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ͷιϵ

ڻصĶϣһҲǸģĴʣҲͬ˶ľ庬Ųͬ⡣Ϊ¼Ҫأ1һ߼Ƿģܷ2˾飻3һӵзɽȨĶɵķԺ4ȻӦķɳ򣻲ңΪǣ5ҪȷʽԼԳȻܹƳ־Էɸļ̤1987P.309ĶصǿġΡ档
ǵͼԣΪһԵĸζһ԰ŵϵͳһ߷һܷһУϵͳҪܵ߷ƣֻ־ⶨΪͨһЩԤƶõƶȳͨƾѡٻƣȡ͸ıһ߷ȻЩ仯ڻ۱Ĵֱ֧ȽѶ̫ƵȨƺ˾֮֮ӦڴάȨһЩΪڲֹһһκֻҪܷ߱κһ֣ϵͳĸΧȥĶһǵĶΪƪУҽѡ͡Ϊ滻ĸʹáΪϵͳԣǹȥڵģʵġ,1987,p.309
ǿԴ϶Ķеõܶవʾȣһ廯ƶʵ֡ͨ߷Լ͵ȨͨȨȷDZЧŵġΣͬصȨ෴ģϿȨûκܳԽܷزܷĵﲢұܷơĻ֮ϵģǾձġ˹ٷ. ķ˹ģһǰǡΪһͨ˶ԣͳ߱ҲDZҪġķ˹1995,p.5ҲζţձģͳҲ⡣Ϊͳߣͨһ㣬ҲģҲҪ÷ѵơ
⣬´ӻķ˹ĹķǴͳеĽѡȥĸ
κܹʹ㹻ȨܵھӶĻҲ㹻ȨūҡִȻ״̬۵Ļϣβܴ״̬аѳֲ뱩֮Уθͳ߷㹻Ȩȥ񣬵ͬʱҪֹDZļȨԴĽ취죬ȻвңӢûгĵϰ߷ġͬķʽ֯ģַʽȨͬʱҲڵȨˡɴˣһֵó޵Ĵ٣ΪζһϵеĶϵĹϵͳУ״̬רƵ⡱ķ˹1995pp.270-71
Ҳ˵ġȣһӵгܷĹҲһʵһһܴܷdzĵģDzûЧȥΪΣһܷ߱ĹңһȴʵʩӢûһ硰ʼܷܷļû˻ӢһӢӵһijܷͬʱӵдľܷ߱ȨļЩļа¡(1215),Ȩ1689÷1701ԼһЩȷӢⷨЩļӢԼɴͳһγĻ֮յǣܷ칹֮´Ӹ.յıȽѧѡժƬǾԵģ
ʱDzǷһġļҲ˵ǹעһΪʽĻδͳʷ.ʽı䣬ЩΪĽһģΪܵơ,2000,p.28
ҲܷϵȨԡܱ֤ܷȨأѾܷȨ֮Ե֧ţԭκΪһܷĵûеȨȥܷܷҲζţܷڸָԼܱЩı䡣ܷȨˡ
ܷĵЩáΪܷǾͱʴȡΪ˷κζܷĺ;ԽDZҪһϵеƶȰš·˿.Ϊ¼Ҫأ1ܷɵ2Ȩķ3Ȩ4ܷ飻5˾6ܵȨԼ7ԾĿƣ8ӹһң10ûκιȨ˵ȨҪ߶ƺԼʹDzֹܷеijһֻȫĵȨʹο2000
ΧһЩĹľŸҪֳܱ飬ֱܷӦһܷܣһǹȨɺģһǴȨġӦ鹦ܵƶȰŽʼЧԴȷܷȨԺͱ֤ǿȴ֮ܵĴڣԼɵıϡ
ܷĵһȨɺ衣ƶ£ϵǸܷġܷ涨η͹ȨһϵڣбȽƵѡ֤ȨͬҲȨķԼƺ⡣ͬΪȨʹбڷα׼˵ף֮ɴȨdz״̬֮Ȩʩơ
ĵڶҪȨϡƶ£ӵܷϵԼɺͲƲȨɡͨҪһ˾أ߲˾صʵִŶغŷܷĹܡܷ龭Զ˾ʽֵģڸȨıǺܱģҶܷõȨȨķԼƺԣܷҲһҪıء
ǿܷܷ֡1787ܷҪǹעȨɺȨġдȨάȣһˮƽάȣһάȡˮƽάȨֳţأغ˾ءάȨֳ֡
