ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


д֮

--뺣¸Фءά˹һ""

Ŀɾ

ijһ"һ""һ"to-gether,ۼͬһ"·"pathߣ""ܹһǿԹͬϵͨpassage𣿵һʲôͨ:pass-age--ȥ(pass)ʱһ"ȥ"ͨ""ʱ"ѽ"""ȴȥpastڵͨ,ֻΩһĿˣguest,-Geist-ghostƺ"ȥ"(aged),֮""face to face

ֻҪˣ˵˶нԼĹȥݱɹµؿ봫ѧҰԴautobiographyڻûпԽcrossedԽsurpassed˲֮ǰ˵Լһ˵أԴԼһʣǩԼרproper nameأĹϵѵдԴдһҪԽcross߽루enterҲ봩ż߹pass,peraoͰһ·ҲAporiaĵ·path(A:8)AporiaϾͲֻ߼ϵ""򷽷ϵԼϵľȣζ"""ѻ򲻿ʵУ˴IJԣͨpassageѱܾϻֹȷͨ[Ϊͨnonpassage]ʵϳΪģһҪ¼һĽ٣йȥpassingת˶ʽ"(A:8)

ּˣextremityľͬϣperas˼սᣨend޶ȣlimitĿģtelosڴƴѧonto-theo-logicԤԴ-Ŀ-߸˹Arche-telos-logosǴһԨAbgrund߽磨borderϲͣѣǰ߽ϵܿ϶ʽ˵"һ߽"Ҳܷʽ˵"ûб߽"Ϊڵǻʽ˵"ܷ񱻼ᵽ𡢷ijֽϣcrossing line"ܷʽؽ£"ѵһһԿԽı߽罻ߣ"A:6--Щйصѵ߼Щ"-"(pass-passage)ѵд"ȥ"(past)?

Ͱϣ"߽硢޶"peras"crossȥpass"Aporia"ͨ"non-passageϵʾ"߽"ļֱʽЩģ̬pas

pasڷвӣstep񶨣not/stop˫غ壬ǣ֮pasһֶصIJ·pathʽ˲ӣȴûСһ֮·ϣ·֮Ĺȣǿ(pas)ĿԣIJ(pas)ԣ߾ֻⲽӱһ""toward, ĵ·Ӣ˵""pass a waypass a pathûpas٣


ӶDzɰյģԼأѧnoema,ҲûijʵôǾԵȱϯ֮ѧDzܵˡߣᵼһֲ֡һġѧѧĴϣѧߣ

1""֤֮֮"ڶ"passage

ѧʼaڶԣѧϰѧҲգaڶѧϰѧһ׷֮򣨨ֻѧһֱϰ
--ѧ֮Ϊʱոԣfaceٵ(come to pass)ʱܷ˵Ļ⻰"֮䷨"֮λڶΣ"-""-"passage˵passŵpassage,һҪȥ(pass a way)(the aged)߶ġ


ڲòٶظϰѧϰͬʱظдǸĸ"a"Ҫдͬд죺aȱʾĵĵһĸֵĿʼͬ˵"ǰ"--ζǿʼƹߣʱӵȨaҲʾ񶨣Ϊǰ׺"ǡ뿪"ȵȵĺ--ƺڿʼ֮˷,սɥһaлˣ;aڲͬкЩͬıǹ,ڷ,aűΪʱ,ζ"ȥ򡭡"һһpas pasʾĿġص״̬ʽȵȣͨĺ壻ƺһǿaͲٰϢͿʼɧ벻ȻaĪ"û"aĿġȥ֮ʱa""Ż֮ʱ""ʼ˵ʼдʼϱ֮ʱaĨȥһеĻʱֻ㹻ȥ""֮ڶԵĻŵ--"-"pass-ageҪģǰ嶼ɶ䣡


ڵ˵ظֻ""˵ңֻظӢеpassйеĵ΢ss֮Ƶ"˿˿"֮Ħ֮ȴܳΪ""֮--һԣйǰ̫أⶼ֮䷨""past""Ⱦ䣩""--ǾΪ""ţֻöѣһ֪Ӻδ֪һεظΪ""Ƕ˭֤ǵ˵˵Ѿ˵""˵,""ᡣǰ˭"˵"ʱΪ˵⣿㹻"pass""a"ͣͣ٣ֻΪ֮ֻЩ""passage,ಽһһȥȥ֤˴˵""(passage)ԼۡDzҪӶ""֤ճΪո˵֤ˣ"һҪ֤Ǿ͸ˣ֤ͬԭ"[1]
ոһֱŷԣ"ʶԼ""֪֪"""֮ϵͳΪ"-"ʶԼDZģҪ֪Լû֪ʶһ֪ʶûһ"ѧ"֤ѧܣո֮ǰĶԻƪ롶쳶ƪǡǶ"-"֤


ƪصIJһ""в˵ұ绤ʹ˵˵Ϊ볹׵Ļ"""ּ"ԼĻո˵Լǻۣ˵ԼĴǣĴʩѵ˵ĶʼжΪо̵Ȼв壬ʵ֪֪"""֮"µĺ�"֪Ϊ֪""Բ֪Ϊ֪֪"[2]ոΪ"߱κ֪ʶ߱һҸ˵ı"ոҲΪܻˣҰΪIJңǷdzġǵģ֪ʶ֤Dzܵġ


ǣڡƪոѾ˵""ˣΣͬ""ָʾ겻һ硣Ҫ飬ڴ꣬ѧϰѧϰԣһЩͶһЩҸôո׵ı绤ֻһװԼԼĵǿܵģҵЩоߡѧѧϰɱҲӵɱȨ


ڡ쳶ƪУոһ֤֮ܣʼ˵""ߵ֪ʶСDz׼ϸչЩ֤ʹǵྻ룺෴֤Ĵڣ֤ʵǰĴڣ⿴ӷʽIJͬгǵķֽۺ֤ʵͬһ죻ǰԴ۵ķԼ֤ڡָֻЩ֤չвôͨʱͣѿijĬ�"Ůʽ"ؿ"ո˵꣬ȻϸԼĻ"--ԼĻţ̽Եʵ"Ǿҵ֤֣Ҫ⽲óףôȷʵ֮Թ㡣"[3]--Щѻܹͨȥ޽֤ⲻ֮䷨ķң"-"Ҳ""ʱ䲻"֤ҲûЩʱ䣬˵꣬Ҿ͵"[4]--֤Ҫʱ䣬""ϡֹ֤߼ųʱ䣿֤ڳDzģ""Ӧ֤оȱϯ̸""ʵDzܵģ֤ͨѵÿƳһߴΪһ""ܸһλá


"ͼ"ƪԻдֻǵĽϣ밧Ⱗʽдʹ֤һδαظظʹѧܡո֮ѧҲ֤ĵ䷶ı绤벻֤ "˫Լ"double bindŦᣬڵؾ˺ζѧޣĸ֣ʹѧ˵ܡ


ͬп˵"ͼѧһؿѧǷmelete thanataķ֮Dzɷ룬ɾǵıԣģһʼڶֱӣڶֻ֮"[5]пΪͼͨתԸ֮Σˣsurpass֮ǰʽħ飨daimonأħԴϱ涨ΪΣ"һռ䣬ﻹûӦָռлҪеԼΪ˼ٻȥӦǰԼ�"(GD:3)ĸʹһԴռȷˡ


ֻͨո׸"֮"a gift of deathת볬ԽſܣӶҲʹʷ˿ܣʷ˿ܣͨո׵׼ͼħأͨĻ估ڶԻڳŵĽ̸֤һ""ռ䣬ѧ䰧ռչŻ̵γɣҮջ׼䰧ͨѰͼѹ�""ʹڻˡϵۼٵĹϵܣĵϵۻұ˻ӽԼʹһ""ܣֹߡ


εʷԴЩ""֮""֮áڡµϵ˵ڽεԴĵγڼǿʹļ䣬תΪھ뷸ʶ""»תΪծȨ˺ծ˵Լ뾭ùϵȴ֪"ѵĻ"


