ȫ򻯡˶Ҫ֮һȷжë˼ۼֵʵ壬־Ӱ͡Ըԡȫ˼еë֮˼롱Ϊ⣬ޡӡȡԽϡձͷɱҺ͵˾ëоСĶС2080ڵ90ڣغ͹ͷëоеķ⣬ ڸɭE. P. Thompsonѧ˼Ϳ£R.G. CollingwoodʷۣǿӦԡʷʵ롰˼ʵ֣ϲܰѡʵfacts롰֤ݡevidenceΪһ̸ʷر˼ʷоνġneatral givensDzڵġ ΪʷѴло֪ģʽһ֡ԣءë󶫵ıȻζë󶫡˼о֪߱ģʽ֪ʶܹۼ裬˵оĽ˵оǰᡣֻΪë󶫼˼о֪ʶۣEpistemology֮˼άϷ򡱵ĻϣDzܰѡ¡ľΡָնKarl Raimund PopperǿʵڵĹ۲첻ģΪ뿪ۣ⡢衢Ԥ²ָãͲʶ۲󣬸Ҫ˵θͷˡʵڡ;鶼ܸЩֻ۲ˡˣһй۲춼ۣʵ֤֪ʶ˲߼ġ֤ ֡ʵ֤塱ķڸеõ˽һǿ

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ëһμҺ˼һĸʷҲִй֮˼롢ƶȺвĥӰ죬ԣ˼˼оһ־ԵѧǺʵġǣĽǶȺIJչоһ޿ŵ̽ռ䡣

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ĿǰйڵëоȻŽۿܺͷߵҪҪ·?оʱۡĴѧ˼άͷ۲εĿءӦӵǣĿǰйë󶫼˼о֤·ԭԭѧƵľ磬Ծá⽻ΪоֱȽԣʹ˼Ƕȵо֣̽Ҳ淶ѧ˵ʷоܺͱȥԶ״ԭ֮һëоо۵ԵĪйأΪؼǣ״ҲDZڵرǵȷдڰë󶫷˼ʦĸ߲мصĿǺоԶԣѧѹʷȽ2060ֱ90ڣһֱעʹ˼ʷġë󶫣¬󡱵ıȽоҰУλҪ˼Ҷ֪ʶν̲˾޴Ӱ졣 еоɹԵԶԶѧԵķԭԷͷϵд硰ıѧѡۡ͡ƶ塱ȵĿǰѧõķߣë󶫼˼оûеõáǣʷʱķչѾǵëо˸ߵı׼͸µҪ

ȻйëоԼĿꡢṦܺѧΪԼιػĻģʽṹѧͳּȤֻǿɹȽϵһҪIJն--ѧоӽǡʶоͻ۵ȷֲ죬󡣵ǣѧߵëоɹκһչ˵˽Ĺ۵뷽̵ķкͽȡӪǽȺͱҪġʹë󶫼˼оֱӲϣѧߵоʽҲԴ̼Ƕ-ѧƻо淶ѧʡʶӶһƶйë󶫼˼оѧҵʹлߵĹס

[ο]

[1] йоңë˼ϡ༭룺ë˼Ĵδս׳磬1993

[2] 硢ǮŲƣëں⡷磬1993

[3] .ѧë󶫡 (ľ:˵Ĵ˵)й˳磬1997

[4] ͻë˼оں⡷ë󶫵Сƽо19995ڡ

[5] ˻ѣë˼оʷ̼ص㡷ѧо20007ڡ

[6] 90ë˼оպѧѧư棩20013ڡ

[7] ǰ˭ë󶫵ļ̳ˣ곱19998ڡ

[8] Nick Knight, The Marxism of Mao Zedong: Empiricism and Discourse in the Field of Mao Studies. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 16 (1986).

[9] Roderick MacFarquharTimothy Cheek and Eugene Wu,eds. The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao, the President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1989.

[10] Paul Healy, Reading the Mao Texts: The Question of Epistemology. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 20, 3 (1990).

[10] Stuart R. Schram, Mao Zedong a Hundred Years on The Legacy of a Ruler. In The China Quarterly, Vol. 137.March, 1994 ).

[11] Tony Saich and Hans van de Ven Eds. New perspectives on the Chinese Communist revolution. M.E. Sharp, Inc. 1995.

[12] Arif DirlikPaul Healy and Nick Knight ed. Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong` Thought. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1997.

[13] Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich eds. New perspectives on state socialism of China, M.E. Sharp, Inc. 1997.

[14] Richard H. Solomon, Maos Revolution and the Chinese Political Culture, Center for Chinese Studies the University of Michigan, 1998.

ԭءйѧѧ20036ڣ

1 ⻪ѧߵоɹڱĵķΧڣо

2 Benjamin I. Schwartz Thought on the late MaoBetween Total Redemption and Utter Frustration, in The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao, the President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1989,pp.19-38.

3 See, Stuart R. Schram, Mao Zedong a Hundred Years on The Legacy of a Ruler. In China Quarterly, Vol. 137.March, 1994 ), pp. 125-143.