ܷ1791ڡȨĻϽмǿܷȨıܡġȨ10ӡһʮΪṩԸȨĸıԼȨṹиӵܷС
ܷһͣǿԸϸķܷĸ֡ȨɺؼǾǡȨķ͡ƺ⡣ܶ߿һ⣬ǾΪȨأغ˾صȫ롣һѧΪʲôͳжķȨȨѵΥȨĻ趨һѧΪʲôԺٿͳĵѶѵռ˷Ժ˾ȨЩ֮ԻᷢΪȨ⡣ȷͬ⹹Ҫԡ1787ܷĻ˵Ľṹƺδע⵽ɵҪԤ취⼸ȨķʽͻƻһʽϵƽۣʹõijЩҪֵIJƵ⵽ƻΣաļ47ƪ1787ܷƺʮϵ˹ǿܱõĹ۵----أغ˾صȫ롣
ǣղķ˹.ѷȨķŲͬ⡣ԣ1787ܷĵ˴IJϵ˹Ȩۡϵ˹۵ʵ˼ǣһŵȫȨȴһŵͬһЩʹԼҲӵԼȫȨ£ܷĻԭѾ߸ˡDz鿴һһЩݵܷǻᷢ֡ûһݣǵĸŵȨǾԷġļ47ƪ
˵Ĺ۵㣬ȨĸܴӼලԼƽĽǶȥ⡣Ȩζܹȫͻߡ׵ķ뽫ʹлңûЧʶΣյơΪʲôȨҪƺijɷˡÿһĿŵȨÿһŶij̶ֳȵƿȨ֮ƶƨDDȨѷԿɳΪȨ֮ƺƿֹŰļȨҲ˵ƺ⽫ֹܹרƼȨ֡磬˵ûȨؽȡȨѷ˵ͽƤֽ϶ԸʵԼǿ϶ģЩ޷ֿǵȨȨʴġѷ˵ЩŵϺͻʹŶŶзļලԭҪġһ˵Dzɻȱ̶ַȣʵԶܵõʽά֡ļ48ƪ
Ϊ˷ֹרƣڲƺ⣬ȨӵеĶͳķȨԼԷٵĵȨʹܹΪijֵĸΪǺ磬ȨʹʽΪ֮ǰܵغȨ˫飬ƶ񷨵ĸʽ١ȨƲͳļٶ෴ģֻϿ׷ʵ
Ŷ֮Ȩһ׼ʵǡ.ȨҪ汣ַ룬ͲųΪضĿԾֲĻϡ־ֲϣijЩ£DzҶڸȨ֮ĻԼDZҪġļ66ƪ
˿ע⵽Աȶ.ֶٵĵѶԺֵģ߷ԺΪʲôأô˾ȨˣһƶȰǷΥȨԭأһ⣬˵ĻشǷ񶨵ġ˾ӦԺ߷ԺжͳĵѶ˼ԭ򡣵һͳĵְһ⡣һӦͨγҸٲͨѡٲģ˷ֵвҸεġڶͳDZѡٳģǷٲǡǷѡͳر⣬ѡķٽȱľκȨȥ˵Ĵ£ڵ֧ǺҪġΪ˻ȡڵ֧֣۾ҪܵӰ죬ǶڷͥЩѡķ٣ûȥӰ칫۵ģʵϣ빫۵ԵġγɶյǣΪͬڵԱǷdzóӰ칫۵ġģھǷͳϣҪdzصġصԼҪ˵أ˾ʹijӱսǷdzҪġȻ߷ԺպܶٵĹ۵㣬ȴֻӵкٵijԱܹ9٣壬ԺֵĵѶ˫Σա仰Ҳ˵ͳᱻͥΡͳְȻǡߺ׷һ㷨εġͥȶͳеоҪһķߣô纺ܶ˵ģ֤ڵѶ֮֮ͨǰύǰһǿҵƫսʤ֤ݴӰ조ļ6566ƪ
ͳеĵѶٿԼȡѵȣȨķζȫ׵ķ롣Ϊ˷ضĿģȨֲĻʱֵõģ˵DZġڶһİţһЩصĿǵģһܷҲҪڲͬĿġ֮ʵʹΪһЧ֮ЭʽҪĹ̡
ṹһҪķ̾Ƕܷ飬˾ʽ֡ʲô˾أǡԺһȨȨԼͬˮƽĻľ˷ɴʵ䣩رģ˾ҲƶԼƶһ㷨ⷨȨ˾ͨغأƶķȨԴֹܷԼɵַȻΪ˽˾飬˻ʵҪӦϡ
Ժڽ˾УҪԼϵȨܷŵΥܣԺȨΪЧԺ߱ΨһܷȨЩIJλһIJ϶һġҲ˵ͬԺһݷԺͨҲӵнܷԼԼŽȨƾ˾ȨڷƶĶɵԺΪֹغʴȨģҺܷĺ;ıݡˣܷȨԵά