ѧսᴦںڸ֮ʼɿһ棬"ǾԵ"ʹĹԿܣѧʷdzͷǹǵս""dzΪƷһ棬"ǺǸڳе֮еԴֻھԵ֧ܱȫʱӮʵԡ"Ӧڷ񶨵Ķͣ"һħZaueberkraftħͰѷ񶨵ĶתΪڡ"[6]չĹУʶҵĸϵ֮Ϊ֪ʶ""תΪ""ʹѧܣͨĵ·WegɾԾ"Ĺ"ͷļ԰


""֮ûoikonomaǼңoikos.home.HeimķҪ黹ҪԷɻʷʫ"ڡΪΪ"Ҫصĺһ֮サȫڳʹѧսˡ߳ѧķգսԵд͹δѧʹ


λѧңԾԾشʶľΪȱڣ

""ӷнųɸԱΣǺ¸""ԣά˹"Ϊ"ʹԣalterityٱͬһĻͬ߳Խ֮⣬ޱޣФ�""Ԩ֮У䣬֮벻サᡣ˺˺ڸ"ѧ"ϵ""GeistҪôΪþ飨daimoniaҪôתΪϵۣҪôΪ,""֮ͬĿϻˡд""ЩĿ""vis- -vis


2¸"ռ"֮ͨcome to pass


¸ȻͨΪ"""es weltet"翴緢ţ˳ƾľȡ1919ݽУЩ˳ƾ䣬es gibtšУes giltЧţes wertetֵţѾڻһֶصˣGA 56/57:49.50.68Щ˳ƾлûдνʣǰνʵģͶ֮ǰָʾ¼еıԴEreignisѧûԹԴʵص"˳ƾ"ָʾʵԪѧѧҲʹ¸ʶѧ


Դʵ¸涨Ϊ"ʵ"Faktizitaetǵʶʵҵȣҵ뷢˵ģûб˼̬ȥȥ飨Entlebenڵر䣬¸ʱһּʮطʽǣڣֱ׵Ļ"иʵ״̬"""Dass es istSZ:135/166DassҲһ˳ƾ䡣"и"UeberantwortungʵҲζҪȥչиȥӦشantworten־Ҳ縺ΣVerantwortenʵ״̬гԽ¸ʿµĴۻ"Ը֪"ʱڵ淽ʽγˡ


⣬¸ʵԵķ֣벻Ի䱣·ʮּѧ½͡ͽÿճ״̬ѣڵȺٴ٣parousiaγһĹͬ塣ʵϣ¸ѾѧԱȹʵ״̬ˣڱȺ֮һ"ռ"ϵڣδ֪ġϱƳٵĽʵԻԭIJϻӳѷĹȥȥĹȥ֮Ǵ۲Ҫչ"ѧ""ش"ʽĿռ䡣оһעӲҲͶ˳ƾ뺣˼DZڵѧѹܲӰ˶""⣬ҲӰ""ij˼
һ棬¸Ϊͳѧ˴ڱҪôѴڵһߣԴߣķ뱾ֱֱ۵ĴڣҪôߴߣϵۣΪѧʹڳΪɼġ󻯵ijһ棬ڱȻÿһ֮Уڱ뿪ߣȻͬڴߡǣΪ˱Ѵڱɴߣҵһ""صĴߣһִ߲ͬڣôڽΪߵĴڣ""Dasein


ڽǰ"ʵȺ"ſ"-"չĽṹڲֳɵ塢ʵ壬һֱš"·"׷ʹУ"ȥ"Zu-Seinģ"ȥ"""šȥĨָ˴Ŭﻮķ֮۳ﻮתΪ""Sein zu dem Todͬʱչ䱾ԣeigentlichkeitԣĴ壨ôڱ֣ʾǣڵ--ڵʱԣZeitlichkeit--Ǵڱ֮Ϊһ㼰ʱ䣨Temporalitaetûһֶصأһ棬űѳﻮʱڴڣֻдѱ裬ֻѾ⣬ﻮһ棬ڱδأͨηη֮籾Աָ̬ʾԻɴڵĸΨһ뱾½"ص"Уͨ"""֪ٻ"ء


"ҵ"¸ת֮""۷""׷ϣŲͬߵһԣϵ""Ҳڶ֮ѧѧѧʷѧ봫ѧоǶԤ裨presupposition۷ΪǴΨһӵеĶصĿԡ


ڡʱ䡷УķΪ˽⣬Ҫ⣬ֻǶԵǰ״̬ЩǴʵڴ߽зDzֵģؼڽʾһֱ򱾼ģeigentlichenڡڵĴ"""Խ"ĴɣδǵĶ֮ǰгﻮδֻͨδڲű綨Ϊһ塣


һ棬δǷսᡢԵɷʽڵһ棬¸ֶ""der Todڲ֣ϵDZ֮eigentlich sterbenͬһ֮ĵĽֻVerenden綯⣬ͬκĶһ""ϵһ֮Zwischenphaenomen涨ΪʻȥAbleben֮"ܲᣨVerendenֻsterben֮ʱܹʣAbleben"SZ:247/296-297


ͬʱ¸""뱻ϵ"ΪĴѾίиΪĴߣʵţstirbt faktischֻҪûдﵽ֮ʾʼ"SZ:260/310""Ȼֻ"ȥ""ȥ"--һĵߵֻ""۵سﻮĿԡ""ֻǿԣ"""֮Ϊ"""ԣʾ"""ڱ"ҪΣʵ֣Ϊԣ֮ĿԸʵԡ


Dz׼ϸۺ¸ķֻǷĽ�""ΪڵľǴܹģijﻮ--紦̸ηȷ[ʲôunbezueglichûйϵûйϵΪҪ""zu, ﻮ]벻תɵ[unueberholbareɻȡõģҲûͨpassageڶɵнģҳpassDZȥҾ"ȥ"]ȷ֪gewisseѵһ֪ʶȷΪ䱾als solcheб𣿣ȷģunbestimmeDzȷ벻ɹ涨ˣȷ֪ͻĿԣǿܵģ˵෴ζSZ:259/311


¸"-"pass-passage˾˵--"ֿԱ벻ΪԱᣬΪԱڶֿԵΪΪԱס"SZ:261/313ֶԿԵĽӽУܵĶĿֻǸ"--ԵԽԽǿǿʲôز--"Ϊԣκ'ʵֵĶ'κδڱΪʵĶܹǵĶ"--""棬Խڣ"ֿԾ汾ΪܵĿ"die Moeglichkeit als die der Unmoeglichkeit der Existenz ueberhaupt--һ"Ϊ"ܵĿܣظһ飬һֻһΣ"ֿԸ֪жȣ֪Ҳ֪٣ζ޶ȵزĿԣdie Moeglichkeit der masslosen Unmoeglichkeit der Existenz(SZ:262/314)--һ""""""der֮"Ϊ"als֮Ҷʲôͬ
ƺ""ϱǵĻDzò飬޷ϳһľΣpassageֻʣһЩƺ"Ϊ"˵ĻﶼϲԽԽԼЩ˭˵ƺһ֮ڡ""˵"Ϊ"˵˵""ƺǶѡڿ񣬶ǷǵЩҲֻֻ֮˵־ڹƻջȥ˵ֻԱҵߵϷ""ֻ˵Сҵдв"λ"