4 Ī˹?˹ɣԹëʱתԡйܿ [ http://www.mlcool.com ]

5 Ī˹?˹ɣСƽʱй˵̽ѯ1978-1994P.53.תԣ³˹?˹Ī˹?˹ɵġСƽʱй˵̽ѯ룬ԭءÿۡ199711ºš

6 Arif DirlikPaul Healy and Nick Knight ed. Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong` Thought. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1997.

7 See, Arif Dirlik, Modernism and Antimodernism in Mao Zedong`s Marxism. In Arif DirlikPaul Healy and Nick Knight ed. Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong` Thought. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1997, pp. 59-83. صΪԭӡļִ뷴ִԣë󶫵˼塷룬ࡶѧë󶫡һʷƽϡй˳磬1997pp.199-232.

8 Benjamin I. Schwartz, Chinese Communism the Rise of Mao, Harvard University Press, 1951/1969. ëѧоԴԻڸУʷ״ë塱ĸΪëоҪʽӰ켫ָɳⷭ룬йѧ档

9 ֵ?ƶȣBelden Fieldsë塷롢Уʮ磬2000P.114ģ˹УCornelius Castoriadisë뷨֪ʶӡߴ֣Claude Cadartʽë˥,1966-1979أࡶĻʷʵоۣĴѧ磬1996, pp. 319-334

10 лٲ?ղķɭëᡷءġ19995ڡ

11 ࣺ¶ɭļжۡء۴ԡ19951ڣ ꣬1995PP.175-176

12 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World-economy, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 13. תԣ㡶 ϵйӡݣ2000P. 307-311

13 Arif Dirlik, Modernism and Antimodernism in Mao Zedong`s Marxism. In Arif DirlikPaul Healy and Nick Knight ed. Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong` Thought. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1997. P.5.

14 See, Nick Knight, Mao and History: Who Judges and How? The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 13 (1985), pp.12136; Nick Knight, The Marxism of Mao Zedong: Empiricism and Discourse in the Field of Mao Studies. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 16 (1986), pp. 722. And Paul Healy, Reading the Mao Texts: The Question of Epistemology. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 20, 3 (1990), pp.33058.

15 See, E. P. Thompson, The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays. (London: Merlin Press, 1978.) ; R. G. ¡ʷĹ䡢Ľ룬йѧ磬1986

16 ˡءëоеľࡶѧë󶫡ľ˵Ĵ˵й˳磬1997P.122.

17 һ⣬ϾѧƷɲʿġѧеġë塱ıĶģʽתδ壩ר˲׸лƷɲʿԱ߶ϡ

18 See, Brantly Womack, Where Mao Went Wrong, in The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, Vol. 16 (Jul., 1986), pp.23-40 ,and ed. Contemporary Chinese Politics in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 1991. ˵ë˼Ļ뱾йѧ档

19 ģTony Saich and Hans van de Ven Eds. New perspectives on the Chinese Communist revolution. M.E. Sharp, Inc. 1995; and Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich eds. New perspectives on state socialism of China, M.E. Sharp, Inc. 1997.

20 David E. Apter, Discourse as Power: Yan`an and the Chinese Revolution. In Tony Saich and Hans van de Ven eds. New perspectives on the Chinese Communist revolution. M.E. Sharp, Inc. 1995, pp.198-205. ޵Ұ·C.P. FitzGerald1976Mao Tse-tung and ChinaۼΪл񹲺͹֮ŵë󶫡ᷨLowell DittmerڡйһƪΪMao Tse-tung: the Man and the SymbolУʽѡë󶫷šΪһʹáָΪһĸˣë˽˵ȱͲ㣬ΪһҵĵߣѾͬ壨vehicle, ڹʹ۵гУëҲ˴缤ս桮ִܵĿɶһͨûҡp. 822.

21 See, Stuart R. Schram Party Leader or True Ruler? Foundation and Significance of Mao Zedong`s power. In Schram ed. Foundations and limits of State Power in China. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1987; Raymond F. Wylie, The Emergence of Maoism: Mao Tse-tung, Ch`en Po-Ta the Search for Chinese theory,19351945. Stanford University Press,1980; ׵ˡC ̩Τ˹ë󶫵Сƽ룬й뵳У磬1991PP. 80-156뱾ԭҪ޸ġԭΪFrederick C. Teiwes, Leadership, Legitimacy and Conflict in China: From Charismatic Mao to the Politics of Succession. M. E. Sharpe Inc., 1983.

22 Richard H. Solomon, Maos Revolution and the Chinese Political Culture, Center for Chinese Studies the University of Michigan, 1998, pp. xxi -xxiii.

23 Benjamin I. Schwartz, The Reign of Virtue: Leader and Party in the Cultural Revolution. And The Rousseau Strain in the Contemporary World, in China and Other Matters, Harvard University Press, 1996, PP.. 169-186; 208-226. 뱾ʷйĹë󶫵һ֮Уйѧ档



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