ȻһȻͳ֣Ʒ٣ֹ˾ضܷĺ;ȨʴܷڷٵȨкܶơȣٿΪȨᵯԼԺְΣ˾ƺ˾ǷdzҪķĻڴ£˾ϰ߷ʹ˾ȨĹ򡣵Էɽн͵ĸָֹٵȨʩ˾ơģֶڷоģʱѧԼרҵ͹㷺ýͬԼŷ١󣬻רҵʦƿصĴҵ淶Щ淶ʵԼġ
йġϵͳбȽϣDZȽԵġйأȫᣩȨݣ޸ܷ֮йֻܷȫĵȫҲӵΨһܷȨΪһߵȨءȫأԺ˾أԺ֮ϡûȨԼƺ⣬ΪȫϲҴϽߵȨ˾޷˴־֮⣬ͨû˾飨ϷΧ֮ڣԺȨԴΪĸŽضϣ֮йڷdz޵˾ĹңܷDzΪһȨеġҲ˵йûܷѧ
ٰĿͶĵڶ֣ҲȨϡ1787ܷûСȨʵϡȨʧǷ߶ԡ1787ܷйһԭά1787ܷ˷1787ܷ꣬ûбҪӵȨIJ֡ǸһԭǣЩûڡȨСȷȨͿܳΪרַȨĽڡ1787ʤǹڡȨĹ۵1791걻ˣ1791ܷˡȨ10
ºȨ൱ҪĽɫ˾Ժܷ鲻άܷȨԼ֤ܷƺĹܣǶڸȨıͬǷdzؼġٲκһƣҲܴʱԸңΪDzѡĶһƵġܹȨͺ壬ʱҪΥеĹ۵㣬ΪDzõѡٻ߼н---ٵнˮֻǣDzܵŵĿơ˶ԣ˾Ժ˾ȨϵзdzҪĻڡ
ܷ涨ȨεõԺıģһ֤ġܷġ5дû..ԲķɳͱԼƲ14Ҳдûκ..ԲķɳͰκθ˵ԼƲ֮ijζȷijϵȨһӵе֪ȨȨԼ绤Ȩ͵õеȨȵȣɻ߲ƲűضķΣաܷѧҲСʵ򡱣һѾûʹˡijζڲͬ£вͬijϣǺĻһµġһ۵ǵһǿȨʱܱȷij򱣻һ۵ʽģٶź͹־֮⣬DzȨЩɺͲƲ֮ǰԳ򱣻
ijڳĿһ⡣һƪ۵ģ塣һdz򣨻ʽ壬һʵ塣ζij̣ʵζŹĽ˵һ˵ȷɱˣʵΪӦö˰շɳгͷȻɱDZǷƹɱ˵УйĽҵյɱ֤ݣܺ˵ʬȵȣύ֤ͥʵɵģûг壬Ϊ֤ĹΥֵĻȨڶ֮ǰܵһڡȨȫ
ֵӣһĽӦǷû㹻ָ֤֡ȽƵϷֵĿڹԼɿڹѰҵ֤ݽύͥΪ֤ΪЩ֤ǶԻȨĶַȡõġ֮ٽųֵĿڹԼӦ֤ݵӰ죬ȣȷһȡ֤ΣܷȨ֤ݷƶųǶȨһǿϡ
һʵۡҪʹܷȨܹпɲԺЧʣôҪһϵеƶȰš磬ܷƱҪʵԼ˾Ľ͡ƶķɻǷٷķЩȨַԼܺߵIJȺ϶Ҫȷ䷨ΡйĸȨԼڷ飬ߺеĹйʵϣ⡣һйܷӵйڸȨһ㷨ⲿķȴָڸȨ羯ڷеȨãַʲôɺˣڷ̺߹УȨñ涨ij͹ܵƻַȨòЧϣ˽ͨDzġڶȻ߹Уûضע⵽ЩǷõ֤ݵĿԣپȫŵжȨйеЩûԼжȨᵼìܺľԼ˾ܡҽԺһ¶Ч͸Ȩ϶ԣͬضƶȰŶбҪ⡣
Ѿһĺ塣һ֣ҽͷεĹϵҵ⽫ǣһܷǷεĻڶ֤ɵʵԼʽģڷκ֮ﵽһǡƽ״̬һǣDZġ

ǰ˷κںڴ˲֣ҽͷ֮Ĺϵҵ⽫ǣһܷǷεĻڶ֤ɵʵʽ壻ڷκ֮ﵽһǡƽ״̬һǣDZġ
ڶͷвͬĶ壬ͬ߶ͷ֮ĹϵҲвͬIJ͡ijЩйѧΪֻһ֣ҵķDzܹϵġһЩѧΪεܷͬȨΪؼġο£1999p.149A.V. ѩӢѧңΪһԷɾеձԺȨӢһҪ(ѩ1982,cxlvii)ڱУҽձϿɵķʽͷΣһܷȨԣȨƺ⣬˾ԼȨΪϵͳһ״̬ƶķɵȨԣڷǰһƽȣԼͶרЧơ£ǿͷ֮ҵIJϵ