""der"Ϊ"alsܵĿԣ"der""als"λùǴڳչ±ѱǵ"ռ""ռ"ڴڵ""ĿвϿţƺ--֮ܣ۴ʵ˵--DzӦʵֵ""ǴӿԱ˵--ܾ֮ӦֻǿܣܾǰƳٵΪܵĵز""ڣ󱾸ӽʵԶֻǿܣʵԶˡоIJpas;step/stop,ӦʹչIJͣstopʹ""(not)ٿܣֻһֿԣҿﻮstepҲϳԽʵδԽΪ�""δٵңʵû""""supplementֿԶԲԵ֮ΪѵǴڱԵ"ä"ڻû벻Աϵֻǰѿ֮""(moegen)Ƶˣתְ߽ɽƺڸı֤ƣ¸Ȼת""֮·ȴֲû˼""֮·"ͨ"
¸"ܵĿ"Ҳûᵽü׷"ڱ"⣬ڵijγɵıԵʱԣZeitlichkeitǴڱʱ(temporalitaet)ڱĿѧдʵ֡¸չϿռ䣬ԴʵԣָߵվڴڱλԽ֮"֮"ﻮֻǻӦes gibtһ棬¸ʷԵıףڻʾԼ"Ȼ"붯ԵĹϵ붯ľ֣ó"ƶ""ʯͷ""繹"(GA29/30)һ֡ڵģй(Bildung )ܹԼܹԼڽıףҲ"Ȼ""Ȼǰص"ڵʵDZţдȥΣرletheʾֻȥΣa-letheia--ǿaˣִԷأصִرʾʾʵִֻؼּ룩϶(Riss),ֻܴ϶FugeУѽѴӽDzʾߣֻƷȻʱµټȻĻڰDzܴģֻܸԼڣ϶ıԵǻ


¸ͰѴڹ涨Ϊ""˵Ϊdeinonֲģڲڼңunheimlich״̬괩ͼ԰ĽβǸ˵"µĵط"daemonisihen Ort,Ϻڰ޹"֮·"todestraechtigen DurchgangʱĴѾɭֲungeheuerˣGA54:181ں¸ֻЩеӢ簲ⱾԵΪǵǴڱ˴ڵϵ"""֮ʥ"ʵϣȻֻǽ"ʽָ"һλеָʾڣDa-seynûн""ֻȴΪ""óһλãػλá""ֻ"Ϊ"ݶڱ׼ļи""档Ǹд""棡


һ棬ڻҪڱ裨es gibt Sein֮Уͬǰ߽"Ԩ"ڴҪ"ߵ"ﻮȡеĻ棨˹˵ָűǣҲDZһwestľʾЩϣ졢ء˵ԪأԪر˴໥ӳ͸ҲͲ�""ˡʥԲϷռв""֮ӰڼҪ""ϵı裬ֲ""ʵ֣""֮ѵԷ""ʹ豾ܣΪʲô""棿


⣬¸ĵȴѰѧһµĿҲǶԼʱ˵תΪɴɱΪֻ˵֢ǷDZѵģµȾ붾ҵ岢ûʲôͬʵڵ֣dzٵġDZʵģ�"ıʲڼ"ɴֻǷDZġ׵Ĵߣɴһɱ̫˵Ϊֻ߼ȡ˵ı֣ȻûбģںϿԶԴ˱ֳĬشС֣Ҫȥĵǣ"Ե"Ƿܣֻ"Ϊ߶˵ıʻӻԴ֮ά֮"Ӷ"ȻεĸлΨһ˼"--ǸлΪֻ""ȥлǷҲһֻرһãȥάڱг̲"߸"--ߣǴȻġ֮磿ңľУijɼ֮£Er-eignisGA9:310/361-362)˼Ҫȥע֮ıˡ


ǣԺ϶ԣ˹Ϊ¼EreignisǶĻصģֻǼʱڰٵһ֢ѣֻϵ֮ĸΪ׵ʵ֣ؾȣηӵĵµµϵεĻʱ⾫ٻٻɱholocaustһǴ


3AporiaĴԽ֮Խ磨surpassing뼤飨passion

"ܵĿ"ڡAporias УԺ¸ʱ䡷"Ԥ"УcriticԵǰŷĻͳһս߽µĹʷΣcrisisΪָ¸ѧϽŵ֣Krinein , articulationIJһֱڱε"ä"""֮һָ¸֮涨ÿչԤ輰ÿε⣨problemö佻棨crossingԽ֮


ȣ¸Ϊ֮ѧʷѧѧȵȵķҪԤ֮⣬ֻдڵ۷ܳеﺣ¸֮оĵȼƣhierarchicalȻ˺Ҫݻ٣destruction , AbbauĴͳѧԣpriority֮ǰԼЩⱾӦǺ۷Ҫġ⣬ֻҵģרУeigentlich , properһΣone time , each timeӸ˵ֻһε˵Dz֪֮ģ־IJɹ涨ԣ¸"˵Ĵ"涨ΪߣMortalsΪ"ֻбܰΪ飬ﲻܣΪﲻ˵"Ӷϵ˵һҲٶͬи""Ҳûԣͻƻԣƺȥ˵㹻ȥӽ֮ˣֻǻԻˣA:36-37


ΣDZԣרҵģ˵רproper name¸˵ΪԲṩκθݣҲ""ʵĶôֻֿ޵չһ˾ͲԼ־Ľޣһûûгﻮϵķֻ޿ϣ򣬼ԼתΪˣֻܽΪһͨҲ켺ˣںԶܴﵽ[7 ]


󣬺¸Ȼ""޴ʽ""Ϊ"޵ʥ"һʥһĹ֮е""the Other˲--Ҳ--ڳڵУʥأSchreinָһӻײģװҽʬ壬ڵص¡ڡӡ˼УҲᵽ˺ɭֵĹײģЩ"""λ"У"ȥ"˻ᱻװ棬Ŵﵽ޵ںϣǣ�"ײ""Ĺ"ͬϷ""""𣿷ĹһƬЩڲɭвûзĹĹٱĹͷ""ϵʬ¯λأУĹɥʽֲ""ѪԵ֮ңԱ칹ɵ""ԱĴ--֮""Ÿ죿κһĻ嶼Լɥʽͬ𣬴֮ijﻮ֮ܶأʹѧı߽磨anthropological border۵ı߽֡ɥʽָ�""ͲDZҵɥᡢʽѵҲһԽ磬Aporiaļ飨passionаǶ֮ܵĿ޺


Ժ¸֡ǰڵָ֣ڵıԣҲзDZij״̬٣Verfallenķ֪ѵظ̵Ķľ飨A:80ܺ¸һֱڱظҪݻٵĴѧƣظͳˣtres-passingķproblematic closureʾģϣ⣨problemaָﻮprojectionͱprotectionҪôһƻijﻮɣҪôDZshieldͽֹbarrierӻΣ֮£ÿһ"߽"ָ˫ϵij""problematic(A:26)¸ĴǿɳﻮģEntwurf projectionڷ֮ڣһ棬ڵĴ"Խ"Ueber sich hinausھһֱѾԽ磨Sur-passingλˣǶ߽ߵԽtrans-gressionҪ"߽"ϳԽ⹹¸¸һڽôڵij٣һȴֶԻ̵ȸĮȻҮյѣpassion¼ΪȴһֱҰ֮⡣


⣬¸ʱжӱ"ʲô"֮"˭"ʱ䣩ҲģԼµʱʧȱݵıͻʹľԺĮȻin-differenceѧ˹ٸڡʱ䡷ǰ˹ܰ˹Ĺϵ񻰽Ľʾ˼"ʲô"֮"˭"عϵ˹ԭӸDzץסģ֮廯ȫͬ˵Ĺϵ벻ԣǹڵʱ"˽"IJʱ䣬"˭""ʲô"໥ָģ"ʲô"ĹΪ[8]˹Ĺʧ˹ѣpassionɷ룬¸"뼼"񻰣""Ϊ"˫"Ҳ֮˫ԵҲԴ˫˶ЧӦ˹ĵĹʧ--ڵȱݵĸԴ--һʧظͨ˹ʧ»ص˹ʧǰֻܵȱ[9]""ɼ˵ıʣ


ţҲԺ¸""ּĻ磨conceptual demarcation˽⹹¸Ϊڻ߲˻壬ֻǴڵӣexampleڵĴڶԣΪԲʵ֣ʵϴ""""""ո׷ʱDz꣬ǸDZڵAporia⣬ΪϵֱΪʣƺֳΪˣΪԱ𣬶ڡGeschlechtһжԴԱ켰disZer֡룩ķչʾģϰתΪģҲᵼ¶ԶPԵĮȻֻ涨ΪƶġƺȻУҲԼԱһǨƵܱڱ˻ֵռڣ¸ƺδɭҲжҲжµ·ͬʱΪ"֮"ǴԽżﻹΪperishingᣨVerendenΪperishing޶ȣperperao, perireͨζ뿪ʧ(pass)ȥ(past)--һߣԽĺ塣ѧҲԽŴԵĴ֮ˣĻҲDzɿġ
ܽķգѧı߽Ļ໥֯һģΪһbraid֮γλƣֹ⿪ʵϣЩԤֶɹΪ"ܵĿ"֮


