ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


ִԴ

Francis D. Wormuth ΰ

һ֣

һ Ĵͳ


ܷͨΪʽΪĹ֮壬ЩdzĵĻǷdzĵģԷɵʽԷ֮ʽ⵱ȻǸģҲܼĶ塣ڸϸϣܷһƲʽ--ÿ֮--Ҫ޶ְȨܶڡļС޶"֯һͳ˵ʱڱʹܹͳߣȻʹ壬ǶҪƣ̵ǣиԵԤʩ�"1뱾ļ49ƪP264ݴĿƪΪѷ۵ǰԡ뱾P16--ע


ǽЩ"ԵԤʩ"ΪĴͳԴڹŵ䣬ΪֹʷġʱϵģҲDzβġƶưԭ"Ȩƺ"ԭͷεԭԿܵȨԽԹֺԭһֵƶȰű󲿷ƶȰŻ"Ȩƺ"ԭ򣬴ԭ߿˵һĤ�""⣬һֹڷɵ"ΪĹ"ԵóۣձĺͿԤġΪ᳹һȨȨԭ»֤˾ԭ̶ܴҲݴ


ӵĸУƲռλȻأ"ԵԤʩ"ͨƶȰţڱƲȨڹŴ磬в""Ʋ޲ߵַͣвҪ""ƲܻȨַͬ档 ڹԪǰ͵ŵ䣬һƶȰԱƲƵ߸17͵Ӣִܷ֮ڣƶȰŵҪǡ18͵ܷα˸˼ע


""ڹŵк磬ʱ֯˥䣬˺͸˵ijͻΪеҪ⡣ҲƵǵһ""³ŵ"ΪҪְλϮȨѳ֣ԲƲֹȼĿҪƽְλȨ ڴǰDZȨģ"1ǰƲӦĵְλȨ"Ȩ"ȡãΪȨDZн׼ֶΡ


ԺƵƶǹŵʱڵһŵ"߷Ժ""ԪԺ"ڵ۹Ĵڣ⽻߲"ƽԺ"ԹȨ"ԪԺ"оͷֹκصĽϣֽεԭ2


ŵƶȰĹġŹͷƵ"߷Ժ"ȨŵĵαڵĦ˹ʱͨԺthe HeliaeaԱģ"Ҿŵ˺˴ƶķþҾͶƱ޳ƺ͹ͷơκͼƷŵƻ򷢱κζԿۺ飬Ҿ˳ӡҾϳ˽˼ծϵԶŵ乫غͷݵٷ䡣д̵ˣҾΪšסŵĹΥŵ˺˴ƶķʱԼоҲӰо?quot;3


⣬ÿŵĹԣ


˭ͼƷŵƣͼƱƷιְͼΪͼƣҶҪҵҵѡƱҵ˫֣ԴǺжɱɱ˴еһΪϲԵģΪֻɱһ๫СҽɱߵȫƲһøɱߣջءκΪɱͼɱ˶ȥҽͬԴHarmodius and AristogeitonڹԪǰ514꣬ɱʱŵHippiasĵܵHipparchusţŵѧʵ䡷P248-249עһ˼Ů ʴȺ⡣ŵ䡢ھطκּڵ߸ŵƵԣҶϺͼԷϳ4


άҪֶԿܵķǷ"ظ"Ȩthe graphe paranom?n һתϣ˹ڷɣnomoiͷpsephismateкܴϵ""nomoiиĵλκ޸ѭ̶޶ԭΪ޸ķɶټ EcclesiaԿһɴͨԺǩѡԱNomothetaiɵĴͥǰκηϳɷɶ֮·ɵĽͥύڼıۺԱѡ񱣳־ɷɻǴ֮·ɡ˳뵽ijĶ˵""ɱ֮Ļô""ƶĵλ"""˴" Boul--һɹǩȨ--飬йɵ""ͨЧȨ޸Ļ򱣳ԭ""""һµĻЧ""Чڴԭ򣺳ȷֹԭзɣ""ԭɲһ¡ ǵ·ߴ""""пܰǷʩÿȨ"ظ"ظָ֮еķֽжʵʩͨԺԿظþ֮ǰѾͨķɺͷزҲִͣС ظصķʱظѳһ꣬˿ڱߣԷĿظȻЧһ˾ƶк֮ܶ㡣5