һ㣬ǷαҪĻһƪεһĺǡƣǾ˵ɱܵΪƣҪ涨ȥְ𡣵ǣθʩأΨһʱ俼ķǽһṹаȨƺ⣬Լ˾ΪһͬʱȸȨƶȰţΪεĻرǣȨƺ⣬ܷԼ˾һϵеҪʹ÷ܹIJþͽͷɣͬʱҲܸΪԹؼԵԼʹƶijܹõء
бҪһ롣ΪֻģΣյġһЩȦ棬ֺеĹ۵ΪζšǴġ෴ģһӰʹԼȶʵȨƺ⣬Ȩȵȣøӿɿȹ̣ԤԼӹ͵õľ⡣ңһӰŲģȴøܹ֮õгһȽϺõƶȹܡ磬ԤȾһǺģdzϸֲͬ棬ͱûнijͻ᲻ϵĻۡ
˹ٷ. ķ˹λ˹ٴѧۼҵĹ۵㣬ڻǿԷˣעǿȨһͼȥǿȨܷ֮һͼͬʱרƺ״̬ܷʵϣһּǿȨͼ1787ѳܻٿĶڡڡļǿԷֺܶ٣ѷͽܸѷҪעȨܡţûһǿҲ㡣ǻ̸1880רȽϣ״̬Ƕһصв˼ΪܷͬʱĿ꣺һ潨ƺƣһʹ㹻ǿܹɺͲƲ϶ԣζܹǣҾһǿһ۵ͬʱҲ. .ŸDZģDzģ---ۡмҵ۹ΪӵרϵȨǿģΪǿܱɱġȻܹȥӶӺͲƲôᱻд̣Ȼǿģҵս٣ܵõ֧֡.ŸĹ۵㣬Ӽӵġһι̵ʶǣһԽٵĸԤ˽ҲԽĻڵ֧֣ΪһǿһǿӰӢ
ķ˹ָԱȵģȴԷͬʱܵķȴʩе˵ĵĹעǿȨڡ1790ܷҪǽרƵ⣬״̬⡣Σ٣޷õܷЧ֧֣ˣƷǿԷصĶͳĿ
Ǻܼ򵥵ĽѵһܱƣȴһǿҪȨͬҲҪ㹻ȨһİṫɺͲƲͬʱҲҪ㹻ȨȥάֺƽԼȥ֤ṩƷȥȷԼ;õĻһƲȨƶȣȥֹԼά塣򣬹ɺͲƲòıϣҲ޷ʵ֡ңһӲ湫˽ǶҲͬǿģܹõڸ֧֡ɴˣɼˣǿȨ
뷨εϵеĵڶҪΪɵʽʵṩһС޶ȵı֤ǰһƪᵽģһѧעĽڷɵʽ⣻ѰܹʹɸӹͺijƺͷƷ棬ѧע˴Ŭ˹ΪѾ200ˡΪ߱ʵķṩ˱ϡΪ˱֤ɵʵʹñƳдоĽ׶ѡ٣ɳ档.λʱ֮ܳһѧңдɹҵĴڣܷϣƺҪ֮ĿԽͲɴʹ÷֮覴ýͣʽʵʵķ桱1987p.323
ͬʱҲɵʽṩһС޶ȵıϡΪӵг壬߻߶ٽضд뷨ҪȨĻڽ͸ijDZҪġңƶĶȥΪ걸ijǷضΪʹЩ걸ijܹõЧһִУһȨƺԼ˾ṹҲǷdzҪġ
ͷ֮ϵĵǣڷκ֮ﵽһǡƽ״̬ԣǷλΣǵڣܶġһζߵͳΡڴΣɽΪߡר־IJ1987p.308εòලרƵΣս֮ȣڷε£Ƿ١ƶIJνDzģΪһпܱùڴͣڶпܵ·ѡٵרƣһ㣬αûɵ⣨1987p.308ˣĴҪߵͳ뷨֮Ѱҵһǡƽ㡣ҪɵġǴ1987õĶ䣬ЩǽDzģ
һֶΣֱܹͳκͷεԼٶ߸֮ȱݡһ棬ܷͳβƶķƣһעڷƶķҪܵϸ飻һעڷƶķΧҲܵ߼ϸƣԷֹЩӰ칫ɵĶԻȨиһ棬ʽĽͬעǷһϵͳԱ⡣ʹһ𽥱ǰǻбҪԼܷƶ߲ûаѹһfaire lois,һƶɵĻǰΪһĽɫɴˣὫ϶ȡٵķɲþ(1987p.308)