ôǷ""Ƿоľ飿ǷAporiaDzAporiaһʲô󣿺¸ʱ䡷е۲ֵ߽ڶ""ķǷ֣ܵ¶Դڵ۷Դ⣬ԺϺ˼ʫﻮиʴruinousá


"/"һ̨òܵڲӽ۷ĿниʴԵıݣ"ܵĿֵĿ""ܵĿIJ"IJ𡣾ǰ߶ԣд"պ¸ڴǿܵ"ԴܾͻԿʴ븯ʴãͺ߶ԣ"ⲻȷIJԣⲻȷDzܣҲ"A:75"Ҳ"alsoȻҲԴڶԣԱ汾ǷDZ汾ҲΪԤֻDz֣Ϳ֣ʴˣӣstepҲʴˣƷWorkû˹Чԣunworking[10]


¸""ʼֱォ˼ķ֮´򿪣ҳᣨFugenеĽcrossing֮ᣬλdisplaceĴڻ֮⣨Levinası볬Խ֮֮е"֮"ǵ⹹¸˼һԲΪԲԵļ飨passion


ﲢûм򵥷¸˼룬Ϊ""ΪΩһԣsingularityDzɽ⹹ģرǿ˺϶"ڵȴ"Ĺ涨Ϊ""Ҳ˵Ⱥ򣬲ɴ˼ģ̬1ȴеȴ2ֻҪȴתij߲תijЩҪߣһ˾ڴijЩˣȴֻڴߣ3ǿ໥ȴڷ˼ľṹڣֱʵָ򳹵׵ߣthe completely otherһ(A:60)˶תˣԹڴת԰ԴоÿһԴ֮auto-bio-graphyѱheter-thanato-graphy

4ά˹"ռ"֮뱻ԣpassivity

¸ڡʱ䡷̸ڵĿܽʱ̸ʵ"֮Ŀɾ"ʱ䡷47ڣ֮ת֮֮أһ棬¸Ϊ֮ճеɥɥᡢĹ֮"æ"Ķ۷ѾԽǣһ棬"DzڱȻϾ˵̣Ҳ'ڰ'(dabei)"ˣᆳ鵽DzܴϼԽģԣ"˭Ҳܴȡ"ÿһԼճеһڵΪһֻǷDZġ


ţ¸˵"Ȼܹ'Ϊһȥ'fuer gehen "ȴʼյ˵"ijȷϣin einer bestimmten SacheΪԼ"SZ:240/288Ȼ"Ϊ"ȥҲҲζ԰˵ȡ߷ֺջǵԼȥǰѺ¸Ļظһ飺ȷΪΪԼȻܴȥԼȻһҪʵ�"-"е"ȷ"ʲôϵȷʲôʹһΪԼѵǼӿԼʱ䣬ǰս֮˵Ŀԣ˵ʹ""ˣңͬʱѵǼˡƳ˵ʱ䣿Щӵʱֻdz̶ȶDZϵģ⣬֮Ŀֲ뱩ľ峡ܻ֮"""ı"ı֮۷õ𣿵¸ȷеԼΧڣmitseinʱΪʲôֻתо뷳Ĺϵѹ˵Ĺϵһأĺʲôأ


˻֮뱾֮IJڣ֮Ƿȴ۲컹ҪǷֳ֮Aporiaи˵һ棿Ϊ̫ˣڶսڼ䣬һ˼ȫ˹ɱά˹Ҫ׷ʵľ""--ߡ֮֮ľԡ


ά˹׷ҲǴ˳ƾ䣨il y a,""ʼġţexistenceΪضߣexistensǴһжѷ˵Уʵںϵ"ʵ""˳ƵģģҲDzĴߵ'ۼ'޵૵Ķ''趨"EE:57ά˹Ȼܺ¸ԴһӰ죬÷˵


il y aе"il"Ƿ˳Ƶʽʧȥ˳ƺ壬Ĵãͬes gibtвܰesķ뿪ûʲô壬"y"Ǹʻʣڷ"Ƕ"Ⱥ壬daseinе""ƣ"a"""avoirĵ˳ʱλ,ڹŷ,il y aʱֻдa--ֽ"a"дIl y aûеes gibtУ"С"gebenĺ壬ǰۼ¸es gibtܴи¼begebenheit¼Ļ뿶ص㣬ʹijܡڷвûֺ壬ңά˹ǿil y a "ֲ"ԡ


ά˹˵"Ը˵ҹǶil y a ľ"ҹԺڰľУϤʧˣŨǿûʲôɸ裬Ҳһ磬ҹĿռ䲢ǿյĿռ䣬ʹڰ޵ijͬ˸ǿգֻһȺ״״һ"еɳɳ졭..ǿֲ"EE:60ֲǶķգԭʼ˶ͺĮȻֲⷭת""вûг˳Ŀܣ˵ɣ"ǡ..IJԡ.."EE61ңҹɱĹҲǣɿֲһҪءˣҹĿֲΪ''ľ飬ҲηڿֲУڶУ屾ʹԼ˸ˣ""DzϵۣǵߵʧȶĻҪף"֮"EE:61il y a ֻǾɿֲ˻ʶijŵߣ߲ʵ壨Hypostasis,""ֻע⵽ѵֱ̬̬ۣΪʱ""ij壬Ȼ˳ƵģΪȱʶףֻǶijλãposition"λ"--"岢ãһλ"EE71il y a״̬λܵ""""ҲǺ¸""֮"Da"il y aľУijλоˣҲȻģ˳Ƶģλֻվŵģߴڷѷ˯֮ʧ״̬


il y aγѧʶɾѵʶټγԣ׵ʶҲͲγʵ壬Ҳ纣¸γ׷ڵijϳĴˡôil y a̬ľΪ"λ"Ƿγһ""أά˹˼·ڣ""ԶDzȷģģil y aȷġ˵""subjectҲ""(be subject to)ߵ塣


Dz׼ϸչά˹ֻ֤̣ǼҪָ˼·ȴil y aбֲѲԽerosµģѾijջ󡣶ģȻ޵ֳֻDzӣѷϵģǼǿɫķȫΪ"Ů"ԱԼӵһһչΪ"ϣaged"ŮԶƤݸУĵ·passage϶Բֹͣ"ϻ"п־,""ȴ˥ϡ""Ҳ໯ˣɷ򡢻ǸסǺӡ游ȣⲢԼġΣά˹ӷѧʶ֣һתʶڹÿռ䣬Ͷѣϴڼҵܾ淽ʽӴڵתȱϯе壬һŵķʽҲױֶűơȻά˹߱ߵݣvisage,faceΪѳil y a,ٻҪȥӦresponseֻһҪŵĻӦߣӦߵĻӦ˶ߵΣresponsibilityҲӦҽʲôǡά˹ΪǰַʽԱԽʶţصԳƵߵҪ󣩶ܴӸȷ"λ"Ϊ""ߵߣ"ϵ"ߣϵ"ͬߵߣߵߣԣߵҲͬˣԽȱϯһ̣Խil y aϵһ㡣"BPW:141Ϊϵ۵"Ա"BPW:89ֱdzһбķԴıԣǾԵıԣϵ۵""ҲߵĹϵұȥӽ޵ؽӽ


Ҫ۵""֮ԣά˹ΪͶ֮ƣУճıܿУѲܣ"޵IJ"TO:69Dzӱܵر¶⣬ʹǶ""УӽԣǾԵأԵ죬Dzܶγʶ֪ʶҲˣ""ʹȨ֮ܲٿܣ"ܵĿ""ܵIJ"TO:70,TI:235"-"ɵߵطڿ־ʱҲޣ"ǷҵģƺһıɱߣijΣıɱıʲɷֿƺĽӽΪ߹ϵһģ̬"TI:234Ҳ˵Ĺϵǿ־ޣǿ־屩ⱩвңƳÿһܵIJԣԵıһȫһͬ޿ռĿֲߣߵĿ־չֱΪԲԤ֪