ڹŵҴIJϣ˵ԭֶΣDz˹Polybius˹ʹܷʵʵһ־ơƵĻϡ17͵ӢҴܷ뵱ʱ˼Ϊ֪


ͳһֹ""˼룬ڹŵ˼ĸ˺Ҳδšŵִ""͵˵δŵġҮֿˣJellinek˼һնԴ"˵ŴҵʷԴΪǰpolis壨 civitasһɹɵIJɷָĹͬĻôƵٹҵʷԴʽϾͱΪһ"Ԫ"--ƽ񲢲һͳһ壬Ϊ˴˶IJֻ"6Ƿ"նԴ˵"ν"Ԫ"նͼ֮չķ⽨ƶȣDZն˴ĸı䡣ͣνҼ͵ͬڹˡ


ijЩ򣬹ijӵ޵ġߵĸȨһЩ򣬱Ϊ--ţɲƲȨͷ⽨ƶɣΪεġ֯ģȨ롣˽һԪһĸڻ˹7ָһʱdzͣȫȨխԴ˹ҼͬΣ͹ڶԪĸ--˳֮Ϊ"˫Ȩ"--ӢԶӰ죬Ҳ˵һ--IJΡ


Ӣս䣬ɱձĺͿԤģһĹ³ˡŵķʶһ17͵ĸ˿ǹŵ䴫ͳӰĽܿһȨѧ˵ϵɱձĺͿԤģֱӴͬأǵӵȨƻ˶ȶȶԤڣټջȥƶձĹ򣩣ҲӵȨڵʱйȨȨ֤У۵˵ġ


Ȩѧ˵ܿڼ"Ͼ"Թְ᳹ȨʹȨΪƺȨȨγɹɹƽһƶѾִ߱˼Ĵ󲿷ҪءΪȫȨƺѧ˵ʶ--˾ȨͨΪϵ˹Ķijԣڽ˾ԭҲϵ˹ѧ˵Ӱ죬ǶǶǵȨƺѧ˵ŲĶȨȨķַǿصְܽδƶձԹĹҲǿ͹ڶԪĹӢ̳ͨ˶ȨĴͳںͨʱپܿľ


ָ"Ȩԭдδá"8ȷ˵ֹɣƶȲֺͷɲ֡ڴλڼһ𣬲Ժ"˫Ȩ"ԭϵһЩԭУɵĹĵλһ;ļֵ

(1) Lives, Solon, 18 (B. Perrin, trans.: Loeb Classical Library), i, 451.

(2) Laws, III, xii.

(3) Demosthenes, Against Timocrates, 149-151 (]. H. Vince, trans.: Loeb Classical Library), p. 469.

(4) Andocides, On the Mysteries, 97-98, in Minor Attic Orators (K. Maidment, trans.: Loeb Classical Library), i, 415.

(5) William W. Goodwin, Demosthenes on the Crown (Cambridge, 1901), pp. 318 ff.

(6) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens (Farrand, trans.: New York, 1901), pp. 50-51.

(7) Natural Law and the Theory of Society (Barker, trans.: Cambridge, 1934), i, 60.

(8) Ibid., p. 152.



koolwind
ʱ䣺2002-04-05.04:52:06
лΰ.벻.Ǵ˵ȷѧ.

,
1. һȻ:
"ÿ֮" ÿյΪ'ճ'(Everyday Every day)

2. ڶȻ:δϸԭķ,е,޲.
"Ȩƺ"ɷΪ"ලԼ"(check and balance)
"ԭһֵƶȰű""ǷɸΪ""(advocate)
"ձĺͿԤ";'Ԥ'Ϊ":(ڽ)Ч"
prospective;1 : relating to or effective in the future(MWѧֵ)

Ҵδ˼.ȶ.

Ӣԭ
http://www.constitution.org/cmt/wormuth/wormuth.htm