һϵǣDZġûзΣҲ޷ڡ֮編ɽߡר־IJҲûˡһӵȨƺȨϵͳһҪߵΪƵġЩԼǿʩӰ죬˾أ˾ԼһʵʩģǾǷٲǷٶƶIJʹǵܷƶɵķԽԽʧȥƽ⣬ֻҪܷԱΪ߼ӵ˾飬·ƶķԼܵķɳ򣬲ֻҪƶɵֶλһԼijܹЧķֹר־ôȻָȨ⡱1987p.309
һǶͬҲDZάġܷľ䱾ԣDzܸʲôʲôġҪʹܷķʩжԺͿɲԣôͱܷƶȺĻĻȥʵʩǿԼܷξʵʩܷͺܷĻеҪɲ֡˾ܷԼɵȨһȷܷĺ;ܹһС
֮ܶ˷εƶȻڷκ֮ﵽƽ⣬Ҳʵʽ嶼ṩСıϣһǣDZάġϵļ㣬͹Ϊͷ֮ϵһȽ
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1
2 AristoleOn RhetoricBook I,Chapter 13 (George A.Kennedy Translation)(ʿ£޴ѧһʮ .A. ).1991
3 Berman,Harold The Crisis of Legal Education in America(.޵£ɽΣ)Boston College Law Review 26(1985):347
4 Cicero,M.Laws In Great Legal Philosophers,ed.C.Morris,1959
5 Holmes,O.W Natural Law(ķ˹Ȼ)Harvard Law Review 32(1918):40
6 Rice,Charles.50 Questions on the Natural Law:What it is&Why We Need It. San Francisco,California:Ignatitus Press,1999
7 Sartori,Giovanni The Theory of Democracy Revisited Chatham,New Jersey:Chatham House,1987
8 Thomas,Clarence The Higher Law Background of the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment Harvard Journal of Law&Public Policy 12(1989):63 References
Dicey,A.V Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution Indianapolis:Liberty Fund,1982