""ĹϵΪ䱾ԣһ־صĹϵͬʱ""ߣЩŵ߼""ĹϵԣҲǾģң봿"δ"Ĺϵԣ֮⣬ֻ֮䡣һز֪ؽһ֮ԡʶIJԡ޵ԻΪȷ


һ棬ЩҲıɱ--߱Ƕˣ"ҪȥıɱΨһ"TI:198""ߣءҶ߻оԲ֪Ŀ־壬ȥıɱԱûбߵڳݸǷա񡢳ӵˡһ棬ߵҲǷ"Ҫɱ"--"-"䣬伴壬˭ϵ?һɱңȨܷʧЧˣңıɱʹҵݲݣֻDZ˽ףֻǰݵеijһ󡣵ݱԻԣepiphany󣬲ڹ֪ʶԭݱԶ޷ӽģȥıɱDzܵģıɱѰһˣѲݣ"Ҫȥ"ͣڱϣ֮ҲDzɴȵġ


ңݻڿңҲڿңݱҲָʾԣһԱʱ"ҪҪҪ"TI:213ҪٻȥΡ޵ģ߶ӣÿβУ񶼱ø"ɵøãкٵȷ壬" TI:244εУޱӿ"Ϊ˶УҲǣڱµıɱУ--һһΣյĿռ䱻򿪲Ѿȣ⼴ѵ壩"(TI:246)--"-"ʾ˱Ķ񣬶ǷҲǿ󣿰--"ǿ"ҪԾδΪֻԾǵҲһֱΪ˶ļѣ㹻ͣоͻƣ"ƾǰԼ¶µ컯ȨҲΪ"


һȥΣûȥеΣDzܸεAporia֮AporiaأҪȥΣҪΪ֮ΪȥDzȥΪ˸ȥ"Ϊ"ʲôأȥDZˣ"֮࣬һˣͲܶ˸ˡҼҪ߱ΪߣҪ"أ߸ҵģҸûеģ--ררеģңȴܸȥ""֮ǵдӦΪ"" ճλãд
ά˹˼һչֱӴ̫롶¡ĽӾϵ۶ķȷߵ"λ""һΪߵһ˳Ϊߵ" Levinas1997:228


Ϊʣhostage""ռҵģе˱иҵΣ"ʣе˵ԡȰIJԻء"--ЩɱֻҴ߻ڸصʹˣͬϣ163ΪʣҲܱѡΣΪdz˶˵ծѾ""ָˣֻһ"ʽı"ʽˣʧȥ˵λҲͨԼȨ˭ܷϵأѵԼ۵ǵIJϵ۵ɢ--"ڴʱ"ֻͨΪ˶ʹ࣬Ҳͬ飬ҲͬжĻرұĨȥҵŬȥΣҪԼѵʹβˣ[11]--εľһֻΪ֮˹֮Ҳҵ�"ΪǻģҶ˲Ÿ"
ǣҾͳΪߣ"ڴͬһߣʹ׼"BPW:90ͨ棬߽ӽͨpassageͱ򿪣ͨ߾ִ޽ӽУ߽ӽҷԶҵĽӽûߡҲ˵Ǵȥȥ˸DzȥҵŬӽʧˡǾԿܵˣǾԲӦÿܵġ׼ҸԼҸڲλϣ֮䣬֮߳⣿""ȥ˵"壩"ֳģڸȥ֮ҵǡ""Ϊ"ҵ"


ͬ÷˵"ټ"adieu˵ټȿ´μ棬ҲԶĸߣټ̺ȥϵۣ-Dieuǰ˵ȥϵۣȿȥ֮Ĺȣǽߣ˵ټָϵ˵ټϵ۱˶ҲԼ˵ټ⼴ϵȥȥôϵ֮ޣҵʲô壿ջǵԼȥ""Ҫȥ"Ϊ"ȥ֮"Ϊ"ǷҲһ Aporiaľռ䣿ռά˹̫""Ŭ""Ү·ѡĹɵģʥͬ峬Խңɿˡ"֮"Torahɷϰʵɣ"ټҮ·"DZϵŵģɫΪѡġεġΰľߣԼѵ彫BV:37ѹһ"̳"Ѩ-Dieu֮"a"ָʾ


ڰ˹¼У̫˾"ע"򣬵DzԸ벻ԸıӢۣDZûˣҲ޴ӷˣΪߵϵҪȥеǣѵʹ˹ĶϷ[12]̫˵ֻõģ""ָҵƳ֣ѵʹ"ijԽ"ˣֿil y aĿֲijԽϵƵijԽȥѣĸgiftҲ"ҩ"Gift дĵǡ"ҩ"˼ҪȥѣҪ"�"


5˫д֮ѣpassion

д˫صģһ棨on the one handӺ¸봫ͳѧڳĿʼͨµıԵдȲҲ⣬"ı֮һ"ʱͳΪ⹹ֻûϷϸұΪָƣ⹹Ҫ⹹ֻһּ˵±ѡ
ǣһ棨on the other⹹ڲߵԵλ--⹹ǡ෴߸˹ĵҪѰ''Ե''"⹹֮УǶߵĿ"һߵĻӦά˹Ӱ졣


һ棬⹹ͨ⹹ζѧķգʾ壻һ棬⹹ǶߵĿΣ޵سԽһзΣ޵Dzɽ⹹ġ⹹ûλã֮䣬Ϊɾϵģǽ⹹"׼"ʾ֮Ե෴⹹ԶǶԲԵļ[13]ҪȷⲻԵ


ǣά˹Ĺϵ˫صģҪܶߵΣҪǿΨһԵΣ¸ıȷҪijֲܵľʱ"ѧ"ıʱҪ׷ʷ񶨱ԣϵ۱̫˿Ҳɷά˹˼""ϵֻǿӦΣѧ˼ûˡ⹹ԲԵļ鲢Ƿڲܡ


ڡд졷ά˹ijУά˹뱩ĽǶȶѧҪѧУΪԵѧ˱绤ҪǴʶϵֵ[14]˵ƬǿߣǶͬһѧ淴ûͬһԣ֮ҲȷΣûͬһԶأԴزƼߣijأҲܡ󣬾Ҳͬһһ棬ߵķǶԳѾڶԳƶԵġά˹һִġġDZԵĿ룬Ϊǡ̫ˣֲԶֻDzܣû""ﱾ˶Բܵһ"װ"ڲܻ֮֮Ե"ɾ"֮Уһ֮УЩһƾӣֻӣȴ֪ʲôӣӲͨһԵķҲһԵķʹ˺ڸһ㡢֣תһԣsingularityһԵӡ


ǣֻ""֤--"-"ûȣDz֪ʲôֻһһ`ӣңÿһεΨһġÿӶ⣬Ҳ˵""ǵ""ͬʱߵ""DzܼʧǾͰ˿Խľö


ƺеڽ̶벻ûoikonomia벻׼Ĺ黹ڡµϵʾġά˹̫ҲԴڶDzļ̳УDz䰮׼Լ֤ĹҲ""ľ֮С


ΪDzϵ۵Ҫ󣬶Լļū͡˾ֳĬڼͥбܣ谭׼ﻹΪ׼sacrificeʲǶϣKorban뷨Ϊʵı"ӽ"GD:58׼ʹӽʹ֮ܡµĽβDzһֻҲָ滻Ŀԣ벻ԣָʥܵ׼֮Ĺϵǽڿ˶ڡ־жµĶıʽд⹹ġ


DzʼձǸܣ˷Ұڽ׶ε֣׶ΣDzΪıɱǸɱ˷Υɷϵۣڽ̾ϵķ˲䣬ȷʵ˲񵶡˶ÿľΪΨһߴϵ۵ľԹϵ˶УðաԾ˲䡣ά˹򷴶֣ΪDzɱǡϵΪοGD:78


̵--ϵΪһӽڵڿңȴ--ľϵDzҲϵۣİȴҪģԵİƺ"ͨ׼ṩ"GD:64ɱ޵ˣûʲô¿ԣأȴ˰ľ


׼УDz˵йϵծֻϵйϵϵ�"ϵûУsans,withoutϵΪϵǾԵijԽܣκΪʲôܽ˫ظŵַǶԳƵĽҲκζ"GD72-73Ҫǽʾ׼Ϊ"ṹ"һ棬Dz뱣ܣֻΨһϵ۵ΨһϵУܲɷԼΪһ棬ȡжȰ""ϵְۣΪ""Ķߣʹ""""֮УʹϲܣܶԴ˸ȻҪȥȷɫʥԡⲻɾϵʱ̣ΪųΪ¼
ǣҪʵǣΪʲôһҪ׼أΪʲôһҪΪأ""ΪΨһ⣬ʵܽңʲôȨùĶȡأǷѼٶһĵȼأά˹뺣¸һ෴ͬ"Ľṹ""û"P279-280һġңܲɷγһͬ壿ܵĹͬDzɲģǹģ󣬾һߵDZҪֻȼٶϵߣǡʹĽṹܣҪû֣Ƿ׼


ͨһ䷨ϰһķԣSchibbolethдּĨֵ˫ԣtout autre est tout autreӢΪevery other (one) is every (bit)other,Ҫ루Uebersetzen,Ϊɷ벻ɷֶʣȷתɣתͨͨڵ￴Dzܵģ仰ֻڷԽзԣɺǣÿÿߡͬﷴͬԭˡڷToutΪ˳ƴʣijˣһЩˣ˵˼Ϊʣȫ壬ԣߵ˼GD: 82ͬѲ(difference)дΪͬ죨differanceдĹټʾ


תΪÿȫߣôϵ۵ֲٿܣά˹ʥҪʧЧϵ֮䣬ڽֵ֮ʧϵijͻΪΪԼԽ̫ɷ̫Ϊ̫ϵ۴ΨһĹϵУѶжϡռԺĨȥһֲҶÿһ߸𡣰ÿһ߶ߣǡʹÿһεΨһģ⣬dzţΪijĿģij壨̵̫ģ̵ĵȵȣҲʹ"ڽûڽ""û"sans,with-outдǼ""with "Ĩȥ"cross outĶռԣǾͿԴľá


Ȼһ⹹ˡԼ/̫еϲƱּϻرIJԣƺԼӱɥʧڵ￴presentڳpresenceǣҮΪϵӵ˫ҲʧϵʮּܣCrossĨȥcross outҲڿ޺Ĩȥϵۣ"ϵϵ"ϵ""adieuϵֶۡά˹""˶дǸ"a"дд -Dieu aǣΪʣʾԣϵۣȥϵǰȥϵ˵ټϵ۶ϵ˵ټ𣬾Ͱ"ת"turning toword"Զ"turning away from˫ʾ"a"˫ز죬ʹ챣Ĩȥʹ֮ټΪ죨differanceıǡŵġд�"a"Ҳѣpassion


Ϊ壨GD:471ֻʺʽĸ裬ڼʱ2ʺֻڷֱʱʱָʱ̣ٷء3ָΪϵۻϵǰκߵĹϵǰÿһĸ𳡺ϣÿһߵĹϵһټϵǰǣʱڵڶʱ""϶дʱҲǣϵǰϵۿȱϯĬģ֮Уϵ۱Ҳòܡϵ۳ΪԼߣΪ޵ģ磬ϵ۳ΪˣΪҮգΪԼߣԵߣջ˵ټϵ˳�"ϵϵ"--ǰ˹شʦĵǡϵûϵۣϵĨȥ֣ĨȥҲDZϵ֮ON:sauf le nomͬ"ȡ"ȡҲȡ»ȡߡʧȥ֡Ϊϵ۲κռ


ˣγDzܵģΪܲɹΪѽĮĻĮ֮Уϵܰ˴˲ȥĵطλãkhora(ON)ܽil y aĿֲ֮Уϵ۱ҲܳΪߣΪħ飨demonicΪil y a[15]


ϵ۲һ򲢲ңһܴڣҲδڣҿңתҵϵۣȥҮ·䣿ⷵصIJοܣAd:105һϵһߵֱĨȥΪҪӭȺĿ[guest, Geist񣩣ghost꣩]Ѿ黯ͬİ֮unheimlichֲ֮ҪǷһǿֲģǸû񣿷ǾѾֳɵı׼[16]"-Ү·"ĻطؼңHeimdzΪ(host)ʣhostage)ǿˣⲻһʵ⣨жҲǰ;⡣

6.Фص"Կռ"֮pas

Фص˼ҲǴ il y aʼҲֹil y aȻͬʱܺ¸ά˹Ӱ죬˻ӦȴDzֻͬdzزIl y aСȲ󺣵¸ͨڵıڳԽʵԣͨes gibtԽˣҲά˹Ҫô֮ͨҪȥӦΪӦ壬Ҫôֻһʵ壬ֻһڱʱȷ塣ФؼȲ񺣵¸ѧĴ۵һѧҲͬά˹ڽ̵ѧΪһѧǴͬһ֮Ĺڹ֮⣬il y a֮УȲ򱾼ԽҲ쳬ԽڲФضԣԵ"ռ"ѧƷ򿪵ġ


Фʵ"ѧʲô"ѧƷγɵģԼд壨ûʲôȥдֲòдѧƷ飬ȱϯƷ˵ģյģͬһģѧƷδдɵġһдÿƷֻһƬΣΪԼдԴҲΪԼһʡƷҴߣıҸãƷҲʹұ˿ܣһͨдųΪҵġ


ʹФصѧƷͬں¸ƷФܺ¸ʮƷķԺɶʫ͵Ӱ죬ͬں֮ڣdz˼ʫĶԻڽУǿʫIJɽӽɽ벻֪ǿѧѧľܾǿѧԵ"ܾѧ"ʾΪes gibtĨȥʾΪ봿ȻľܾФΪ¸ȻʶɶʫеȻʥΪ"ֱ"޷ֱӽӽеģȻϣ˼뻹ԭͨʥijĵʹ֮֡ڳ紦عϵУΪ""ƷС


Ȼ¸ûȫ籾֮УФʵ"ʥ'ɱ''֪'ʥΪʾأԴǣ⻯ΪɣΪ質ԣֻǴȻԣʵϣȷDzܵģʥDzܱ"[17]¸һֱ뷢һͨһнʹɽɽ֮䷢ϵФΪн鲻ܡʫѧн飬ѧдƳѧ֮գֻǽ֮Уǻûǡ¸ڽɱӽǾصʥֻչ""Da-seyn֮""ʹԸܣûдԱ
ʫʹܿܣΪʫĴڣſܡѧƷʲָڵͬдķʽģԣĴֽԼΪƷķʽﱾѧʲָҲָΪֱָֻDzķţֻټټҲָһĿ磨ڴУڹУΪDZģֻڱ棬ֿдָˣָĶҲˡѧҲֳɵ빤ߣǷŵ¼ддһ֮⣬ʹܡ֮Ӧʫǻİԣ֮⣬ķΪΪͨһȥ"ıɱ"ﱾԼӰͬڸȷԵķΪǵǵһıɱߡϣʫǡʹ粻ܣΪֻǴ˵ͬ˵""ıϡ


ѧƷ䲻򲻶ĨȥֶΪƷƷġѧƷܴһ"ռ"ܱʾһƷддĶģΪıд¼ƷһĽȥдĶչȥ֮ȫȱϯΪ"ռ"ͬԷƷ˸¼šͲǴڵڣȥˣֲȥҴš"ǿܵģ׷󲻿"WF:22"ܱIJ"WF:72


ˣԵĹ뿪ʼ"֮˵"תΪ񶨣Աʵ֮˵"˵"(WF:323)ûһзû֮СͲ˵ϵˣ"ϵ"֮˵ȥ˵˵ֻ֮һ"-"֮˵־֡ͨ˵,һҵķϷʹڻɱҲǶIJͷԼռ֮ռ䡣
ԵѧǶһѧȨľܾԵIJ˵"'˵Ŀ' ෴ӲңҴӲ''ȥģһαװαװDzա޽ޡõģ֮DZΣյؿ϶" SL:241ܾ˵һУȻҲܾ˵""Ϊ"˵"ʹ֪ѾȥղܸʬѾζԴDzܽһԨһ�""ǴڵĴϣԣ˵֮Ѿ飬ǵ˵ʵֻƬԵģǶ䷨Ҫֻǻ룬ֻdz־Ŀ־塣дֻ""֮дֻ"͵"


Ҳͬά˹߶Ϊдģһ߶ԣдڵģġȻά˹il y aѾܲФصѧдӰ죬ά˹Ȼil y aԡֲ""ԽԡȻߵݼԣT壬ûʵԣﱾΪӽҲһֽӴǸԵĴƤ


ڲФضԣil y aΪ"Եֹļ֣ҹૣΪӲʼΪDZԴģȻȫų˿ʼĹ涨ǾԣΪԵIJɹ涨"Il y aΪѿʽĶľ鲢ѹƣdzΪѧʹ""ӽңҲֻһηͣ٣caesura a϶ͬ""ŵֲͬ"ҵ˲"--ûзȴΪԶˡֻǴϴڣһͬһ֮⣬ȲǺ¸ʽıҲά˹Σǵġά˹""ȻеȼģӸߴ״Ӿһ߶Фزٳϵۡ


ߵ˫شϣָֻʾİĹϵֻǴ""outsideil y aеil֮⣬һߣ"ֻ߱һԵ"Фд"˵'๲ͬ'Ӧ֮İĹϵ--ϵûйͬij߶ȣһֵģΪѭ֮ģϵ--ԵľΪ""ʻָ--autrui--ֻһִڷʽҲ˵ÿһҪôʵҪôգǷ֪һ޸ءֹϵУ--е̸ߣ˭ߣ--ǸģȫġңΪһ--ߣ˵ڳǡþһֱʧȥڳպʧȥλ"IC:71ߣˣֻ"֮"ֻģһûλõĿռ䡣ʫԵĿռֻһĿռ䣬һİİĵشһܵĿռ䣬ռУԲʵʩܵʵʩҪ�""ʾ޶ȣФص""ͬһԵߣ"ͬһϵ棬Եţֲĵش"""Ƿ뱾


ͬʱФ""ķʽڻӦά˹""ԼҪ󡣵ȻҲûйͬij߶ȣԶֻһܵĹϵԭϲû£ʿѾ˵ģ"װѣû"ûԴģһDZԴĹϵ޿ʼҲսᡣУDz�"˭"ȲһߣҲͣһߣҲǶԻϵһֱǶԻĴϣ"֮"entre-temps"ڣǵϵģһֱǽӽ--սġġʵġ֪ʶġ֪ģҲǹ¼--İм䣬һİҲ㹻ȥ"IC:68ð˵"һ""İİ"֮䣬"ϵ۵ָĵڻȻά"֮ļϿռΪһյĿռȴ޻Ҫգ޵ķ룬Ϊϵṩ˵УIC:68ʫԵģ ꣬""صߡ""""parentheseСǰ""дΪ""
ѵݻ"֮""ûйϵĹϵ"ƺ"֮"ͬһĹdifferanceеaڵдҲͬĹ䣬ΪһУûеƽߣ"˼֪ܼ䣺û˼䣬û˼룬Ѿڲɼսһж˻ĮȻ֮СİˡDZѽ֮�"Ф԰¶˹ȥѰŷɵϿΪʾ򰮵IJɹunavowableԣԼij롣Ҳ˵ǡ""ܼ֮֮ȴɹ벻ɲ򲻿ɹĹͬʾԵĴϿռ䣬""֮д顢ǶԺѧ鷽ϻٷ


Фؾͽʾ֮˫ԣa double deathб£"ֹϵ ΪȨܵԶ㣬ΪҵרĿԣҲٽңҴӲܶ˵ǵģ֮бĹϵDzܵġȷֻٵ"SL:155ʵܶ˼˼ֻۡҪֻӦǽil y aҹĺ֮Сͬ¶˹ĸ質һ棬¶˹ںڰĵ·ϣڷͨpass-ageУʹͷȥӣںҹʹðķ򣬵עҪʧܣĹ¼֮УݻƷŷɵϿ˱ӦñأͬƷ--ûƷĸ質ʧעҪȥ質ʧܣȴƷԴΪDZԴģʹѧԴܣһ棬ڰ֮УͷĻŷɵϿˣǺҹеĺҹһҹDZʵĺҹDzɼ֮ûпûս�""DzɻԭIJɼĿǻӦߣֲܽӽûкڰûƷ˺ڰֲܶΪںڰ˵DzɱȻģߡΪˣ¶˹Ϊ質һȺŮ˺Ƭɢڴϡ⼴ѧ֮˫صĿ벻ԵĻΪдΪ�""ţ֮˵ͱΪԵġ


ԣڲФؿ"ܽԵĻܹ˵dzģ볷ΪκʧĶһɻԭΪЧȱϯĺЧԣΪɼ-ɼķֽڣһֱƽȵIJƽȡ"[18]ԼȲһҲ죬ƺǴڻʽ֮УDzϵͿֵģͿΪ֡Ǵں֮Уͬ"һ޴IJˣչۻ£ͿĨγڷŵĽ�"[19]ԵдһڵһУܣʾֻDZ۵


֮IJpasstep/stopͬ˵pasǶͿͿĨ"ڽһͿĨУһֱȥǣȱϯбΪдвܣΪܻ֮Ϊʣ֮ΪûͿĨIJʣҲĨȥлpasʹͬһ˲˼ֲʹʧ�"[20]pasIJͬԹƵtopology
ΪФں¸ά˹֮λãtoposʹά˹"Ķ"籣oά˹ʾ֮Ĺϵ[21]


--"֮ҹ"趨Ϊ˼ʫĶԻ֮ԣܵĿԣ


--Il y a޵IJԣƷ˳ԣΪԻIJԣ֮˫ԣ벻֮IJpas


--ߣ֮ԣԵIJԣ
ά˹Ϊά˹ԳԽ¸ı֮DzܵģΪФصʾӵIJܣstop


ФҲ˼"˹"ֱ¼ϵ(disaster)ֻcatastropheйأһԿռ䣬Ϊ"֮"ڳȱϯ档УֻͬǼھţ"ֻھѣѲڵһ˳ϱ־ѵȨܣȨܣֻȨܵ޵Ĵ"WD:51"죻ǴڻǷǴ�"ֻǾܾһֳ֮򡣶ɴͶӪУеֻ¶ķ񶨣ÿѳΪԼݣӪûλøݡˣϵ۵ȣֻж⾳ͣ"˫ص͡˵ģ˵"ֻܾܾһ޵ľѡ


ʾԵıԵķ"ͳ״ңת򱻶Եĵ·pasdz׵ıԡ"pasIJӣȳbeyondֲnot¼"˹ʱһܱκξοȥ˵˹Ѿˡ"WD143˵¾Ѿȥˣ߻ϵ۾Ѿˣ˭˵Ѿʤˣ


ȻФ̸ֻ¼¸ΪɴΪ̫²ҳݣά˹Ϊ̫ΪˣФǿ±벻֪һ档۶̫˻˶죬˭ܸɴأǺѵģDzܵģô˹һӣӣѾˣѣǴˣȻֻԵ
7ͿĨ֮밧

ںܶ෽涼ܲФӰ죬"pas""sans "д벼Фи죬ֲڶ""⼰ﱾ˶һ˳ƾ"es spukt"йķϡ


""Ȼǽڱ֮䣬""мֲͬΣЩͬģʽܶйء磬ҮһľãijЦӽȨ־ĺĻ磬ԼȫȻɣֻһ־־鲢л̵ħı壬ո׵졢뱾Ƴľƣ˵Ըػ񡣶ФصԣȻҲǿԱIJɽԣѾԼԷҪôҪôڽ㣨chiasmas˼ߵתҪôסѧռĶԼԡƷƬѾ˾飨daimon൱ڶ԰Ұ˹˼


򲻽ǿdaimonmonstrosityıȻڽ⹹"¸"ʱGeschlecht࣬Ա𡢼ҡԵдУǿ""ĸֵ̬Ķԡ"Եú"ĶԻҲ⹹õ塣ʵϲֹڰҮ벼Фصķ룬ҪߣһҪά˹ϵԼ¸""Geistڽ˺˵"ϵ"ʹ֮ԻˣϵûԼרϵûϵۣϵͿĨԼټ黯Ϊes spuktй꣬飩һԷ뿪ʹԲֻ۾죬۹꣬ǣٵ顣൱ɺڶ""ĵȴ


ڡ˼ǡһУΪФڼʮǰ˶ѧսİ۵ѿʼΪѧ飨SM36ѧѾԼ꣬ѧѾ"һɥʱ"Ҫ󸴻ʵǻꣿǷ֪ڴѧң˼ڴģѾֲ֪ҪĹԺδ޷ֽҪĽһĹ֮IJͬSM37Ϳˡ


ͰѲФδʵеɥ˼ʱ徫ڽ̵ϵ�"˼ҲԼ顣ȻǼľ֮еĹ꣬˼ѾЩ飨revenantsռݣǰöǣⲢζ֪ǵ"SM98˼ɢƷϵڽ飬ԼԹ뱾һ--ܿƵ--Ĺ빲ҪľԼǵصͬ


飨spectre,specterǹ꣨ghostͼʽҪǰ""ͿڣٴθдΪ""ҲDzɹ涨ģͬΧȲڳҲȱϯҲǶԹǿƣʱʱȥǿƣҲӹ꣬ȵڵؿǣͬķظ׵ĹȿڳȱϯĶ벻ġꣻߵֶԹҲãԵķѾijԤסף"es spukt"ء


Ҳ鲻ɷֿĵܱijѺõľ÷ʽڼͥԶڳԣµ""ĪڱȫʧúӰܳΪ꣬ٷءͬɴ̫˳һ˿ۼ"ԵĶ"ȻDzܵģơ


ߵİDZģ"ǰǴ"ǰߣǷҲʹأҲAporiaڻȥѣʹɹʹΪƷ¶˹İǷδƷȡ˵ԣDzȥԣʧˡڣɹ֮ʾʧ֮ʱʹܽϵȻ"ϵûйϵ"


ֻǹ굽ʱѧϰǽ̸ÿߵ""re-venir"Ѻ"hospitality"ӭ"̬ȣʹ"úõĵ"wel-comeѺõѾhostˣguestˣ꣨ghostأ"ûٽʱҲûѺ"Ad:112ΪѺҲζÿһ߶ǾߣҪǼȿֲ֮һҲ"һ"
ڡѧУϵڡͼ˹˵кˣѳ˵""Gespenstenͼ˹ҪӦȥIJǹȥѣҪѣԶѣǽ�"ȰҪȰӱˣӵңԶ֮ȥңԶͶδİڶ˵İҵͶİڶ˵İ"۰ˡΪ"һľ뱻趨ΪԼδ''ѱӰ"PF288ˣΪͼ˹Щ質Ҳǰ֮裬ϵط뿪ͽҪϾĹϵԼķֻԵģͬҪĵǣ"ǰܵΪβĹ"ˣ벻һİһ㷵أܱλӦأФ˵ĺģûûʱ꣬Ĺϵδġ


һδ˵""ǷҲΪǵṩ壿ԸԸԤһ塣


鵽IJɾϼǿ˲Фصԣʹ֮չĮĮĻĮûټĿռ룬ΪߵĵǾµģͬÿһεҲǾµġ


ijһ̣ٵֻиǣʹǸ߳ſֻһԵ룬(viens,viens,venez)

___________________________
עͣ
[1][3] [4] 쳶ƪ 磬2000꣬574988ҳ
[2] ͼԻ顢ƽ Ϻ꣬1988꣬60ҳ
[5] ת F.Dastur : Death , An essay on Finitude.Trans. J.Llewelyn. Athlone ,1996, P21.
[6] ڸѧ롢룬ӡݣ1996꣬21ҳ
[7] J.Sallis :Echoes , after Heidegger .Indiana Uni .Press ,1990, P 130.
[8][9]ʱ䡷˹ٸ룬ֳ磬2000꣬282229ҳ
[10][11][12][15] D.K.Keenan: Death and Responsibility.State Uni. Of New York Press,1999, P49P79P87P103.
[13] J.D.Caputo: The Prayers and Tears of J. Derrida, Religion without Religion .Indiana Uni.Press,1997.
[14]Ibid.P21-22.
[16] God ,the Gift ,and Postmodernism.ed.J.D.Caputo.Indiana Uni.Press,1999, P144.
[17][18]ת L.Hill: Blanchot,Extreme Contemporary.Routledge,1997,P87P127.
[19] S.Critchley : Very Little Almost Nothing .Routledge ,1997, P 64.
[20] Ed .C.B.Gill: Maurice Blanchot ,the Demand of Writing.Routledge ,1996 ,P85.
[21] Ed .D.Wood: Philosophers' Poets .Routledge ,1990, P55-56.
עοף
¸M.Heidegger:
GA 9 : Wegmarken.Vittorio Klostermann ,Frankfurt am Marn ,1976. ·꡷룬ӡݣ2000ꡣ
GA 56/57: Zur Bestimmung der Philosophie . VK,FaM,1987.
GA 54 : Parmenides .VK,FaM,1992.
SZ : Sein und Zeit .Max Niemeyer Verlag Tuebingen ,1979.ʱ䡷¼ӳ룬꣬1987ꡣ
VA: Vortraege und Aufsaetze.Guenther Neske,Pfullingen,1959.
ά˹ά˹E.Levinas:
BPW: Basic Philosophical Writings .Indiana Uni.Press ,1996.
BV : Beyond the Verse . Trans .G.D.Mole .The Athlone Press,1994.
EE : Existence and existents .Trans . A.Lingis .Martinus Nijhoff ,1978.
OB/BE :Otherwise Than Being ,or Beyond Essence.Trans.A .Lingis, Duquesne Uni.Press,2000
TI: Totality and Infinity . Trans.A.Lingis,Martinus Nijhhoff,1979.
TO : Time and the Other. Trans. R.A.Cohen.Duquesne Uni.Press ,1987.
ϵۡʱ䡷룬꣬1997ꡣ
J. Derrida:
A : Aporias .Trans.Thomas Dutoit .Stanford Uni.Press ,1993.
Ad:Adieu,to Emmanuel Levinas .Trans.Pascale-Anne Brault and M.Naas.Stanford Uni.Press,1999
GD: The Gift of Death .Trans.David Wills.The Uni.of Chicago Press ,1995.
ON : On the Name. Ed.Thomas Dutoit.Stanford Uni.Press,1995.
P : PointsInterviews,1974-1994.Ed .E.Weber.Stanford Uni.Press ,1995
PF : Politics of Friendship .Trans. George Collins ,Verso ,1997.
SM :Specters of Marx .Trans.P.Kamuf .Routledge ,1994.
ФأMaurice Blanchot:
GO : The Gaze of Orpheus and Other Literary Essays .Trans.Lydia Davis .Station Hill.Press,1981.
IC: The Infinite Conversation .Trans.S.Hanson.Uni. of Minnesota Press,1992.
OCC:<Our compagne clandestine>,Face to Face with Levinas.ed.R.Cohen.Suny Press,1993.
SL: The Space of Literature .Trans . A Smck.Uni.of Nebraska Press,1982.
SNB: The Step Not Beyond .Trans. L.Nelson.Suny Press,1992.
WD: The Writing of the Diaster .Trans.A.S Lincoln .Uni.of Nebraska Press,1986.
WF:The Work of Fire .Trans. C.Mandell.Stanford Uni.Press,1995.
οG.L.Bruns:Maurice Blanchot,The Refusal of Philosophy.The Johns Hopkins Uni.Press,1997.


(߼λѧʿɽѧѧϵ510275E-mail:[email protected])